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This presentation describes the trends in the shrimp farming industry in Latin America with focus on the contribution of pond natural food to shrimp growth

This presentation describes the trends in the shrimp farming industry in Latin America with focus on the contribution of pond natural food to shrimp growth

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  • 1. AN OVERVIEW ON THE CONTRIBUTION OF NATURAL FOOD ITEMS TO SHRIMP GROWTH IN AQUACULTURE PONDS Alberto J.P. Nunes LABOMAR*, Brazil 1E-mail: albertojpn@uol.com.br *Part of Universidade Federal do Ceará AQUA 2009 – Facing Future Challenges Guayaquil, Ecuador Session 4 - Shrimp Culture October 15th, 2009 11:30 am
  • 2. Shrimp Farming in LA is Changing!!  MARKETS/PRICES: economical slow- down. Increasing competition from Asian countries, tighter margins, search for emerging markets.  COSTS: less capital input with feeds, PLs, labor and energy to control production costs to remain competitive and reach break-even. Risk management crucial.  FEEDS: volatility in the price and supply of commodities. Shift to locally available ingredients. More and more difficult to rely on traditional ingredients.  CULTURE METHODS: operate under semi-intensive conditions applying efforts to recover and keep ponds in a good condition in order to take full advantage of natural food.
  • 3. How to Survive: Lessons from a Neighbor 100 90 MT ECONOMICAL 80 DRIVERS ha Shrimp Production 70 ha in Operation 60 50 40 TECHNOLOGICAL INPUTS 30 20 EXPERIMENTAL PHASE 10 0 Year 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 Economical and  Poor expertise in shrimp farming  Shift to L.  High market demand Technical  Inappropriate species vannamei  High USD rates Environment  Lack of proper infrastructure  Commercial diets  Attractive shrimp prices available  Intensification  Feeding trays  Paddle wheel aeration Brazil took 20 years to reach industrial scale in shrimp farming held by economical and technical constraints
  • 4. Brazil s Model to Shrimp Farming Intensification prevailed over increase in production through expansion in farming area STANDARD REARING METHODS: DESIGNED TO ACHIEVE:  Closed production cycle  Short production cycles (120-150 days)  Intensive soil preparation  High shrimp yields (3.5-7.0 MT/ha/crop)  Indirect shrimp stocking (nursery  Focused on small size categories (10-12 g) tanks)  FCR 1.5-1.8  40-80 shrimp/m2  Paddle-wheel aeration  Feeding exclusively in feeding trays
  • 5. Conventional Intensification Intensification achieved through greater capital inputs: 1. Aeration rate Shrimp/m2 hp/ha 2. Stocking density 3. Feeding rates Min Max 40 6 8 Required intensive labor and energy due to greater control of feed input, disease and water quality 50 8 12 24,000 40.0 60 14 16 21,000 Shrimp Yield 35.0 70 16 18 Aeration Rate 18,000 30.0 80 18 20 Yield (kg/ha/crop) Aeration Rate (hp/ha) 15,000 25.0 12,000 20.0 90 20 22 9,000 15.0 100 22 24 6,000 10.0 1 hp/ha for every 220- 3,000 5.0 345 kg/ha of shrimp 0 0.0 biomass exceeding the 25 44 42 57 53 146 151 159 173 163 threshold of 2,000 kg. Shrimp/m2 1kW = 1.34 hp Exemple of one shrimp pond in Brazil subjected to intensification over 10 production cycles with L. vannamei
