Antisocial personality disorder shows signs at an early age. Not much is being done about the children that have the signs of ASPD. This is why I wanted to do this paper. To being to light the connection between ASPD and childhood. So I have set out to show that children with antisocial behavior, behavior problems, and conduct disorders are more likely to develop ASPD as an adult.
A person with ASPD has to have three of the criteria on the side to be diagnosed. They also have be behaving this way since at least 15. Another qualifying factor is, they have to be 18, and show conduct disorders before the age of fifteen. ASPD is a personality disorder.
The objective for this study was to see if there is a link between being abused as a child and having ASPD as an adult. For the study they paired abused and non-abused people together. They interviewed each person and compared the results. While they proved people that have been abused are more likely to develop ASPD, only 7% of the group was actually diagnosed with ASPD.
The study was conducted to study the behavior of homeless and homed children. They also wanted to study the link between behavior and outside factors like parents and peers. They used an interviewing technique. They interview the children through out different stages of their life. They used intervals like 4.5 years and further on. They determined that children that are homeless are more likely to show both types of behavior, and they found that parents and peers influence can not conclusively predict antisocial behavior as an adult.
The purpose of this study was to look into the link between ADHD or conduct disorders, and future delinquency. The used 541 in-patients of a Norwegian psychiatric facility. They followed up with the patients anywhere from 19 years to 41 years later, by linking their hospital records with their criminal records. In that comparison 24% of the patients were convicted of crimes. This shows that children with conduct disorders are more likely to commit crimes.
This study was done to study the link between genetics and antisocial behavior. It was done in the view of evolutionary science. The people doing the analysis searched PsycINFO for articles between 1996 and 2006 using terms like heritable and behavior genetics. They studied the articles and came to the conclusion that genes influences can affect antisocial behavior.
In this study they were looking into different factors that can play into antisocial behavior. They used 138 boys and 155 girls. The children were deemed highly likely to have antisocial tendencies. They studied them by using self-reports and interviews with parents though out their adolescence. The study showed that boys and girls are similar. It also showed that children with early on-set persistent antisocial behavior with serve externalization problems is more likely to follow the child past childhood.
This study tried to explore the supposed link between children with conduct disorders, ADHD, or both and future ASPD. They used 163 boys that clinicians thought were going to have ASPD as an adult. They used a childhood diagnostic test and followed up. The results showed that in the group children with conduct disorders were more likely to develop ASPD. The children with ADHD were not more likely to develop ASPD.
This study wanted to look into six different intervention groups. They studied them for effectiveness using factors like, effectiveness, strength of evidence, characteristics of successful interventions, and the settings of the programs. They found while all six groups were effective in the short term only two groups were effective for the long term. The groups were a parenting group, and a high need group.
One great aspect of all the articles was that they did not try and diagnose the children. Children cannot be diagnosed with ASPD. Children are resilient and can change, so they cannot be diagnosed with a disorder like ASPD. I liked that outside factors were studied. The article about overt and covert behavior studied parents and peers. It was shown that parents can have some influence over their children (Tompsett, 2010). Another great factor of the articles was that they are not bias. They studied boys, girls, they ventured into different socioeconomic groups (Pitzer, 2010). Articles like the girls and boys articles studied both sexes and found there is no difference. Another article that studied different groups and showed that it does not really matter what group you come from that they are all likely to develop ASPD. What I think was the best part of the articles was the mentioning of intervention. That is one of the reasons that this topic is so interesting. There is interventions out there and they do work (Utting, 2007).
One major weakness of the articles were articles like the genetics article that are very controversial. Being controversial can take away from the validity of the articles. Many people will not believe the findings and not accept them, because of the controversial nature of the article (Ferguson, 2010). Another problem was limitations. The girls and boys article had some limitations that threaten the validity of the findings. That can make the article seem like it is not true. It can make the results look like they are not as valid as a study with less limitations (Pitzer, 2010). Another negative aspect of an articles was how old it was. The article on abuse is over ten years old. That can make the results seem out of date and not as valid. It can make it hard to use in a paper, because people can argue that the article is old and it is different now (Luntz, 1994). The main problem with these factors is they affect the validity of the arguments and can make them unusable.
Though it has been shown in many of the articles that children with conduct or behavior problem are slightly more likely to develop ASPD, I am not comfortable saying that it is true. The results are kind of inconclusive. It is a possibility though. This is why I think children with conduct disorders should get help. That way there is some interventions and some cases of ASPD can be prevented.
This could be a question for further study. I dipped a little into intervention, but would like to know more on how it works. I would also like to know how it works on different children with different disorders.
Children and Antisocial Personality Disorder By: Alexandria Brandon PSY492
Thesis Children with antisocial behavior and behavior problems are more likely to develop ASPD as an adult.
