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The James Webb Space Telescope

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The James Webb Space Telescope is NASA's next flagship mission. Webb will revolutionize astronomy in the infrared like the Hubble Space Telescope has done for the visible portion of the spectrum over ...

The James Webb Space Telescope is NASA's next flagship mission. Webb will revolutionize astronomy in the infrared like the Hubble Space Telescope has done for the visible portion of the spectrum over the last 22 years. Webb will reveal the story of the formation of the first starts and galaxies, investigate the processes of planet formation, and trace the origins of life.

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  • A comparison for just optical and near-IR great observatories. - Stress that key element of a telescope is the light gathering power, which scales with the area of the primary mirror, not the diameter.
  • This is nice since it highlights the complexity of the mirrors, and can be followed up with the nice gold coated images in your talk.
  • - 5 layers - 185 degrees F on the hot side -388 degrees F on the cold side - thermally stable environment
  • 1.) Picture on the left is the NIRCam engineering test unit. The instrument has two identical modules. 2.) Picture on the right is a single exposure 2.2 ’ x 4.4’ exposure. The two wavelengths are observed simultaneously via dichroics
  • 1.) Picture on the left is the NIRCam engineering test unit. The instrument has two identical modules. 2.) Picture on the right is a single exposure 2.2 ’ x 4.4’ exposure. The two wavelengths are observed simultaneously via dichroics
  • Maggie Masetti, Goddard - Picture on bottom is their fridge.
  • - JWST looks like it will only provide a small increment in time - but HST is only scratching the surface at z>6 in reionization epoch - crucial astrophysics and large numbers and depths from JWST - and extend into "first galaxy" regime at z>10 (earlier than about 500 Myr)
  • A comparison for just optical and near-IR great observatories. - Stress that key element of a telescope is the light gathering power, which scales with the area of the primary mirror, not the diameter.
  • Could add to technology slides: This is nice since it highlights the complexity of the mirrors, and can be followed up with the nice gold coated images in your talk.
  • This slide will be the first announcement of this meeting ’s new location and dates to the community. Meeting will bring together top scientists to inspire thought and discussion on high-reward JWST science.

The James Webb Space Telescope The James Webb Space Telescope Presentation Transcript

