Knowledge manageability


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Describes a new paradigm for knowledge management that provides a broader and more comprehensive framework than currently exists.

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  • This presentation is divided into three parts. We’ll start by describing why and how the knowledge services framework was developed. The knowledge organization will compare content management and knowledge service approaches for structuring knowledge management in an organizational context. The knowledge environment will consider how an organization interacts with its clients and, in the case of governments, with all citizens. So, let’s look at how the framework was developed.
  • This is an organizational infrastructure that includes pretty much everything that is needed to run CSS. This applies to KM as well as anything else that we do. Simply put, people use tools and process within a governance structure to increase the value of content and services. It isn’t a matter of focussing on one or more parts of the infrastructure. All parts must be reflected in a task, project, or program if it is to succeed.
  • This presentation is divided into three parts. We’ll start by describing why and how the knowledge services framework was developed. The knowledge organization will compare content management and knowledge service approaches for structuring knowledge management in an organizational context. The knowledge environment will consider how an organization interacts with its clients and, in the case of governments, with all citizens. So, let’s look at how the framework was developed.
  • Many departments are mandated to produce content and to use it to achieve sector outcomes. Knowledge services show the flow of departmental outputs from generation through final use. We can think of the flow of services as a value chain, with several stages. Each stage involves one of three processes – embedding, advancing, and extracting value Four stages embed value; three advance it along the value chain, and three stages extract value from knowledge services. As previously, all of the organizational infrastructure and hierarchy are involved in every stage. The first five stages of the value chain are internal to a department – what can be managed. The last four stages relate to the sector and society – these can only be influenced. Content management is a key part of the management stage. The provider/user market model is represented by the vertical line between the organization and the sector. As you can see, knowledge services involve a lot more than transferring content. It also involves more than service delivery. Achieving sector outcomes and results for Canadians requires that the services be actually used to fulfill a want or need.
  • There are many ways to organize knowledge, each with strengths and weaknesses. Librarians have been classifying knowledge since ancient times; departments do this through subject classification indexes. Every scientist is also familiar with discipline-specific thesauri for organizing terminology. These are, naturally, incompatible with departmental subject-based classification systems. Computers brought on automated keyword systems. Except that terms used by an author often don’t match those used by someone else. More recently, artificial intelligence has been used to developed “concept maps” of ideas rather than words. With Web 2.0 we are seeing “folksonomies,” where knowledge is organized by participants in social networks, based on popularity of usage. These are the bane of librarians and records managers. All of these methods are faced with interdisciplinary issues. For example, terms such as risk analysis have very specific meanings in the CFIA which differ from their meanings in other disciplines. And then there are familiar linguistic issues where terms don’t really have a counterpart in another language. The only solution is to provide multiple criteria for organizing and searching, so that regardless of a user’s perspective, they will find what they are looking for quickly and efficiently. Ultimately, if it isn’t easy, simple, and fast for people to organize their knowledge, the way they work , they won’t do it.
  • Managers won’t fund what they don’t understand. Managers won’t abandon what worked (or didn’t) before. Managers will oppose loss of resources. Managers want short-term-low-risk deliverables.
  • This presentation is divided into three parts. We’ll start by describing why and how the knowledge services framework was developed. The knowledge organization will compare content management and knowledge service approaches for structuring knowledge management in an organizational context. The knowledge environment will consider how an organization interacts with its clients and, in the case of governments, with all citizens. So, let’s look at how the framework was developed.