  • 6. Paddle-Wheel Aeration Became Indispensable
  • 7. 60.00 6,000 Shrimp/m2 Shrimp Yield (kg/ha/crop) 50.00 47.34 42.55 4,150 40.00 3,833 4,000 31.58 2,853 30.00 20.00 2,000 74.3% 81.0% 66.0% 10.5 g 10.4 g 9.6 g 10.00 0.00 0 2001 2002 2003 2001 2002 2003 Production Data From: Loss of Efficiency over Time  5 States in NE Brazil  Slower growth  408 data points (harvests)  22 grow-out farms  Higher FCRs  11,153 MT of shrimp harvested  Problems with survival  1,880 ha of grow-out ponds 2.00 FCR 1.00 Weekly Growth (g) and Days of Grow-out 1.60 1.65 1.60 1.47 0.80 0.67 0.66 0.64 1.20 0.60 0.80 0.40 127 d 128 d 134 d 0.40 0.20 0.00 0.00 2001 2002 2003 2001 2002 2003
  • 8. Making Severe Changes to Survive 100 IMNV USD Rate Antidumping taxes Low shrimp prices 20% domestic 30% intl. 50 70% domestic 80% intl. Annual Production (MT x 103) of Farm-Reared Shrimp in Brazil 0 83 88 93 98 03 08 Historical events that led to confirmation of the Infectious Myonecrosis Virus (IMNV) in Brazil Stressful farming conditions... First gross signs of disease and Confirmation of viral origin of problems in production... pathogen... 2001-2003 2002-2003 2004
  • 9. Des-intensification: taking one step-down Too much business risk Large amounts of capital required Semi-intensive operation Drop in production justified by > Intensive operation turn-over and < production costs Semi-Intensive operation
  • 10. High intensive shrimp production (80 shrimp/m2) in 5-ha ponds Photo from a shrimp farm in NE Brazil in Nov. 2003
  • 11. Pulling out aerators from shrimp ponds Photo from a shrimp farm in NE Brazil in Dec. 2008
  • 12. Shrimp pond before application of microbial additives Photo from a shrimp farm in NE Brazil in Nov. 2005
  • 13. Same pond soil after 4-month application of microbial additives Viveiro antes da Aplicação com Probiótico Photo from a shrimp farm in NE Brazil in Oct. 2006
  • 14. Rethinking Conventional Intensification Advantages of Semi-Intensive Systems: (1) Operates with water exchange to regulate dissolved oxygen levels: mechanical aeration is not always required (2) Feed is distributed through broadcasting over water: labor is reduced compared to feeding Photo: Santana Jr. trays Semi-intensive production is the (3) Functions well with large ponds: most popular shrimp farming system reduced construction in Latin America investments (4) Organic or chemical fertilization of culture water promotes the growth of natural food: reduces FCRs
  • 15. In SI ponds, there is much more than shrimp and feeds… FEEDS FERTILIZERS DPN Water P G F Water IN L Copepods Diatoms DN Amphipods H M, E, D L F F DN DPN Water OUT Bacteria H F Shrimp Crab Bacteria M, E, D F PN Polychaetes PN U U S Detritus Bacteria Detritus Sediment S A A
  • 16. In ponds, natural food is one of the determinant factors to performance % Natural Food Stocking Species Density Growth Stage Stomach 13C Author(s) P. monodon 4 pcs./m2 0.8 g – 15-35 g 100% --- Bombeo-Tuburan et al. (1993) P. monodon 7 pcs./m2 0.35 g – 17.6 g 63.7% --- Focken et al. (1998) P. monodon 8 pcs/m2 PL – 22 g 79% --- Moorthy and Altaff (2002) P. subtilis 10 pcs./m2 1.6 – 14.6 g 75.1% 84.4% Nunes et al. (1997) P. japonicus 10 pcs./m2 PL22 – 22 g 37-43% --- Reymond and Lagardere (1990) P. vannamei 20 pcs./m2 1.5 g – 12 g --- 53-77% Anderson