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Krill Oil

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The effect of Krill oil in shrimp performance when subjected to high salinity culture

The effect of Krill oil in shrimp performance when subjected to high salinity culture

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  • 1. SUPPLEMENTATION OF KRILL OIL IN THE FEEDING OF Litopenaeus vannamei CAN COUTERACT THE DETRIMENTAL EFFECTS OF HIGH SALINITY
    Alberto J.P. Nunes1, Sigve Nordrum, Otávio Serino Castro, Marcelo V.C. Sá
    LABOMAR*. Brazil
    1E-mail: albertojpn@uol.com.br
    *Part of Universidade Federal do Ceará
    WAS 2009 Meeting
    Veracruz, Mexico
    Shrimp Nutrition Special Session
    September 26th, 2009
    03:10 pm
  • 2. Rationale
    • In shrimp farms water salinity can vary from less than 1‰ to more than 50‰
    • 3. Salinity fluctuates mainly as a response to season, pond depth, water exchange rates, pumping site
    • 4. Ideal salinities for the rearing of L. vannamei is around 20‰
    • 5. Species can tolerate wide range of salinities, but above 40‰, osmoregulatory ability can be depreciated
    • 6. High water salinity leads to increased feed intake, poor FCR and slow growth
    Influence of pumping site to riverine water affects water sality
    Grow-out pond in an hypersaline area with salt accumulated on the bottom
  • 7. Review
    Outside cell
    fatty acid
    • Liu et al. (2007) supplementing vitamin E (dietary tocopheryl acetate) at 600 and 1,000 mg/kg of diet for L. vannamei experienced an increase in shrimp resistance to acute salinity changes
    • 8. Hurtado et al. (2006) were able to demonstrate that growth of L. vannamei at high salinities was enhanced when fed on HUFA-enriched diets
    • 9. Hurtado et al. (2007) observed that a higher proportion of HUFA in gill membrane in shrimp fed the high-HUFA diet counteracted the influence of salinity on water content in gills during a long-term salinity exposure
    Inside cell
    The cell membrane is formed by lipid bi-layer. Phospholipids are the major lipid group within the membrane and contain a range of fatty acids including eicosapentanoic acid (EPA).
    Source: AkerBiomarine ASA, Norway
  • 10. Objectives
    To evaluate if supplementation of Krill oil improves the growth performance of juveniles of L. vannamei when reared under hypersaline water conditions
    To determine optimum inclusion levels of Krill oil in diets for the Pacific white shrimp when exposed to high salinity rearing conditions
    Krill oil (Qrill™, AkerBiomarine ASA, Norway) produced from the AntarcticKrill (Euphausia superba)
  • 11. LABOMAR/UFC
    Eusébio. BRAZIL
    Pacoti River Estuary
    Indoor tanks
    Outdoor tanks
    19/jan/2009
  • 12. Rearing System
    INDOOR
    50 tanks
    Clear water
    500-L volume 0.57 m2 area
    XXXX shrimp/m2
  • 13. Experimental Design
    Formulas and experimental design
    • Experimental diets:
    • 14. One diet containing a combination of fish and soybean oil (diet FISH)
    • 15. One diet with Krill and soybean oil (diet KRILL)
    • 16. One diet with soybean oil alone (diet SOY)
    • 17. Two diets containing low and high inclusion levels of Krill oil in combination with soybean oil (diets KRILL- and KRILL+, respectively)
    • 18. Salinity conditions
    • 19. IDEAL (21 – 26‰) and HIGH (40 – 47‰) salinity conditions
    • 20. KRILL- and KRILL+ tested under high water salinity alone
    *based on 80% of that required by Penaeus monodon (Glencross et al., 2002)
    FISH
    FISH
    KRILL
    SOY
    KRILL+
    KRILL-
    KRILL
    SOY
  • 21. Tank Distribution
    FH36
    FG31
    FF26
    FE21
    FD16
    FJ46
    FI41
    FC11
    FB06
    FA01
    FH37
    FG32
    FF27
    FE22
    FD17
    FJ47
    FI42
    FC12
    FB07
    FA02
    FG33
    FF28
    FE23
    FD18
    FJ48
    FI43
    FH38
    FC13
    FB08
    FA03
    FG34
    FF29
    FE24
    FH39
    FD19
    FJ49
    FI44
    FC14
    FB09
    FA04
    FG35
    FF30
    FE25
    FD20
    FJ50
    FI45
    FH40
    FC15
    FB10
    FA05
    HIGH
    water salinity (40 - 47‰)
    IDEAL water salinity (20 - 26‰)
    FISH
    SOY
    KRILL
    KRILL
    -
    KRILL+
    Six replicate tanks were assigned for each diet, except FISH and KRILL which used a total of seven replicate tanks under IDEAL salinity conditions.
    Allotment of feeds in rearing tanks followed a random block design
  • 22. Formulas (g/kg)
    Protein Ingredients
    Lipid sources
    Fixed portion
  • 23. 1in g/kg of diet as wet basis.
    2QRILL™ oil, Aker Biomarine ASA (Oslo, Norway).
    3Cholesterol XG, Solvay Pharmaceuticals BV (Weesp, Netherlands).
    4in % of total lipid content in the diet.
    5sum of highly unsaturated fatty acids (DHA+EPA).
    6sum of essential fatty acids (DHA+EPA+LOA+LNA).
  • 24. Study Set-up
    NURSERY
    • PL12 reared in nursery tanks of 3,000 L at 2.4 PL/L for 48 days when they reached 0.65 ± 0.28 g (n = 152)
    PL Stocking
    Header tank
    20,000 L
    Rearing in 3,000 L tanks
    CONDITIONING PERIOD
