Knowledge Architecture
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Knowledge Architecture

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  • This presentation is divided into three parts. We’ll start by describing why and how the knowledge services framework was developed. The knowledge organization will compare content management and knowledge service approaches for structuring knowledge management in an organizational context. The knowledge environment will consider how an organization interacts with its clients and, in the case of governments, with all citizens. So, let’s look at how the framework was developed.
  • This is an organizational infrastructure that includes pretty much everything that is needed to run CSS. This applies to KM as well as anything else that we do. Simply put, people use tools and process within a governance structure to increase the value of content and services. It isn’t a matter of focussing on one or more parts of the infrastructure. All parts must be reflected in a task, project, or program if it is to succeed.
  • I kept six honest serving-men, They taught me all I knew; Their names are What and Why and When And How and Where and Who. Rudyard Kipling (1902)
  • This presentation is divided into three parts. We’ll start by describing why and how the knowledge services framework was developed. The knowledge organization will compare content management and knowledge service approaches for structuring knowledge management in an organizational context. The knowledge environment will consider how an organization interacts with its clients and, in the case of governments, with all citizens. So, let’s look at how the framework was developed.
  • Successful social networks follow a number of principles. Describe the four.
  • This presentation is divided into three parts. We’ll start by describing why and how the knowledge services framework was developed. The knowledge organization will compare content management and knowledge service approaches for structuring knowledge management in an organizational context. The knowledge environment will consider how an organization interacts with its clients and, in the case of governments, with all citizens. So, let’s look at how the framework was developed.
  • This presentation is divided into three parts. We’ll start by describing why and how the knowledge services framework was developed. The knowledge organization will compare content management and knowledge service approaches for structuring knowledge management in an organizational context. The knowledge environment will consider how an organization interacts with its clients and, in the case of governments, with all citizens. So, let’s look at how the framework was developed.
  • This presentation is divided into three parts. We’ll start by describing why and how the knowledge services framework was developed. The knowledge organization will compare content management and knowledge service approaches for structuring knowledge management in an organizational context. The knowledge environment will consider how an organization interacts with its clients and, in the case of governments, with all citizens. So, let’s look at how the framework was developed.

Knowledge Architecture Knowledge Architecture Presentation Transcript

  • A Knowledge ServicesArchitecture:People and TechnologyWorking Together Albert Simard Defence R&D Canada Presented to IEEE – ICC 2012Ottawa, ON, June 10-15, 2012
  • Outline • Organizational Views • Social Structure • Governance • Intelligence • Innovation2
  • Knowledge Work, Services, Views and Architecture Knowledge Unstructured Work Semi- structured Knowledge Services Structured Service Architecture3
  • Organizational Structure Views Governance direction Social Research Manage Work Common Content Interface support Technology4
  • DRDC Knowledge Work Views Inputs Transformation Output Governance Programs Report DND (management) Services Acquire Monitoring Integration (R & D) Create Intelligence Innovation Develop Clients Needs Mitigation Mobilize Priorities Advice Learn Establishment Adaptation5
  • Knowledge Management Levels Views Transfer National Defence, Markets National Security, Public Safety Work Application Creation Collaboration Defence R&D Flow Canada Sharing Assets Stock Infrastructure Resources Government6
  • Organizational Knowledge Flow Views Creation Validation7 Authorization Organization
  • Management Regimes Views Authoritative Organizational Negotiated Responsible Hierarchy Structure Agreement Autonomy Purpose (Why) Authorize Organize Collaborate Create Entity (What) Decisions & Objects & People & Environment Actions Tasks Connectivity & Interests Process (How) Decide & Act Capture & Connect Engage Structure Communities people Interactions Hierarchy Work Process Agreements Dialogue Knowledge Authoritative Explicit Tacit Innate Knowledge Authority8
  • Knowledge Agenda Views Management Regimes Management Authoritative Organizational Negotiated Responsible levels Hierarchy Infrastructure Agreement Autonomy Transfer Direction Products & Exchange Knowledge Services markets Work Mandate Structure Agreement Self-interest Collaboration Assignment Representation Partnership Participation Sharing Vertical Horizontal Group Network Assets Embed Sole IP rights Joint IP rights Open source Infrastructure Authorize Organize Collaborate Create9
  • Knowledge Infrastructure Views data, risk analysis, reports, monitoring, learning, motivation, operations, policies People rewards, incentives, staffing, skills Content, systems to Processes Services Tools capture, store, share, and process content work routines lessons learned, best practices, Governance roles, responsibilities, authorities, resources10