et al. (1987) Triño and Sarroza (1995) and Moss 1. Spares requirements for et al. (2006): feed vitamins and minerals and vitamins minerals were reduced with no cost to performance of P. monodon and 2. Improves biological P. vannamei performance 3. Promotes better growth Martinez-Cordova et al. (2002) increased shrimp yield and reduced FCR in fertilized ponds with P. Martinez-Cordova et al. (2003) stylirostris boosted P. vannamei growth by reducing protein and lipid levels in diets
  • 17. Influential Factors to the Growth Contribution of NF STAGE CULTURE SYSTEM  Post-larvae Herbivorous  Juvenile  Shrimp stocking density  Adult  Soil characteristics Carnivorous  Fertilization strategies Omnivorous SPECIES  Predominant feeding behaviour and diet Penaeus monodon Litopenaeus vannamei
  • 18. Pond Natural Food Items  Detritus • Much made up from dead vascular plant material • Faecal pellets bound together with diatom particles and microbes (fungi, bacteria and protozoans) Bioflocs (microbial detritus) from an • Nutritional value depends on the experimental heterotrophic zero-water stage of decomposition exchange system at LABOMAR, Brazil • High levels of structural plant materials (cellulose and lignin) results in poor assimilation by shrimp • Reported to be found in shrimp proventriculus throughout all growth stages (can make up 1/4 of all food ingested) • Ingested food by penaeids is difficult to identify; often and erroneously classified as detritus Highly organic soil of a shrimp pond, possibly containing high levels of detritus from vascular plants
  • 19. Going heterotrophic under lab conditions Bioflocs formation C:N ratio of 20:1 Application in water Low protein diets Bacterial flocs Dried mollasses Phytoplankton bloom Innoculation
  • 20. Under floc conditions, shrimp can grow well with low protein diets Shrimp/m2 In. WGT (g) Fn. WGT (g) Grams/wk Survival (%) Yield (g/m2) 50 – A 3.99 ± 0.35ac 21.22 ± 1.10a 1.68 ± 0.12a 92.8 ± 7.6 771 ± 116 75 – A 3.28 ± 0.22bc 18.57 ± 1.26c 1.49 ± 0.11ab 72.7 ± 10.7 751 ± 158 100 – A 3.58 ± 0.14abc 17.27 ± 1.29c 1.33 ± 0.12b 67.2 ± 21.7 766 ± 308 50 – H 3.70 ± 0.36ab 20.22 ± 0.43b 1.61 ± 0.04ac 81.6 ± 15.6 629 ± 167 75 – H 3.26 ± 0.75c 17.99 ± 1.67c 1.33 ± 0.05bc 85.1 ± 10.4 883 ± 152 100 – H 3.31 ± 0.25bc 16.95 ± 0.35c 1.48 ± 0.16b 80.0 ± 15.7 1,002 ± 225 ANOVA < 0.05 < 0.05 < 0.05 ns ns Growth of P. vannamei under an autotrophic versus heterotrophic system over 72 days of culture Data: Fonseca (unpublished) 23.5% CP 36.9% CP
  • 21. Presence of organic matter, bacterial detritus and epiphytes will favor meiofaunal abundance if oxygen is not depleted
  • 22. Pond Natural Food: Plant  Algae basis of the food web  Typically identified as plant remains in shrimp stomachs  Potential sources include: • Emergents: terrestrial plants, mangroves Rare • Submerged macrophytes Soil sample from a shrimp pond colonized by (seagrass), seeds Common algae • Algae: living forms and epiphytes (microphytobenthos) Frequent  Epiphytes: diatoms and blue-green (cyanobacteria) are the major groups  More often found in juvenile rather than in adult penaids  Important food source to many meiofaunal organisms  Appear to be a minor nutritional Phytoplankton bloom in a shrimp pond source to some shrimp species
