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WHAT IS A SPEECH? the faculty or power of speaking*; oral communication; ability to express ones thought s and emotions by speech sounds and gesture a form of communication in spoken language, made by a speaker** before an audience for a given purpose The expression of or the ability to express thoughts and feelings by articulate sounds is communication through talking or a talk given to an audience
WHAT ARE THE KINDS AND PURPOSES OFSPEECH? FOUR MAIN TYPES OF SPEECH AND IT’S PURPOSE Informative Speech (to inform) Persuasive Speech (to persuade or convince) Demonstrative Speech (to demonstrate) Entertaining Speech (to entertain)
I. INFORMATIVE SPEECHES (TO INFORM) This speech serves to provide interesting and useful information to your audience. It is intended simply to inform your audience on a certain topic. In Informative speeches, a speaker is explaining something to the audience, and help them to understand the topic. An informative speech is different from a how- to speech or a persuasive speech because it is only intended to provide information.
POINTS TO REMEMBER ABOUT INFORMATIVESPEECHES: You have to remember that the whole purpose of your speech is to tell the audience something that they do not know. The audience need time to take in what you’ve just said. If you speak too quickly, your audience might not follow you. Rather, they will be understanding one sentence while you’re speaking the next sentence.
EXAMPLES: A teacher telling students about earthquakes A student talking about her research A travelogue about the Tower of London A computer programmer speaking about new software
II. PERSUASIVE SPEECH (TO PERSUADE /CONVINCE A persuasive speech works to convince people to change in some way: they think, the way they do something, or to start doing something that they are not currently doing. The persuasive speech is also related to the informative speech, except that you are doing more than simply providing information on your topic—you are also providing your own opinion on that topic and attempting to persuade your audience that your opinion is correct. And this element of opinion and persuasion is what makes the persuasive speech the most challenging of the four types.
POINTS TO REMEMBER ABOUT PERSUASIVESPEECHES: Make use of graphs and supporting documentation. Present some facts and figures but make sure that they’re accurate and that they support your point of view. Try to make it personal (in a positive way) to your listeners. If it’s going to affect their family, home, or job, they will start to notice become more convinced.
EXAMPLES: Become an organ donor Improve your health through better eating Television violence is negatively influencing our children Become a volunteer and change the world
III. DEMONSTRATIVE SPEECH (TODEMONSTRATE) This has many similarities with an informative speech. A demonstrative speech also teaches you something. The main difference lies in including a demonstration of how to do the thing you’re teaching. To develop skills in expository speaking with emphasis on skill in exhibiting a process using objects or physical activity. A demonstration speech explains how to do something or how something works. Objects or physical activity by the demonstrator must be exhibited. Visual aides (charts, graphs, maps, pictures, etc.) are optional and may be used to enhance the demonstration but are not to take the place of objects or activity. The speech must be instructive and present valuable and significant information.
POINTS TO REMEMBER ABOUTDEMONSTRATIVE SPEECHES: The speech must be original by the participant. Objects or physical activity by the demonstrator must be exhibited. One other person, and only one, may be used to assist the demonstrator by serving as the object of demonstration or by helping to set up, strike, or handle equipment. It is permissible for the aide to be both an object of demonstration and to help with equipment.
EXAMPLES: How to start your own blog How to bake a cake How to write a speech How to keep a healthy puppy
IV. ENTERTAINING SPEECH (TO ENTERTAIN) Giving the audience an enjoyable experience To amuse through humors, stories, or illustrations Leave the audience with a favorable impression not only of himself or herself, but also of the organization The after-dinner speech is a typical example of an entertaining speech. The speaker provides pleasure and enjoyment that make the audience laugh or identify with anecdotal information.
POINTS TO REMEMBER ABOUT ENTERTAININGSPEECHES: The speech still must make a valid point or argument, but it can be done through humor. A speech to entertain may be either informative or persuasive in nature, but the supporting materials are selected primarily based on entertainment value.
EXAMPLES: Excuses for any occasion How to buy a condom discreetly Things you wouldn’t know without the movies Watching stand-up comedians
HOW TO PLAN A SPEECH Choose the topic Do some research Remember the information you are going to provide to your audience and it should be new and valuable. The information should be accurate. Identify what kind of speech you are going to perform What are the objectives of your speech Know your audience
4PS FOR PLANNING: PLAN PREPARE PRACTICE PRESENT
MECHANICS OF ORGANIZATION Start with an amusing title Write down the purpose List the ideas you want the audience to retain Write a conclusion