HIST-8 lec.6: A New Nation

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  • 1. A New Nation
  • 2. Timeline 1: The Federalist Era 1783 Treaty of Paris 1787 Shays’ Rebellion Constitutional Convention 1788 Constitution Ratified 1794 Whiskey Rebellion 1798 Alien & Sedition Acts President Washington (no party) 1788 – 1796 President Adams (Federalist Party) 1796 – 1800
  • 3. Patriot Loyalist This country is the scene of the most cruel events. Neighbors are on opposite sides, children are against their fathers. (Hessian officer) 50% 30% Patriots only want “the liberty of knocking out any Man’s Brains that dares presume to speak his Mind freely upon the present Contest” (a Loyalist) 20%
  • 4. In this country there is no mistresses nor masters; I guess I am a woman citizen. (hotel maid to British traveler) We made a direct application of the doctrines we heard daily, in relation to the oppression of the mother country, to our own circumstance … I thought that I was doing myself a great injustice by remaining in bondage, when I ought to go free. (indentured servant) The Revolution was effected before the war commenced. The Revolution was in the minds and hearts of the people… This radical change in the principles, opinions, sentiments, and affections of the people, was the real American Revolution. (Adams)
  • 5. Contending for the rights of woman, my main argument is built on this simple principle, that if she be not prepared by education to become the companion of man, she will stop the progress of knowledge and virtue; ... If children are to be educated to understand the true principle of patriotism, their mother must be a patriot; and the love of mankind, from which an orderly train of virtues spring, can only be produced by considering the moral and civil interest of mankind; but the education and situation of woman, at present, shuts her out from such investigations. (Mary Wollstonecraft to M. Talleyrand, 1792) Would men but generously snap our chains, and be content with rational fellowship instead of slavish obedience, they would find us more observant daughters, more affectionate sisters, more faithful wives, more reasonable mothers--in a word, better citizens.
  • 6. It would be a very strange Thing, if six Nations of ignorant Savages should be capable of forming a Scheme for such an Union … and yet that a like Union should be impracticable for ten or a Dozen English Colonies. (Franklin, 1750)
  • 7. [speculators had] sauntered at home during the war, [now] enjoying the smiles of fortune, wallowing in affluence, and fattening in the sunshine of ease and prosperity
  • 8. Many are of the opinion, the States have not yet had experience sufficient to determine the extent of the powers vested in Congress by the Confederation; & therefore that every measure at this time, proposing an alteration is premature. … The present Confederation with all its inconveniences is preferable to the risque of general dissentions & animosities, which may approach to Anarchy & prepare the way to a ruinous system of Government. … such a measure [calling a convention to revise the Articles] would produce thro’out the Union, an exertion of the friends of an Aristocracy to Send members who would promote a change of Government: & we can form some judgment of the plan, which Such members would report to Congress. (Mass. delegation)
  • 9. The disinclination of the individual States to yield competent powers to Congress for the Foederal Government, their unreasonable jealousy of that body & of one another - & the disposition which seems to pervade each, of being all-wise & allpowerful within itself, will, if there is not a change in the system, be our downfall {sic} as a nation. … The powers of Europe begin to see this, & our newly acquired friends the British, are already … acting upon this ground; & wisely too. (Washington)
  • 10. …could regard negro slaves in no light but as property. They are no free agents, have no personal liberty, no faculty of acquiring property (William Patterson) If slavery be wrong, it is justified by the example of all the world, in all ages. One half of mankind have been slaves. by adding to the whole Number of free Persons, including those bound to Service for a Term of Years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other Persons
  • 11. Upon what principle is it that the slaves should be computed in the representation? Are they men? Then make them citizens and let them vote. Are they property? Why then is no other property included? The houses in this city are worth more than all the wretched slaves which cover the rice swamps of South Carolina. The admission of slaves into the representation when fairly explained comes to this: that the inhabitant of Georgia or South Carolina, who goes to the coast of Africa and in defiance of all the most sacred laws of humanity, tears his fellow creatures from their dearest connections and damns them to the most cruel bondage, shall have more votes in a government instituted for the protection of the rights of mankind than the citizen of Pennsylvania or New Jersey who views with a laudable horror so nefarious a practice. (a Quaker)
  • 12. Power to lay and collect Taxes, Duties, Imposts and Excises, to pay the Debts and provide for the common Defense and general Welfare of the United States … To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution [the powers] vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States.
  • 13. My political curiosity, exclusive of my anxious solicitude for the public welfare, leads me to ask, who authorized them to speak the language of, We, the People, instead of We, the States? States are the characteristic and the soul of a confederation. If the states be not the agents of this compact, it must be one great consolidated national government. (Henry) Federal States States States States States the People