  • Core Model Views Who Need (Why) Schedule No schedule When Work Service (What) (How) Real space Cyberspace Where Input Output Zachman (1987) Rudyard Kipling (1902)11
  • One-Way Processes Views Linear Bypass Input/Output Branch Parallel12
  • Two-Way Processes Views Linear Feedback Hierarchy Circular Mesh Hub and Spoke13
  • Outline • Organizational Views • Social Structure • Governance • Intelligence • Innovation14
  • Individual Incentives Social • Compliance (you will) – Pay, job security, duty, work ethic, penalties – Military, manufacturing, law, regulation, policies – Meet quotas, minimum standards (status quo) • Motivation (you’ll be rewarded) – Ambition, challenges, bonuses, rewards, recognition – Efficiency, productivity, quality – Increases, improvements (evolution) • Engagement (would you like to?) – Meaningfulness, ownership, self-esteem, enjoyment – Creativity, innovation, discovery – Commitment, involvement, willingness (revolution)15
  • Engagement Social • Autonomy: (agreed task, flexible schedule, select technique, choose team) • Mastery: (is a mindset, it takes time and effort, it is asymptotic) • Purpose: (meaningful goals, words are important, policies) Daniel Pink (2009)16
  • Why Engage Knowledge Social Workers? • Knowledge is a human construct; it can only be created and used by people. • Knowledge cannot be conscripted; it must be volunteered. • Knowledge workers need to commit to and become truly involved in their work. • Ideally, people work: – Not because it is asked of them, – Not because they expect something in return, – Because they want to; they enjoy doing it.17
  • Communities and Knowledge Social • Knowledge exists in the minds of people. Experience is as important as formal knowledge. • Knowledge is tacit as well as explicit. Transferring tacit knowledge is more effective through human interaction. • Knowledge is social as well as individual. Today’s knowledge is the result of centuries of collective research. • Knowledge is changing at an accelerating rate. It takes a community of people to keep up with new concepts, practices, and technology.18
  • Community Benefits Social Participants Management - Help with work - Connect isolated experts - Solve problems - Coordinate activities - Find experts - Fast problem solving - Receive feedback - Reduce development time - Place to learn - Standardize processes - Latest information - Develop & retain talent Outputs - - Tangible: documents, reports, manuals, recommendations, reduced innovation time and cost - - Intangible: increased skills, sense of trust, diverse perspectives, cross-pollinate ideas, capacity to innovate, relationships, spirit of enquiry19
  • Community Behaviors Social Positive Negative • Dialogue • Discussion • Trust • Debating • Safety • Arguing • Meritocracy • Agenda • Equality • Authority • Outliers • Assuming • Majority • Consensus • Groupthink20
  • Culture and Sharing Social • Trust and safety • Incentives and motivation • Difficulty of explaining • Different expertise • Security and privacy • Control and hoarding • Large distances • Different languages21
  • Collaboration Social • Dialogue, conversations in groups • Sharing, exchanges among peers • Candor, freedom of expression • Trust, safety, honesty • Transparency, openness • Agreed rules of conduct • Diversity, flexibility, outliers • Equality, meritocracy of ideas • Balanced accessibility and security • Collective, not individual benefit22
  • Social Network Principles Social • Openness – collaboration based on candor, transparency, freedom, flexibility, and accessibility. • Peering – horizontal voluntary meritocracy, based on fun, altruism, or personal values. • Sharing – increased value of common products benefits all participants. • Acting Globally – value is created through large knowledge ecosystems. Cass Sunstein (2006)23
  • User-Centric Architecture System architecture plays a key roll in individual behavior, group dynamics, and cultural norms. • Tools that are easy and intuitive use. • System interfaces that can be customized. • Systems that help people do their work. • Content that is easy to find and access. • Work processes that facilitate knowledge flow. • knowledge flow that is primarily horizontal. • Diversity and flexibility are encouraged. • The architecture promotes desired behavior. User-centric design can double employee participation24
  • Outline • Organizational Views • Social Structure • Governance • Intelligence • Innovation25
  • Governance Meta-View Governance Authority Budget Laws Mandate Responsibility Resources Staff Constraints TB Policies Accountability Capacity DND Policies Corporate Governance Program Corp. Service Governance Negotiation Governance Reports, Direction, Advice, Authority, Issues Resources Project Centre Service Governance Negotiation Governance Work KIT Services Negotiation Systems Technology Content26
  • Level of Authority Governance Governance Issue yes External External ? Authority lower higher yes Corp. yes Corp.? Corp.? Authority table of authorities lower higher yes Centre yes Centre? Centre? Authority table of lower higher authorities yes yes Project Project? Project? Authority higher lower yes Individual Worker? Authority Work Action Issue27
  • Need Decision Work Service Governance View Create Validate incentives *Collaboration Analyze decision analysis Document *Office apps Review *Network Revise Recommend Schedule *Office apps Submit Consider *Collaboration psychological knowledge modify Decide ? Store interface * Other views reject Record approve End28 Repository Action
