Timeline : The Civil War (1861-1865) gray = Confederate victory blue = Union victory1861: Fort Sumter61: First Bull Run (east)62: Seven Days’ Campaign (east)62: Second Bull Run (east)62: Antietam (east)62: Fredericksburg (east)62: Henry & Donnelson (west)62: New Orleans (west)62: Shiloh (west)62: southern conscription63: Gettysburg (east)63: Vicksburg (west)63: northern conscription64: Grant vs. Lee attrition – The Wilderness, Spotsylvania, Cold Harbor, Petersburg (east)64: Savanah (center)64: Lincoln re-elected64: Sherman’s March to the Sea (center east)65: capture Richmond, Lee surrenders at Appomattox, Lincoln assassinated
Confederates had gone down as the grass falls before the scythe. There was one point on the ridge where the storm of bullets never ceased for twenty-four hours and the dead were piled in heaps upon heaps and the wounded men were intermixed with the dead, held fast by their dead companions who fell upon them, continually adding to the ghastly pile of men. The breastworks were on the edge of a heavy oak woods and large trees, eighteen inches or more in diameter, were worn and cut completely off by the storm of bullets and fell upon the dead and wounded Rebels. Those that lay upon our side in the night when the trees fell said that their howlings were awful when these trees came down upon them. When I looked over in the morning there was one Rebel, sat up, praying at the top of his lungs, and others were gibbering in insanity.
b) Why did the Union win? the beacon light of liberty and freedom to the human race• population – north: 22 million – south: 6 million (3 million slaves) – modern war: attrition – conscription, bounties, furloughs – volunteers: local regiments We separated because of incompatibility of temper. We are divorced, north from south, – why men fought because we hate each other so much. • First: cause • Second: revenge, loyalty to comrades
Though the government openly declared that it did not want thenegroes in this conflict, I look around me and see hundreds of coloredmen armed and ready to defend the government at any moment.And such are my feeling that I can only say: the fetters have fallen,our bondage is over.
Fire must be met with water,darkness with light, and warfor the destruction of libertymust be met with war for thedestruction of slavery.
Phase One (1861-62):Confederate Supremacy
It was not a fight: it was a massacre.…a set of ragamuffins. It seemed as if every cornfield in Maryland had been robbed of itsscarecrows. None had any underclothing. My costume consisted of a stained dirty jacket, an oldslouch hat, the brim pinned up with a thorn, a begrimed blanket thrown over my shoulder, agrease-smeared cotton haversack full of apples and corn, a cartridge box full, and a musket. Iwas barefoot and had a stone bruise on each foot. There was no one there who would not havebeen run in by the police, had he appeared on the streets of any normal city.
Phase Two (1863):The Turning Point If you cannot feed us, you had better surrender.
Phase Two (1863): The Turning Point I will save the union by freeing all of the slaves or I will save the union by freeing none of the slaves. (Lincoln, 1863) a motley-looking crew, but they fight like devils…gaunt starvation that looked out from theircavernous eyes... That they could march orfight at all seems incredible. It’s all my fault, it’s all my fault - please help me!
Phase Three (1864-65): Attrition June third: I die today at Cold Harbor. Morning,Ain’t gonna be no niggers in Uncle Billy’s army.Leave them only their eyes, with which to weep.
… a poor, thin country girl in a faded calico gown and a sunbonnet. She stood alone on the platform waiting. When westopped, the men took out from a freight car a rough,unplaned pine box and laid it down, baring their heads for amoment. Then the train steamed away. She sat down on theground, put her arms around the box, and leaned her headon it. The child went on playing.
Grant the Butcher Abe the Nigger-lover Abe the Widow-maker
“Long Abe Lincoln a little longer”
Conquered, submission, subjugationare the words that burn into myheart, yet I feel that we are doomedto know them in all their bitterness.... [we will] now become slaves, yesslaves, of the Yankee government ...submission to the Union, how wehate that word: confiscation, negroequality...