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Knowledge Agenda

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Describes a strategy for knowledge management in organizational, partnership, and networked environments

Describes a strategy for knowledge management in organizational, partnership, and networked environments


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  • This presentation is divided into three parts. We’ll start by describing why and how the knowledge services framework was developed. The knowledge organization will compare content management and knowledge service approaches for structuring knowledge management in an organizational context. The knowledge environment will consider how an organization interacts with its clients and, in the case of governments, with all citizens. So, let’s look at how the framework was developed.
  • Knowledge management has gone through three stages of evolution. The first stage was about managing explicit knowledge. That is knowledge that was written, coded, or embedded into something. It was difficult to distinguish from information management. Technology focused on information systems. The second stage was about bringing people together to share and integrate their tacit knowledge. That is knowledge in people’s heads gained through observation and experience. Technology focussed on distribution through the world-wide web. The third stage is about group collaboration and synergy. Emergent knowledge may be created through the synergy of many people in a group. Web 2.0 technology emphasizes supporting collaboration.
  • A knowledge network looks something like a knowledge organization except that the boundary is somewhat vague and the network has a capacity to create its own knowledge. It should be evident from this slide that everything depends on members putting content into the network in order to make it go.
  • This evolution provides a framework for this presentation. We begin with knowledge management in the context of a department. We then advance to KM in a collaborative environment. The last section focuses on KM in a networked environment and how it differs from an organization.
  • This presentation is divided into three parts. We’ll start by describing why and how the knowledge services framework was developed. The knowledge organization will compare content management and knowledge service approaches for structuring knowledge management in an organizational context. The knowledge environment will consider how an organization interacts with its clients and, in the case of governments, with all citizens. So, let’s look at how the framework was developed.
  • This is an organizational infrastructure that includes pretty much everything that is needed to run CSS. This applies to KM as well as anything else that we do. Simply put, people use tools and process within a governance structure to increase the value of content and services. It isn’t a matter of focussing on one or more parts of the infrastructure. All parts must be reflected in a task, project, or program if it is to succeed.
  • Problem : Knowledge has not been traditionally viewed as an asset. It is difficult to locate knowledge assets in the CFS. Solution : Develop a process to inventory CFS’s knowledge assets. Develop a searchable database to enable anyone to find these assets by searching any field. This shows the web-based data entry page. Key attributes of this database are: Anyone can enter information about a knowledge asset. Once entered, only the author can modify or edit an asset. There is no management overview of the contributions. The quality of an asset is determined by the user.
  • This is the framework for the CSS Communities of Practice, set up on Share Point.
  • Many departments are mandated to produce content and to use it to achieve sector outcomes. Knowledge services show the flow of departmental outputs from generation through final use. We can think of the flow of services as a value chain, with several stages. Each stage involves one of three processes – embedding, advancing, and extracting value Four stages embed value; three advance it along the value chain, and three stages extract value from knowledge services. As previously, all of the organizational infrastructure and hierarchy are involved in every stage. The first five stages of the value chain are internal to a department – what can be managed. The last four stages relate to the sector and society – these can only be influenced. Content management is a key part of the management stage. The provider/user market model is represented by the vertical line between the organization and the sector. As you can see, knowledge services involve a lot more than transferring content. It also involves more than service delivery. Achieving sector outcomes and results for Canadians requires that the services be actually used to fulfill a want or need.
  • There are four types of “services;” each is a component of the knowledge services system. Each component has between five and 11 sub-components. Definitions of each component and sub-component are available, along with about 300 definitions of every part of the knowledge services system.
  • A third question is the service delivery strategy. As shown previously, recipients of knowledge services can be divided into a number of user categories. Users are a more proactive way to look at delivering services, in that users produce outcomes and realize benefits, whereas communicating to audiences implies simple receipt of services. Outline the six.
  • The framework goes beyond passive delivery of services to proactive use to yield outcomes. This table shows content difficulty, audience size, level of interaction, and one example of use for the six user categories. Summarize the table. If you remember only one thing about the richness spectrum, let it be that the best methods to use at either end of the spectrum are both infeasible and ineffective at the other end.
  • Information is exchanged in a transactional information markets, such as that shown here.. As with any market, there is a supply (information providers) and a demand (information users). Providers and users exchange information through a marketplace. This model applies when there are large numbers of autonomous providers and users and the role of the market is simply to facilitate information transactions. This model describes Government On-Line and a Global Disaster Information Network.