  • ( infrastructure, assets, sharing, collaboration, work, transfer) (authoritative hierarchy, organizational structure, negotiated agreement, responsible autonomy). ( creation, validation, organization, authorization)
  • Knowledge manageability

    1. 1. Knowledge Managability: A New KM ParadigmAlbert SimardKnowledge ManagerDefence R&D CanadaPresented toSIKM June 19, 2012
    2. 2. Definitions • Paradigm: Shared worldview, or knowledge “landscape” and all its implications within which a discipline such as KM legitimately operates • Paradigm Shift: A profound change in a paradigm that increases its capacity to explain observed phenomena; a higher-order understanding. The Thinker - Rodin2
    3. 3. Signs of Paradigm Problems • Accumulating anomalies that the paradigm cannot explain. • Competing concepts, theories, and principles. • Diverse interpretations of observations and experience. • Anomalies, disagreements, and diversity are increasingly important.3
    4. 4. What if… Instead of the mantra that organizational culture must change for knowledge management to succeed; We ask the question: “Given an existing culture, what can knowledge management do to leverage the value of organizational knowledge and increase the productivity of knowledge work?”4
    5. 5. Outline • Management Levels • Management Regimes – Creation – Validation – Organization – Authorization • Knowledge Manageability5
    6. 6. Knowledge Management Levels KM Levels Transfer National Defence, Markets National Security, Public Safety Work Application Creation Collaboration Defence R&D Flow Canada Sharing Assets Stock Infrastructure Resources Government6
    7. 7. Knowledge Infrastructure KM Levels data, risk analysis, reports, monitoring, learning, motivation, operations, policies People rewards, incentives, staffing, skills systems to Processes Content, Tools capture, store, Services share, and process content work routines lessons learned, best practices, Governance roles, responsibilities, authorities, resources7
    8. 8. Knowledge Assets KM Levels • Capture: Represent explicit or tacit knowledge on reproducible media • Inventory: Find, list, and describe knowledge; map to business needs, value and prioritize • Needs: What needs to be known to accomplish organizational goals; identify core knowledge • Gaps: Difference between what is known and what needs to be known • Preserve: organize, store, search & retrieval, maintain and migrate throughout life-cycle8
    9. 9. Knowledge Sharing KM Levels Explicit Knowledge • Dissemination (Provider Pushes – transmission, semantics, effectiveness) • Access (User Pulls – awareness, permission, accessibility, searching, retrieval) • Exchange (Market Trades – reciprocity, trust, signals, inefficiencies, pathologies) Tacit Knowledge • Methods (conversations, Q&A, capturing, advising, teaching, storytelling, mentoring, presenting) • Place (meetings, workshops, conferences, on-site, demonstrations, classrooms, symposia, communities) • Technology (telephone, e-mail, video conference, chat rooms, bulletin boards, on-line forums, blogs, micro blogs, social network sites)9
    10. 10. Collaboration KM Levels • Dialogue, conversations in groups • Sharing, exchanges among peers • Candor, freedom of expression • Trust, safety, honesty • Transparency, openness • Agreed rules of conduct • Diversity, flexibility, outliers • Equality, meritocracy of ideas • Balanced accessibility and security • Collective, not individual benefit10
    11. 11. Knowledge Work (DRDC) KM Levels Inputs Transformation Output Governance Programs Report DND (management) Services Acquire Monitoring Integration (R & D) Create Intelligence Innovation Develop Clients Needs Mitigation Mobilize Priorities Advice Learn Establishment Adaptation11
    12. 12. Knowledge Transfer KM Levels • Communications: one-way dissemination of approved messages and positions. • Transaction: two-way exchanges of knowledge products & services. • Parallel: Transferring knowledge products & services from or to two or more providers or users. • Sequential: Multiple organizations sequentially produce and transfer knowledge products & services. • Cyclic: Knowledge service “value chains” continuously create and transfer new knowledge. • Network: Interactions among large numbers of participants in a “knowledge ecosystem.”12
    13. 13. Outline • Management Levels • Management Regimes – Creation – Validation – Organization – Authorization • Knowledge Manageability13
    14. 14. Organizational Knowledge Flow Regimes Creation Validation14 Authorization Organization
    15. 15. Incentives Creation • Compliance (you will) – Pay, job security, duty, work ethic, penalties – Military, manufacturing, law, regulation, policies – Meet quotas, minimum standards, routine tasks • Motivation (you’ll be rewarded) – Ambition, challenges, bonuses, rewards, recognition – Efficiency, productivity, quality – Increases, improvements • Engagement (would you like to?) – Meaningfulness, ownership, self-esteem, enjoyment – Creativity, innovation, discovery – Commitment, involvement, willingness, enjoyment15
    16. 16. Engagement Creation • Autonomy: (agreed task, flexible schedule, select technique, choose team) • Mastery: (is a mindset, it takes time and effort, it is asymptotic) • Purpose: (meaningful goals, words are important, policies) Daniel Pink (2009)16
    17. 17. Eliciting Methods Creation • Conversations, discussions, dialogue (colleagues, peers) • Questions & answers, problems & solutions (novice/expert) • After-action reviews, lessons learned (event/group) • Capture, document, interview, record (expert/facilitator) • Extraction, identify, codify, organize (expert/know engineer) • Advising, briefing, recommending (subordinate/superior) • Teaching, educating, training (teacher/student) • Storytelling, narratives, anecdotes (teller/listener) • Explaining, demonstrating, describing (technician/user) • Presentations, lectures, speeches (speaker/audience)17