  • 23. Shrimp Usually Move Away from Plant and Detritus as they Grow Plant 8.60% Day 40 - 41 Plant 3.90% Day 10 - 11 Prey 20.26% Prey 14.40% Minerals 4.92% Minerals 2.29% Feed 4.79% Feed 7.18% Detritus 5.06% Vacuity 45,80% Detritus 19.10% Vacuity 63.70% Day 50 - 51 Plant 3.60% Day 20 - 21 Plant 3.42% Prey 13.07% Prey 13.67% Minerals 2.27% Minerals 3.09% Feed 7.05% Feed 5.36% Detritus 4.44% Detritus 15.55% Vacuity 69.57% Vacuity 58.91% Source: Nunes et al. (1997)
  • 24. Phytoplanton growth dependent on N, P and Si 12.0 275 11.0 Shrimp body weight 250 10.0 N 3.3-ha pond 225 42.4 pcs./m2 Shrimp Body Weight (g) 9.0 P Nutrient Input (kg/ha) 200 8.0 Si 175 85 days of grow-out 7.0 150 0.97 g/week 6.0 125 FCR 1.85 5.0 100 52.9% survival 4.0 75 2,507 kg/ha 3.0 2.0 50 1.0 25 0.0 0 -6 1 8 15 22 29 36 44 50 57 64 71 78 Days of Rearing Cummulative inputs (kg/ha) of nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P) and silicate (Si) through the application of chemical fertilizers and feed. Source: Fonseca, 2006
  • 25. B A C IL L A R IO P H YC EA E D IN O P H YC EA E C YA N O P H YC EA E 2 0 ,0 N: P EU G L EN O P H YC EA E F IT O F L A G EL A D O S 100 1 5 ,0 R a zã o N :P (á to m o s ) P 90 D 80 1 0 ,0 N :P = 1 6 :1 (R e d fie ld ) D e n s id a d e ( % ) 70 60 5 ,0 50 40 0 ,0 30 1 ,0 20 P N: S i 10 0 ,8 D R a zã o N :S i (á to m o s ) 0 N :S i = 1 6 :1 6 (R e d fie ld ) 0 ,6 P -6 1 8 15 22 29 36 44 50 57 64 71 78 D ia s d e C u ltiv o 0 ,4 9000 2,400 0 ,2 Densidade 8000 bH cH ) Cla a 2 bCD 2,000 bFH bFGH 0 ,0 cCE Densidade (no. cels./ml x 10 7000 cDF bC bDEG Cla a (log x µg/l) 3 0 ,0 S i: P 6000 1,600 bI 2 5 ,0 P 5000 1,200 cA D R a zã o Si:P (á to m o s ) bAB S i:P = 1 6 :1 (R e d fie ld ) 4000 2 0 ,0 bA 3000 0,800 1 5 ,0 2000 1 0 ,0 0,400 1000 5 ,0 0 0,000 0 ,0 -6 1 8 15 22 29 36 44 50 57 64 71 78 -6 1 8 15 22 29 36 44 50 57 64 71 78 D ia s d e C u ltiv o Dias de Cultivo Source: Stock, R.F. et al., 2006. Dinâmica da Comunidade Fitoplanctônica em um Viveiro de Engorda de Camarão Marinho (Litopenaeus vannamei) no Estado do Ceará. Dissertação de Mestrado. Labomar/UFC. Fortaleza, CE, Brasil. 90 p.;
  • 26. Various pennate diatoms found in a shrimp pond in NE Brazil Photos: Fonseca (2006)
  • 27. Various filamentous cyanobacteria found in a shrimp pond in NE Brazil Photos: Fonseca (2006)
  • 28. Mass production of microalgae for innoculation in grow-out ponds
  • 29. Shrimp pond with dead benthic algae
  • 30. ...and the day after
  • 31. Pond Soil is the Major Site for Shrimp Preys  Meiobenthos = meiofauna  Prey  Meiofauna = microscopically small, motile aquatic • Foraminiferans animals, living mostly in and on soft substrates in all • Rotifers depths, in the marine and freshwater environments  Pass through the coarse sieve size of 500 µm, but • Nematodes retained at 44 µm • Polychaetes  Smaller than macrofauna, but large than microfauna • Mollusks • Amphipods • Branchipods • Cladocerans • Copepods • Insect larvae • Fish remains Polychaete Collection
  • 32. Rotifers Amphiods Nematodes Ostracods Polychaetes Protozoa Copepods Polychaetes Cladocerans Photos: S.C. Marcelino and W.M.C. Lima (2004)