  • This diagram shows how an agricultural innovation flows from the lab of the scientist in AAFC who created it to it’s final disposition. Many departments have a role in the process. If this value chain disconnects anywhere along the line, the innovation won’t succeed and all the work to that point will have been wasted.
  • This is the CRTI network, showing how each individual is connected to other individuals within and across domains. This is a closed network, as can be inferred from the “clear” boundary. Even though the network is closed, there are large possibilities for synergy and emergence to develop relative to individual effort. The color of the dots represents the domain and their size reflects the number of connections for each individual.
  • This presentation is divided into three parts. We’ll start by describing why and how the knowledge services framework was developed. The knowledge organization will compare content management and knowledge service approaches for structuring knowledge management in an organizational context. The knowledge environment will consider how an organization interacts with its clients and, in the case of governments, with all citizens. So, let’s look at how the framework was developed.
  • Networks and organizations have very different infrastructures. Compare and contrast the two tables.
  • Transcript

    • 1. A Knowledge Agenda: “From Creation to Application” Albert Simard Knowledge Manager Knowledge Management in Government Conference May 3-5, 2010, Washington DC
    • 2. Outline
      • Background & Overview
      • Management Levels
      • Management Approaches
    • 3. CSS Environment Information Society Knowledge Economy Organizational Environment change complex technology CSS growing networks global connectivity complex issues engaged citizens security abundant information knowledge assets sharing networks knowledge markets governance public security interactions practice science & technology business model
    • 4. Knowledge Management Evolution Connectivity Web 2.0 Collaborate Synergy Community Network Emergent 3 rd (~2005) Distribution World-Wide Web Share Integrate Use Individual Team Tacit 2 nd (~1997) Systems Internet Create Acquire Preserve Artefacts Objects Explicit 1 st (~1990) Technology Knowledge Process Knowledge Carrier Type of Knowledge KM Generation
    • 5. Knowledge Agenda - Levels Knowledge Assets Knowledge Sharing Knowledge Work Knowledge Transfer Stock Flow Business Public Safety Centre for Security Science Markets Knowledge Infrastructure Resources Government
    • 6. CSS Knowledge Flow Preserve Lost Knowledge Create Nature, Society Capture Content Science & Technology Partners Share Use Integrate Issue Safety & Security Practitioners Knowledge Manage Centre for Security Science
    • 7. Knowledge Agenda - Approaches
      • Organization: Mandate, one source, knowledge assets
      • Partnerships: Agreements, few sources, knowledge flow
      • Networks: Interests, many sources, knowledge ecosystems
      Escher - Relativity
    • 8. Knowledge Agenda - Framework Communities network markets Joint distribution parallel markets, sequential markets Products & Services communication, transactions Knowledge Transfer Disseminate knowledge to users Interest self-organized, trust, values, voluntary Agreement contract, mutual benefit, collaboration Mandate infrastructure, resources, accountability, role Knowledge Work Using knowledge to accomplish goals External use products & services, open system Group coordinate projects, limited system Internal manage organization, closed system Knowledge Sharing Flow of knowledge Common owner download, open source, repository Joint owner acquire, manage holdings, library Sole owner capture, organize, store, access, database Knowledge Assets What is known Network application, intermittent, common Partnership creation, temporary, collaboration Organization management, permanent, enterprise Approach Level
    • 9. Outline
      • Background & Overview
      • Management Levels
      • Management Approaches
    • 10. Knowledge Infrastructure People
        • learning, motivation, rewards, incentives, staffing, skills
      Governance roles, responsibilities, authorities, resources Processes work routines lessons learned, best practices, Content, Services data, risk analysis, reports, monitoring, operations, policies Tools systems to capture, store, share, and process content
    • 11. Knowledge Assets
      • Capture: Represent explicit or tacit knowledge on reproducible media
      • Inventory: Find, list, and describe knowledge; map to business needs, value and prioritize
      • Needs: What needs to be known to accomplish goals; identify core knowledge
      • Gaps: Difference between what is known and what needs to be known
      • Preserve: organize, store, search & retrieval, maintain and migrate throughout life-cycle
    • 12. Knowledge Asset Inventory
    • 13. Knowledge Sharing
      • Exchange: Develop & implement internal systems to enable people to find and retrieve knowledge.
      • Integrate: Combine diverse knowledge from many sources to create a holistic view of complex issues.
      • Transfer: Disseminate knowledge from the CSS to enable use by partners, practitioners, and Canadians.