    18. 18. Communities Create & Validation Validate Knowledge • Knowledge exists in the minds of people. Experience is as important as formal knowledge. • Knowledge is tacit as well as explicit. Transferring tacit knowledge is more effective through human interaction. • Knowledge is social as well as individual. Today’s knowledge is the result of centuries of collective research. • Knowledge is changing at an accelerating rate. It takes a community of people to keep up with new concepts, practices, and technology.18
    19. 19. Community Benefits Validation Participants Management - Help with their work - Connect isolated experts - Solve problems - Coordinate activities - Find experts - Fast problem solving - Receive feedback - Reduce development time - Place to learn - Standardize processes - Enhance reputation - Develop & retain talent Outputs - - Tangible: documents, reports, manuals, recommendations, reduced innovation time and cost - - Intangible: increased skills, sense of trust, diverse perspectives, cross-pollinate ideas, capacity to innovate, relationships, spirit of enquiry19
    20. 20. Harvesting Methods Validation • Service Center: repository for community outputs; interface with communities, minimize duplication, inform communities • Leader: transfer community outputs; Identify emerging trends, prioritize issues • Sponsor: endorse community outputs; bridge between the community and the organization, provide support, minimize organizational barriers • Champion: ensure adoption of community outputs; communicate purpose, promote the community20
    21. 21. Organizational Structure Organization Governance direction Social work Research Manage Common Content Interface support Technology21
    22. 22. Knowledge Services Value Chain Organization Centre for S&T Partners Practitioners & Security Stakeholders Science Legend Extract Use Use Use Advance Internally Professionally Personally Embed Manage Transfer Evaluate Create Transform Add Value22
    23. 23. Organizing Knowledge Organization • Classification systems • Indexes, catalogues • Thesauri, Taxonomies • Ontologies, Mind maps • Folksonomies • Automated methods • Artificial intelligence23
    24. 24. Service Governance Framework Authorization Authority Budget Laws Mandate Responsibility Resources Staff Constraints TB Policies Accountability Capacity DND Policies Corporate Reports, Governance Reports, Advice, Advice Issues Issues Direction, Authority, Program Resources Corp. Service Governance Negotiation Governance Other services: Project Centre Service science, HR, finance, Governance Negotiation Governance purchasing… Work KIT Services Negotiation Systems Technology Content24
    25. 25. Authorization Authorization • Understanding – Keep it simple; one message with stories and multiple analogies from different perspectives. • Experience – Do your homework; pre-brief decision makers, solicit opinions, negotiate objections (to a point). • Resources – Pick low-hanging fruit; plan low cost, small effort, low impact activities. • Management – Think big, start small; divide into small projects with measurable, high-impact deliverables. • Submission – Leadership is essential; bypass unjustified objections, accept majority vote, authorize work.25
    26. 26. Sustainability Authorization • Leadership – Outputs must be delivered within a leader’s tenure; preferably, get them institutionalized. • Governance – Representative, federated decision making is the only sustainable governance for knowledge work. • Reorganization – Align a project/activity with the organizational business model. • Priorities – Align the project/activity with the organization’s long-term strategy • Support – Deliver initial outputs when & as promised; be prepared to adapt to changing priorities. • Culture – Develop favorable policies, reward desired behavior, leverage work, implement helpful systems.26
    27. 27. Outline • Management Levels • Management Regimes – Individuals – Communities – Organization – Authorization • Knowledge Manageability27
    28. 28. Management Regimes Manageability Authoritative Organizational Negotiated Responsible Hierarchy Structure Agreement Autonomy Purpose (Why) Authorize Organize Collaborate Create Entity (What) Decisions & Objects & People & Environment Actions Tasks Connectivity & Interests Process (How) Decide & Act Capture & Connect Engage Structure Communities People Interactions Hierarchy Work Process Agreements Dialogue Knowledge Authoritative Explicit Tacit Innate Knowledge Authority28
    29. 29. Manageability and the Cynefin Framework Manageability29
    30. 30. Definitions Manageability • Authoritative Hierarchy: Knowledge creation, management, and use can be completely, totally, or entirely mandated, governed, structured, and evaluated. • Organizational Structure: Knowledge creation, management, and use can be predominantly, generally, or mostly mandated, governed, structured, and evaluated. • Negotiated Agreement: Knowledge creation, management, and use can be partly, nominally, or incompletely mandated, governed, structured, and evaluated. • Responsible Autonomy: Knowledge creation, management, and use can be slightly, minimally, or not mandated, governed, structured, and evaluated.30
    31. 31. Knowledge Agenda Manageability Management Regimes Management Authoritative Organizational Negotiated Responsible levels Hierarchy Infrastructure Agreement Autonomy Transfer Direction Products & Exchange Knowledge Services markets Work Mandate Process Agreement Self-interest Collaboration Assignment Representation Partnership Voluntarism Sharing Vertical Horizontal Community Network Assets Embed Sole IP rights Joint IP rights Open source Infrastructure Authoritative Standardized Connective Enabling Boundaries are “Fuzzy.”31
    32. 32. Management Regimes Manageability and Strategic Trends kn high ow led str ge uc as y ilit Relative Importance t ur se ed ts b pro ina ce sta ss es Su y Co cit mp pa e ti ca es tiv i on i liti en rat al ab es ne ge i du s in di v low Authoritative Organizational Partnership Responsible Hierarchy Structure Agreement Autonomy Management Regime32
    33. 33. Main Messages • There are six KM levels. • There are four KM regimes • KM moves knowledge across all levels and regimes. • This framework provides a new paradigm for KM. Escher (1957) “Cube with Magic Ribbons”33
    34. 34. Time for Dialogue albert.simard@drdc-rddc.gc.ca34
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