  • 33. Nutritional Value Chemical profile of some prey organims of Penaeus esculentus. Values presented as dry matter basis. Adapted from Dall et al. (1991). Nutrients Gastropods Bivalves Amphipods Polychaetes Water (%) 33.6 56.8 74.3 79.9 Ash (%) 86.4 79.0 30.1 13.2 Protein (%) 10.1 14.0 56.8 71.5 Lipids (%) 1.6 2.2 8.8 9.6 Carbohydrate (%) 1.9 4.8 4.3 5.7
  • 34. 10 - 40 shrimp/m2 - 3.5 - 11.0 g 10 shrimp/m2 - PL22 - 22 g Source: Allan and Maguire (1992) Source: Reymond and Largadere (1990) Fish Insects Protozoans 5.0% 22.2% 10.0% Protozoans Nematodes 33.3% 5.0% Insects 30.0% Polychaetes 15.0% Crustaceans P. monodon 33.3% Molluscs 10.0% Polychaetes Crustaceans 11.1% 25.0% P. japonicus 30 shrimp/m2 - PL - 14.8 g 10 shrimp/m2 - 1.6 - 14.6 g Source: Martinez-Cordova et al. (1998) Source: Nunes et al. (1997) Fish Protozoans Molluscs 15.8% 10.5% 23.1% Nematodes 5.3% Insects 30.8% Insects 5.3% Crustaceans 21.1% Crustaceans Polychaetes 46.2% 31.6% Molluscs P. subtilis P. vannamei 10.5%
  • 35. Polychaetes  Oftern dominate the meiobenthic fauna in shrimp ponds, accounting for more than 50% of all meiofauna  Pond soils may harbor more than 50,000 polychaetes/m2  The families capitellids, spionids and nereids have all been reported in the stomachs of penaeid shrimp  Opportunistic and r-strategistic Capitellidae Eunicidae Pilargidae animals  Under strong predation effect may spawn within 5 to 10 weeks after shrimp stocking Nereidae Spionidae Sabellidae
  • 36. Polychaetes have a high capacity to recolonize 12.09 g 200 180 Polychaetes/m2 (x 100) 160 140 120 3.95 g Station 1 Station 2 Station 3 Station 4 100 80 60 40 20 0 10 20 30 40 50 Days of Culture Source: Nunes, 1995
  • 37. PHYSICO- SEDIMENTARY COMPLEX grain size porosity permeability water flow water supply OMPLEX composition CHEMICAL H2S O2 pH To S‰ H2O content MEIOFAUNA structure and distribution Source: Giere, 2009 COMPLEX BIOGENIC biogenic dissolved organic bio- structures turbation matter food predation mucus disturbance particulate production organic matter, detrit biofilms us COMPLEX SBIOTIC bacteria phytobenthos macro-zoobenthos
  • 38. Availability of prey items decrease at higher stocking densities 1,300 Number/m2 Penaeus monodon 5 shrimp/m2 1,250 15 shrimp/m2 400 25 shrimp/m2 350 40 shrimp/m2 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 Polychaetes Nematodes Bivalves Insect Remains Algae Reduction in the presence of the natural food organisms in the stomachs of Penaeus monodon in Australia as a function of shrimp stocking density (Allan and Maguire, 1992)
  • 39. Artemisa farm - Acaraú, CE, Brazil 10-ha pond Water Inlet 45 enclosures FNS NFNS 225 m SNF FS 40 m R C L 40 m 140 m 3m 5 10 53 m 10 15 15 20 10 20 m 5 5 15 15 5 5 20 15 20 15 10 5 Final enclosure lay-out 92 m Wind 10 Direction 10 20 20 15 15 5 5 NE 10 15 10 20 20 10 5 20 33 m 20 30 m Water Outlet 158 m Source: Nunes and Parsons (2000)
  • 40.    Substrate Transplantation of polychaetes 2.83 cm  1.83 cm 500 um Soil collection Polychaetes Shrimp feeding Source: Nunes and Parsons (2000)
  • 41. Availability of NF Penaeus subtilis decreases at higher stocking densities 14,000 WITH feed delivery Polychaete Density (no./m2) 12,000 n = 109 a 10,000 n = 109 8,000 a n = 109 b 6,000 4,000 n = 108 b 2,000 0 5 10 15 20 Shrimp/m2 Effect of stocking density of Penaeus subtilis on the abundance of polychaetes in the pond bottom in Brazil (Nunes and Parsons, 2000).