    • 140 shrimp/m2 (80 shrimp/tank) and raised for 22 days for a conditioning period to water salinity
    • 25. IDEAL: from 25 ± 0.9‰ (3.4% CV) to 24 ± 0.4‰ (2.0% CV)
    • 26. HIGH: from 36 ± 0.8‰ (2.2% CV) to 40 ± 0.4‰ (1.0% CV)
    Salt dilution
    Harvest
    Stocking and acclimation
  • 27. Data Collection
    After 22 days of acclimation started on experimental diets at 2.79 ± 0.60 g
    Density reduced to 70 shrimp/m2 or 40 shrimp/tank
    Fed twice daily in feeding trays at 0730 and 1600 h on a consumption basis
    Daily water analysis
    • pH, temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen
    22-24 day interval – 10 shrimp/tank were weighed
    After 64 days shrimp were counted and individually weighed
    weekly growth rate (g/week)
    Final body weight (g)
    final survival (%)
    yield (g/m2)
    food conversion ratio (FCR)
    Feeding protocol used to adjust the amount of feed delivered based estimated consumption from trays
  • 28. Water Quality
    8.6
    50
    IDEAL water salinity
    tanks
    8.4
    Salinity (‰)
    45
    8.2
    Temperature (
    ƒ
    C)
    pH
    • Trend towards increasing salinity, from 22‰ to 25‰ under IDEAL salinity tanks and from 41‰ to 45‰ under HIGH salinity tanks
    • 29. No differences between treatments for pH, salinity and temperature
    • 30. Significant differences between HIGH and IDEAL for water salinity
    8.0
    40
    7.8
    Salinity (ppt) - Temperature (oC)
    7.6
    35
    pH
    7.4
    30
    7.2
    7.0
    25
    6.8
    6.6
    20
    Days of Rearing
    8.6
    50
    HIGH water salinity
    tanks
    8.4
    45
    8.2
    8.0
    40
    Salinity (‰)
    7.8
    Temperature (
    ƒ
    C)
    pH
    7.6
    35
    pH
    Salinity (ppt) - Temperature (oC)
    7.4
    30
    7.2
    7.0
    25
    6.8
    6.6
    20
    1
    3
    6
    8
    11
    14
    16
    18
    21
    23
    27
    29
    31
    34
    36
    39
    42
    44
    46
    50
    52
    55
    57
    60
    63
    Days of Rearing
  • 31. Final Shrimp Survival (%)
    P = 0.896
    P = 0.720
    100.0%
    95.0%
    95.0%
    96.3%
    94.2%
    93.8%
    92.5%
    91.8%
    90.0%
    90.0%
    80.0%
    70.0%
    60.0%
    FISH
    SOY
    KRILL
    FISH
    SOY
    KRILL
    KRILL -
    KRILL+
    IDEAL
    water salinity
    HIGH
    water salinity
    Chronic exposure to high salinity did not deteriorate shrimp survival
    Increasing n-3 HUFA provided no additional benefit to shrimp survival
  • 32. Shrimp Yield (g/m2)
    Yield for KRILL12-13% higher compared to FISH, SOY and KRILL-
    650
    P = 0.550
    P = 0.370
    598
    600
    579
    569
    555
    550
    536
    533
    531
    529
    500
    450
    400
    FISH
    SOY
    KRILL
    FISH
    SOY
    KRILL
    KRILL-
    KRILL+
    IDEAL
    water salinity
    HIGH
    water salinity
    Final shrimp yield did not vary significantly among different diets regardless of the salinity concentration
  • 33. Shrimp Final Body Weight (g)
    at 1.45% KRILL- could not counterbalance the effects of high salinity
    KRILLable to promote a significantly higher shrimp growth compared to FISH and SOY, regardless of salinity
    No growth improvements by further increase in KRILL+ at 5.50%
    12.50
    12.03
    11.91
    P
    < 0.0001
    12.00
    11.79
    c
    11.52
    B
    B
    11.50
    11.12
    10.96
    b
    10.88
    10.86
    11.00
    a
    A
    A
    A
    10.50
    P
    < 0.0001
    10.00
    FISH
    SOY
    KRILL
    FISH
    SOY
    KRILL
    KRILL-
    KRILL+
    HIGH
    water salinity
    IDEAL
    water salinity
    Factorial analyses:
    both water salinity and diet type had a significant effect on shrimp body weight
  • 34. Weekly Growth Rate (%)
    10.0
    8.33%
    WEIGHT GAIN DEPRESSION
    AFTER SALINITY STRESS
    (%)
    8.0
    2
    Y = 1.451X
    -
    24.84X + 109.0
    R² = 1.000
    6.0
    3.22%
    4.0
    2.94%
    2.0
    0.0
    SOY
    FISH
    KRILL
    As water salinity increased from IDEAL to HIGH there was a growth depression, less significant with animals fed the KRILL diet
  • 35. Conclusions
    SALINITY
    The higher the salinity, the more important was n-3 HUFA (DHA + EPA) to boost shrimp growth
    Under 21 – 26‰ shrimp did not appear to require diets with high n-3 HUFA (DHA + EPA) levels as they performed well when fed a diet containing only a vegetable oil source (i.e., soybean oil)
    SOURCES
    KRILL oil delivered an increased shrimp growth under both regular (21 – 26‰) and hypersaline (40 – 47‰) rearing conditions compared to the other lipid sources tested
    LEVELS
    Under persistent hypersaline conditions, daily exposure to KRILL oil appeared to be more important than an increased inclusion level
    Under hypersaline water, n-3 HUFA, particularly DHA had the greatest impact on shrimp growth. Best final body weight was achieved when projected DHA achieved 1.6% of total lipid content
    No further enhancement in growth was observed when DHA levels exceeded this threshold for a salinity of 44 ± 2.0‰.