      • Monitor: Acquire knowledge from the environment to identify events and developments of interest to the CSS or public safety.
    • 14.  
    • 15. Knowledge Work
      • Generate: Bring knowledge into existence, deepen or broaden its meaning, or increase the amount held.
      • Transform: Increase embedded value through clarification, adaptation, or development.
      • Manage: Provide organizational infrastructure to enable accomplishing objectives.
      • Learn: Use experience and intelligence to increase awareness and understanding of CSS’s environment.
      • Adapt: Respond to changes in the CSS environment.
    • 16. Knowledge Services Value Chain Use Internally Use Professionally Use Personally Generate Transform Add Value Transfer Evaluate Manage Extract Advance Embed Legend S&T Partners Centre for Security Science Practitioners & Stakeholders
    • 17. Products & Services Direction Plans Operations Positions Coordination Accomplishments Answers Advice Teaching Facilitation Support Laboratory Database Scientific article Technical report Outreach material Geospatial products Statistical products Standards Policies Regulations Systems Devices Objects Data Information Knowledge Wisdom Solutions Services Products Content
    • 18. Knowledge Users
      • Government users – leaders, managers, planners, advisors, coordinators, workers
      • Body of knowledge – national & international science & technology communities
      • Intermediaries – governments, business, practitioners, trainers, researchers, media, NGOs
      • Practitioners - governments, business, practitioners, trainers, researchers, NGOs, international groups
      • Canadians – e.g., community, well being, safety, employment, education, environment…
    • 19. Transfer Strategy Rich Reach Advertise Explain Promote Support Intervene Purpose Many Some Few Few One Audience Self-help Consultation Specification Paper Conversation Transfer Canadians Practitioner Intermediary Knowledge Government Destination Popular Professional Complicated Conceptual Complex Difficulty
    • 20. Knowledge Markets
      • Communications: one-way dissemination of approved messages and positions.
      • Transaction: two-way exchanges of knowledge products & services.
      • Parallel: Transferring knowledge products & services from or to two or more providers and/or users.
      • Sequential: Multiple organizations sequentially produce and transfer knowledge products & services.
      • Cyclic: Knowledge services “value chains” continuously create and transfer new knowledge.
      • Network: Interactions among large numbers of participants in a “knowledge ecosystem.”
    • 21. Transactional Knowledge Market Government On-Line Global Disaster Information Network Demand (Users) Providers and users connect through an Information Market Supply (Providers)
    • 22. Sequential Knowledge Market Food product HC producers Idea scientists AAFC Innovation IC company Commercialized CFIA farmers Adopted retailers CFIA Market consumers HC Consumption Waste EC municipalities Agricultural Innovation
    • 23. Network Knowledge Market
    • 24. Network Market Behavior
      • Networks have positive feedback
      • More members = more value (ad infinitum)
      • Networks have exponentially increasing returns
      • Crossing a threshold yields “biological” growth
      • Networks enable synergy & emergence
      • Small effort can trigger market domination
      Kevin Kelly (1998)
    • 25. Outline
      • Background & Overview
      • Management Levels
      • Management Approaches
    • 26. Management Approaches
      • External Drivers: purpose, mandate, resources, control, evaluation
      • Information policies: security, privacy, language, access, management
      • Infrastructure: governance, people, work, technology, content
      Organization, Partnership & Network Attributes
    • 27. External Drivers
      • Administer government public safety agenda
      • Federal Legislation
      • Formal allocation
      • Substantial direction, supervision, evaluation
      • Audit & evaluation, performance reviews
      • Manage public safety & security risks & events
      • Self-organized, informal
      • Voluntary contributions
      • Promoting views, influencing members
      • Practitioner and stakeholder feedback
      Organization Partnerships Network
    • 28. Information Policies Security Privacy Language Access Management
    • 29. Infrastructure
      • Mandate, authority, resources, decisions
      • Employees, roles, responsible, accountable
      • Policies, manuals, rules, guides
      • Mandatory structured systems
      • Interests, trust, self-sustaining, conventions
      • Participants, values, volunteer, autonomous
      • Self-organized, informal, ad hoc
      • Convenient, user-friendly, useful
      Organization Network Partnerships
    • 30. Knowledge Agenda: Manage assets to leverage value Increase sharing to improve productivity Support work to produce outputs Transfer knowledge to support outcomes Using Organization, Partner & Network approaches
    • 31. Thank You Time for Dialogue