  • 42. NF is nos sustainable Penaeus subtilis when feeds are not delivered 14,000 Polychaete Density (no./m2) 12,000 WITHOUT feed delivery 10,000 8,000 6,000 n = 109 n = 109 a n = 109 n = 109 a a 4,000 a 2,000 0 5 10 15 20 Shrimp/m2 Effect of stocking density of Penaeus subtilis on the abundance of polychaetes in the pond bottom in Brazil (Nunes and Parsons, 2000).
  • 43. Delivery of feeds promotes polychaete growth 90 3.5 n = 72 Dry Polych. Biomass (g/m2) 80 a 3.0 n = 72 n = 72 70 Polych. Dens. (no./m2) x 102 2.5 60 a, b b 50 N = 72 n = 72 2.0 B 40 1.5 c 30 N = 71 N = 54 1.0 A 20 A N = 72 A 0.5 10 0 0.0 Feed+ No Feed+ No Feed+ Feed+ No Shrimp No shrimp Shrimp Shrimp
  • 44. Natural food can sustain good shrimp growth for the first 4 weeks of culture 80 WGT (g) SUR (%) YIE (kg/ha) 0 h/day 14.66 a 43.21 a 1,243 a 6 h/day 15.87 b 53.64 ab 1,652 ab Number of macrobenthos/m2 60 12 h/day 13.94 a 60.60 b 1,687 b 24 h/day 14.76 a 61.61 b 1,813 b 40 20 0 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 Weeks of grow-out Abudance of macrobenthos in the soil of 200 m2 ponds stocked with P. vannamei at 30 PL/m2 (Source: Martinez-Cordova et al., 1998). Aeration was supplied by 25-mm perforated PVC tubes.
  • 45. Soil preparation has a significant impact on shrimp performance 89.3% Surv. 3.8 FCR Shrimp WEIGHT 89.0% Surv. Shrimp BIOMASS 2.1 FCR 13.0 Gain (g) 160 Gain (g) 12.0 92.7% Surv. 2.0 FCR 4.4 FCR 88.2% Surv. 150 11.0 140 10.0 130 9.0 120 8.0 7.0 110 6.0 100 LF HF LF HF LF HF LF HF Penaeus monodon stocked at 15 shrimp/m2 in 16 pools for 71 days. Source: Allan et al. (1995) UNPREPARED, four-week soil maturation after fertilization PREPARED, no soil maturation after fertilization LF, LOW feeding rates, 50% below recommedation HF, HIGH feeding rates, normal commercial feeding rates
  • 46. Possibly little effect if vertical surface area per m2 is not large enough
  • 47. Vertical substrates will promote the growth of algal communities
  • 48. Reduced oxygen supply in the sediment will restrain meiobenthic organism growth  Meiobenthic organisms have a high oxygen supply  Only a few prefer hypoxic conditions  Tolerant only to short anoxic events
  • 49. Formation of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is toxic to meiobenthos at low concentrations H2S will ocurr in soils with acidic pH and under reducing conditions
  • 50. Recommendations  More reliable in the first weeks of grow-out  Allow ponds to mature as much as possible between crops  Avoid soil to deteriorate over production cycles  Keep good water transparencies between 30 - 40 cm  Fine-tune shrimp feed requirements to the farm’s pond natural food availability (protein, vitamins, minerals)