  • The James Webb Space Telescope Jason Kalirai1, Alberto Conti1 & Blake Bullock21 Space Telescope Science Institute, 2 Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems
  • The JWST Full Scale Model NY City Florida IrelandWashington Seattl , DC e! ny Germa
  • JWST Science Themes 1.) The End of the Dark Ages 2.) The Assembly and Evolution of Galaxies 3.) The Birth of Stars and Planets 4.) The Origins of LifeFundamental Q’s for Humankind1.) How did the Universe form?2.) Is our Solar System unique?3.) Are we alone?
  • The James Webb Space TelescopeJames Webb (1906 – 1992)- Second Administrator of NASA (1961 – 1968)- Oversaw first manned spaceflight program (Mercury)- Oversaw second manned spaceflight program (Gemini)- Oversaw Mariner and Pioneer planetary exploration programs- Oversaw Apollo program
  • The James Webb Space TelescopeNot your Average Looking Telescope!
  • The James Webb Space TelescopeThe Next Big Telescope after Hubble: JWSTHST- Size of a school bus- Distance = 350 miles- Orbital time (earth) = 97 minutes- Weight = 24,500 lbs- Length = 43.5 feet www.jwst.nasa.govJWST- Size of a tennis court- Distance = 930,000 miles- Orbital time (Sun) = 1 year- Weight = 14,000 lbs- Length = 72 feet- Operating temperature = 40 K
  • Light gathering power The James Webb Space Telescope (Mirror Area) JWST HST Spitzer 0.1 microns 1 microns 10 microns 100 microns Wavelength
  • The James Webb Space TelescopeNot your Average Looking Telescope!
  • JWST Instruments: Imaging, Spectroscopy, & CoronographyThe Near Infrared Camera (NIRCam)- Visible and near infrared camera (0.6 – 5 micron)- 2.2’ x 4.4’ field of view, diffraction limited- Coronographs NIRCamThe Near Infrared Spectrograph (NIRSpec)- Multi-object spectrograph (1 – 5 micron)- 3.4’ x 3.4’ FOV, 0.1” pixels- R = 1000 and 2700 gratings; R = 100 prism- 3” x 3” IFU NIRSpec
  • JWST Instruments: Imaging, Spectroscopy, & CoronographyThe Mid Infrared Instrument (MIRI)- Mid-infrared camera and spectrograph (5 – 28 microns)- 1.9’ x 1.4’ imaging FOV, 0.11” pixels- R = 100 slit spectrograph (5 – 10 micron) and IFU (R = 3000)- Coronographs MIRIThe Near Infrared Imager and Slitless Spectrograph (NIRISS)- Infrared imager and slitless spectrograph- 2.2’ x 2.2’ FOVThe Fine Guidance Sensor (FGS)- 2.4’ x 2.4’ imager for target acquisition- Rapid readout of subarray for ACS control- 95% probability of finding a guide star anywhere in sky NIRISS and FGS
  • The James Webb Space TelescopeTelescopes can see Different Types of Light- Hubble primarily sees “visible” light, similar to our eyes- JWST will see “Infrared” light, light that our eyes can not see- Infrared observations can unveil hidden objects behind gas and dust
  • The James Webb Space TelescopeJWST Launch- Launch vehicle is an Ariane 5 rocket, supplied by ESA- Site will be Arianespace’s ELA-3 launch complex near Kourou, French Guiana Arianespace – ESA - NASA
  • JWST: Finding Life-Bearing Planets Searching for the Goldilocks Planet!
  • JWST: Finding Life-Bearing PlanetsDetermining Robust Physical Parameters Doppler Method Transit Method Determine Planet Mass Determine Planet Diameter Calculate Planet Density and Infer Composition: Gas giant (Jupiter), Ice giant (Neptune), or Rocky planet (Earth)
  • JWST: Finding Life-Bearing PlanetsTransits Allow Studies of Atmospheres Secondary Eclipse See thermal radiation and reflected light from planet disappear and reappear See radiation from star transmitted through the planet’s atmosphere Transit Detection of: -Atoms & Molecules -Stratospheres -Clouds -Winds
  • JWST: Finding Life-Bearing Planets What Would the Earth’s Spectrum Look Like? - Every planet has a unique fingerprint, produced by its atmosphere. - The Earth shows nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water vapor.JWST WILL PENETRATE THE ATMOSPHERES OF EXOPLANETS The F inger prints of Pla nets O2 ,O3 H2O CO2 CH4
  • JWST: Finding Life-Bearing PlanetsA “Wish List” for Exoplanet Spectroscopy Platform …Dr. David Charbonneau’s (CfA/Harvard) 1.) Orbit that assures thermal stability and low background 2.) Orbit that assures long dwell times 3.) A stable PSF and excellent pointing 4.) Infrared sensitivity (planetary temperatures; molecules) 5.) Aperture sufficient to permit med resolution spectroscopy These are obtained with a large aperture, cryogenic telescope placed at L2, with a detailed error budget and careful instrument characterization prior to launch “JWST is an excellent platform for Exoplanet Spectroscopy”
  • JWST: Finding Life-Bearing PlanetsA Simulated JWST/NIRSpec Observation- Hydrogen-Rich Super Earth (1.4 REARTH, 5 MEARTH) NIRSpec – 20 transits (Binned to R ~ 300) M. Clampin – Model by E. Kempton
  • JWST and First Galaxies JWST will Study the First Galaxies Why measure galaxies in the Universe’s first billion years?•Seeds of today’s galaxies started growing.•Dark matter halos of massive galaxies first formed.•Significant metals first formed.•When the Universe was reionized.
  • The Hubble UDF(F105W, F125W, F160W)Simulated JWST
  • Scientific Discovery Potential The Extragalactic Source of Gamma Dark Energy and the Distance Scale and Ray Bursts Universe’s Expansion Science Goals Hubble Constant Science Discoveries Origin and evolution Supermassive of Solar System Black Holes The Age of Gravitational Lensing The Universe and Dark Matter ??? Imaging and Intensities of Spectroscopy Supernovae T of Exoplanets H S ST JW ??? Find Water on Other Planets Gas in Galaxies and Quasar Absorption LinesAges of Stellar Pops Unveil NewbornBeyond Milky Way Solar Systems ??? ??? ??? Find the First Stars Map the Evolution and Galaxies of Galaxies
  • The James Webb Space Telescope Want More Information…
  • The James Webb Space TelescopeVisit JWST at:- The Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI): http://www.stsci.edu/jwst/- NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC): http://www.jwst.nasa.gov/- European Space Agency (ESA): http://sci.esa.int/science-e/www/area/index.cfm?fareaid=29- Canadian Space Agency (CSA): http://www.asc-csa.gc.ca/eng/satellites/jwst/default.asp- Northrop Grumman: http://www.as.northropgrumman.com/products/jwst/index.html- JWST Observer Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/pages/JWST-Observer/103134319723237- flickr: http://www.flickr.com/photos/nasawebbtelescope/- JWST Public Website: http://webbtelescope.org/webb_telescope/- JWST Public Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/webbtelescope- Twitter: @NASAWebbTelescp- YouTube: http://www.youtube.com/user/NASAWebbTelescope- JWST Webb-cam: http://www.jwst.nasa.gov/webcam.html- Newsletter at STScI: https://blogs.stsci.edu/newsletter/- Newsletter at GSFC: http://www.jwst.nasa.gov/newsletters.html