Assessment is a process of gathering and documenting information about the achievement, skills, abilities, and personality variables of an individual.
Assessment is used in both an educational and psychological setting by teachers, psychologists, and counselors to accomplish a range of objectives.
These include the following:
to learn more about the competencies and deficiencies of the individual being tested
to identify specific problem areas and/or needs
to evaluate the individual's performance in relation to others
to evaluate the individual's performance in relation to a set of standards or goals
to provide teachers with feedback on effectiveness of instruction
to evaluate the impact of psychological or neurological abnormalities on learning and behavior
to predict an individual's aptitudes or future capabilities
Modes of assessment
Formative and summative
Objective and subjective
Informal and formal
Summative and Formative
generally carried out at the end of a course or project. In an educational setting, summative assessments are typically used to assign students a course grade.
generally carried out throughout a course or project. Formative assessment, also referred to as educative assessment, is used to aid learning. In an educational setting, formative assessment might be a teacher (or peer) or the learner, providing feedback on a student's work, and would not necessarily be used for grading purposes.
assessment / development center
Criterium oriented interview
(Dochy en Nickmans 2005)
What do you need?
Standards – norms
ALA / ISLMA Information Literacy Standards for Student Learning
Standard 1: The student who is information literate accesses information efficiently and effectively.
Standard 2: The student who is information literate evaluates information critically and competently.
Standard 3: The student who is information literate uses information accurately and creatively.
Category II: Independent Learning
Standard 4: The student who is an independent learner is information literate and pursues information related to personal interests.
Standard 5: The student who is an independent learner is information literate and appreciates literature and other creative expressions of information.
Standard 6: The student who is an independent learner is information literate and strives for excellence in information seeking and knowledge generation.
Category III: Social Responsibility
Standard 7: The student who contributes positively to the learning community and to society is information literate and recognizes the importance of information to a democratic society.
Standard 8: The student who contributes positively to the learning community and to society is information literate and practices ethical behavior in regard to information and information technology.
Standard 9: The student who contributes positively to the learning community and to society is information literate and participates effectively in groups to pursue and generate information.
Standard 1 Indicators
Indicator 1. Recognizes the need for information
Indicator 2. Recognizes that accurate and comprehensive information is the basis for intelligent decision making
Indicator 3. Formulates questions based on information needs
Indicator 4. Identifies a variety of potential sources of information
Indicator 5. Develops and uses successful strategies for locating information
5 Competency Standards
ACRL Competency Standards
1: The information literate student determines the extent of the information neede
2: The information literate student accesses needed information effectively and efficiently
3: The information literate student evaluates information and its sources critically and incorporates selected information into his or her knowledge base and value system
4: The information literate student, individually or as a member of a group, uses information effectively to accomplish a specific purpose
5: The information literate student understands many of the economic, legal and social issues surrounding the use of information and accesses and uses information ethically and legally
Competency Standard One:
The information literate student determines the extent of the information needed. Performance Indicator 1: The information literate student defines and articulates the need for information.
Outcomes include: 1.1.c. Explores general information sources to increase familiarity with the topic
Describes the difference between general and subject-specific information sources.
Demonstrates when it is appropriate to use a general and subject-specific information source (e.g., to provide an overview, to give ideas on terminology).
The information literate student determines the nature and extent of the information needed.
The information literate student defines and articulates the need for information.
Confers with instructors and participates in class discussions, peer workgroups, and electronic discussions to identify a research topic, or other information need
Develops a thesis statement and formulates questions based on the information need
Explores general information sources to increase familiarity with the topic
Defines or modifies the information need to achieve a manageable focus
Identifies key concepts and terms that describe the information need
Recognizes that existing information can be combined with original thought, experimentation, and/or analysis to produce new information
Start with small team of ‘sympathetics’
Standards after each year
Standards after a phase
Put the matrix on the ‘teaching’ scheme of the ‘group’ and individual ‘teacher’, librarian etc….
Tests and Surveys
UCLA's Information Competencies Survey
Cal Poly Pomona "Information Competence Assessment: Web-Based Assessment of University entry-Level Information Competency"
UC Berkeley Teaching Library Information Literacy Survey
University of Charleston, West Virginia Basic Skills Survey
Information Literacy Assessment, T Smalley Cabrillo College
Wartburg College Information Literacy Assessment
James Madison University - "Go For the Gold": A web-based program for developing information literacy skills that culminates in the Information-Seeking Skills Test . The outline of a presentation on developing this test can be found here (Word document).