What is Antisocial Personality Disorder? According to the DSM-IV-TR: Breaking the law and/or committing crimes Lying and conning Impulsive Aggressive Irrational behavior Reckless with others safety Irresponsible Inability to hold down a job A Lack of remorse (Varcarolis, 2006), (American Psychiatric Association [DSM-IV-TR], 2000).
Articles Introductions These are the articles used in the research of this topic.
Antisocial Personality Disorder in Abused and Neglected Children All Grown Up Objective: To see if there is a link between abuse and ASPD. Method: 699 people where 416 were abused and 283 were not. Interviewing the people. Results: 7% of the group were diagnosed with ASPD (Luntz, 1994)
Predicting Overt and Covert Antisocial Behavior: Parents, Peers, and Homeless Objective: Studied homeless and homed children for overt and covert antisocial behavior. Method: Interviewed a group of people that consisted of 231 homeless and 143 housed youth. Results: Homeless were more likely to show both types of behavior (Tompsett, 2010).
The Impact of ADHD and Conduct Disorder in Childhood on Adult Delinquency: a 30 Years Follow-up Study Using Official Crime Records Objective: To explore the link between adult delinquency and childhood ADHD or conduct disorders. Method: Followed up with patients of a psychiatric facility. Results: 24% of the people in the study committed crimes as an adult (Mordre, 2011).
Genetic Contributions to Antisocial Personality and Behavior: A Meta-Analytic Review from a Evolutionary Perspective Objective: To analyze the genetics behind antisocial behavior in an evolutionary standpoint. Method: They searched PsycINFO for papers with certain terms in them. Results: Gene influences can affect antisocial behavior (Ferguson, 2010).
Early Predictors of Antisocial Development Pathways Among Boys and Girls Objective: Looking into psychological and behavior factors that are linked at antisocial behavior in boys and girls. Method: They used self-reporting and interviews with parents. Results: It showed that there are many similarities between boys and girls (Pitzer, 2010).
Predicting Future Antisocial Personality Disorder in Males from Clinical Assessment in Childhood Objective: To look into the link between childhood conduct disorder or ADHD or both in adult ASPD. Method: Used a childhood diagnostic assessment. Results: The study showed that children with conduct disorders are more likely to have ASPD but it was not the same for ADHD (Lahey, 2005).
Intervention for Children at Risk of Developing Antisocial Personality Disorder Objective: To study different intervention groups. Method: They studied the effectiveness of different intervention groups using different factors. Results: All groups were effective in the short term and two groups were effective in the long term (Utting, 2007).
Strengths and Weaknesses The strengths and weaknesses of the articles.
Strengths None of the articles try to diagnose the children. They study outside factors. The articles are not biased. Intervention is mentioned as a possibility.
Weaknesses One of the articles was very controversial. Some of the studies had limitations. One of the articles was fairly old. All of these factors affect the validity of the articles.
Conclusion The literature cannot conclusively say that children with conduct disorders are more likely to develop ASPD, but it is a possibility. Children can change and grow out of the behavior problems that they have, but why take the chance that they can develop ASPD.
Further Study A question for further study is, what types of interventions work with different children with different disorders that may lead to ASPD?
References American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (Revised 4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author. Clay, R.A. (2009). Prevention works. Monitor on Psychology, 40(8), Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/monitor/2009/09/prevention.aspx Ferguson, C. J. (2010). Genetic contributions to antisocial personality and behavior: A meta-analytic review from an evolutionary perspective. Journal of Social Psychology, 150(2), 160(21). Lahey, B.B, Loeber, R., Burke, J.D, & Applegate, Brooks. (2005). Predicting future antisocial personality disorder in males from a clinical assessment in childhood. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73(3), Retrieved from http://www.wpic.pitt.edu/research/famhist/pdf_articles/apa/apd3.pdf doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.73.3.389 Luntz, B. K., & Cathy SpatzWidom. (1994). Antisocial personality disorder in abused and neglected children grown up.151(5), 670.
References Part II Mordre, M., Groholt, B., Kjelsberg, E., Sandstad, B., & Myhre, A. (2011). The impact of ADHD and conduct disorder in childhood on adult delinquency: A 30 years follow-up study using official crime records. BMC Psychiatry, 11(1), 57. Pitzer, M., & E. (2010). Early predictors of antisocial developmental pathways among boys and girls.ActaPsychiatricaScandinavica, 121(1), 52(13). Tompsett, C. J., & Toro, P. A. (2010). Predicting overt and covert antisocial behaviors: Parents, peers, and homelessness. Journal of Community Psychology, 38(4), 469(17). Utting, D, Monteiro, H and Ghate, D (2007) Interventions for Children at Risk of Developing Antisocial Personality Disorder London: PRB with Department of Health and the Cabinet Office Varcarolis, E, Benner, V, & Christine, N. (2006). Foundations of psychiatric mental health nursing: a clinical approach. W B Saunders Co.