  • Service Framework for Decisions Governance Work Person, Group Input/Output Services Create knowledge worker need / idea incentives Validate community, group validated idea *Collaboration Analyze analyst alternatives decision support Document writer draft document *Office apps. proposal template Review stakeholders, consensus *Network manager Revise writer proposal *Office apps. Schedule secretariat agenda item *Office apps. Submit champion submission *Office apps. Consider decision makers decision *Collaboration Store record manager record of decision record repository29
  • Outline • Organizational Views • Social Structure • Governance • Intelligence • Innovation30
  • Environmental Monitoring View search Intelligence Cyberspace Research filter scan Media Published Monitor An Literature Ac al ce ys ss is Conferences Atten ie w d Rev Experience te Disc Communities Participa over Re t c Individuals of practice ol ici eiv e S Detect Practitioners Ad hoc *Web portal, make explicit document *Search engine, harvest Capture harvest *Library Store analysis apps. interface Monitoring Intelligence Repository * Other views31
  • Intelligence Production View Intelligence Work Monitoring Service cyberspace, media other pathways *Sharing, Corroborate *Web portal, *Expertise Validate *Collaboration *Sharing, Analyze analysis apps., Interpret *Expertise *Collaboration template Prepare *Office Apps. Store interface Intelligence Learning Priorities* Other views Repository Repository32
  • Service Framework for Intelligence Intelligence Work Person / Group Input / Output Services Corroborate practitioner, expert monitoring report / *Sharing, *Web portal, corroborated report Expertise directory Validate community, group validated report *Collaboration, harvesting Analyze analyst quantified report data management, *Sharing, analysis, pattern recognition, Interpret subject-matter interpreted report *Expertise directory, expert *Collaboration Document author intelligence report *Office apps. report template Store author, data stored intelligence intelligence repository manager report33
  • Outline • Organizational Views • Social Structure • Governance • Intelligence • Innovation34
  • Innovation Meta-View Innovation Need Development Transfer no Produce? yes Commercialize Implement Operations35
  • Development View Operational Innovation State of the art need Evaluate Review Transfer Innovation NO Yes Design End? MIS, *Library, *Web, Store evaluation *Search, *Expertise Document interface Out design app. *Office apps. *Collaboration Inadequate development development apps. apps. Develop No Yes End? Scale to Prototype Production inadequate* Other inadequate Developviews Functionality Yes End?36
  • Service Framework for Development Innovation Work Person / Group Input / Output Services Review designer, developer need / feasibility, *Library, *Web portal, specifications *Search engine, *Expertise directory Design designer, developer, prototype design design apps., user *Collaboration Prototype developer, user feasible prototype development apps. *Collaboration Full Functionality developer, user functional prototype development apps. *Collaboration Scale to developer, user production-scale development apps. production prototype *Collaboration Document author documented *Office apps. development development template Store developer, content stored documents development manager repository Transfer developer, agent, transferred documents transfer template, organization FTP portal Evaluate user, evaluator, efficiency, effectiveness, *Mgt. info. System37 developer outcomes evaluation protocol
  • Transfer View Innovation Work Development Service physical access Give *Web portal Lend request processing License Transact transaction mgt. Provide Trade *Communication Advertise Sell *Collaboration Explain Interact *Expertise Promote Support FAQ repository teaching Intervene Publish Proclaim warehouse Disseminate Distribute *Communication Hand out *Library Rights Send *Web access Inventor IP Repository y Intent Manage IP IP Management Protect Legal Enforce yes Produce no Commercialize Implement ? * Other views38
  • Commercialization View Innovation Work Transfer Service *Mobilize Analyze Market *Integrate Robustness Scalability out *Office apps. Reliability Business Model analysis repository Authorize *Decision Usability out Maintainability Operational *Mgt. Info. System Adaptation *Development Materials Components Produce User testing Assembly Operational testing QA/QC Timing Launch product repository Announcement *Web portal Awareness Market *Communications Value Readiness *Monitor Positioning Compete *Intelligence Monitoring *Office apps. Response Product / Implementation *Other views Service39
  • Implementation View Commercialize Innovation Transfer Work Service Robustness Authorize *Decision Scalability Reliability Organizational planning app. Maintainability Adaptation project app. Usability focus group, Utility User testing survey Governance test environment Processes Integration project app. Interoperability user Guides Staff F.A.Qs. Users Training formal courses Operators on-Line courses *Communication Launch help desk Awareness engagement Engagement service standards Operate Standards IT infrastructure *Other views Attributes Maintain maintenance Prevent upgrades Management Upgrade Redundant Operations Information Repair System40
  • CONCLUSION • Systems and technology are inherently structured. Knowledge work is inherently unstructured. Linking the two is challenging. • There are many ways to look at a knowledge organization: structure, work, knowledge management, and infrastructure. • Knowledge is created and used by people. The knowledge service architecture considers individuals, communities, and culture. • The architecture integrates people, governance, work processes, technology and content.41
  • A Knowledge Services Architecture: Combines People and Technology To Make Knowledge Work More Productive42