The Art of Word and Diction (Vocabulary) Albert P. Hallares BSED-2
What is Vocabulary? <ul><li>Vocabulary refers to the words we must know to communicate effectively. In general, vocabulary can be described as oral vocabulary (the words we use in speaking or recognize when listening) or reading vocabulary (the words we recognize or use in print). </li></ul>
Why Vocabulary is Important? <ul><li>Vocabulary plays an important part in learning to read. As beginning readers, children use the words they have heard to make sense of the words they see in print. They have a much more difficult time reading words that are not already part of their oral vocabulary. </li></ul><ul><li>Vocabulary is also very important to reading comprehension. Readers cannot understand what they are reading without knowing what most of the words mean. As children learn to read more advanced texts, they must learn the meaning of new words that are not part of their oral vocabulary. </li></ul>
How to Teach Vocabulary? <ul><li>Children learn the meanings of most words indirectly, through everyday experiences with oral and written language. They do so by engaging daily in oral language, listening to adults read to them, and reading extensively on their own. </li></ul><ul><li>Although a great deal of vocabulary is learned indirectly, some vocabulary should be taught directly. This can be done through specific word instruction (teaching specific words, extended instruction that promotes active engagement with words, and repeated exposure to words in many contexts) and word learning strategies (using dictionaries and other reference aids, using word parts, and using context clues). </li></ul><ul><li>Vocabulary instruction should focus on important words (key words to help readers make sense of the text), useful words (words they will encounter often), and difficult words (words with multiple meanings, idiomatic words, etc.). </li></ul>
Greek and Latin Roots <ul><li>At least half of the words in the English language are derived from Greek and Latin roots. Knowing these roots helps us to grasp the meaning of words before we look them up in the dictionary. It also helps us to see how words are often arranged in families with similar characteristics. </li></ul>Note: Look at handouts for examples.
Affixes <ul><li>An affix is a morpheme that is attached to a word stem to form a new word. Affixes may be derivational, like English -ness and pre-, or inflectional, like English plural -s and past tense -ed. They are bound morphemes by definition; prefixes and suffixes may be separable affixes. Affixation is, thus, the linguistic process speakers use to form new words (neologisms) by adding morphemes (affixes) at the beginning (prefixation), the middle (infixation) or the end (suffixation) of words. </li></ul>Note: Look at handouts for examples.
Synonyms <ul><li>that have the same or almost the same meaning </li></ul>Antonyms <ul><li>word pairs that are opposite in meaning </li></ul>Note: Look at handouts for examples.
The Dictionary: Tool in Vocabulary Development <ul><li>Dictionary contains the following: </li></ul><ul><li>All the units of the International System of Units (SI); </li></ul><ul><li>Many other units of the metric system used in everyday life or in science, either currently or recently; </li></ul><ul><li>Various non-metric scientific units such as the astronomical unit, the electronvolt, and the parsec; </li></ul>
<ul><li>All the units of the English traditional systems I've encountered that can be defined with reasonable precision; </li></ul><ul><li>Selected traditional units from cultures other than English; and </li></ul><ul><li>Certain measurement terms and notations which are not "units of measurement" in a strict sense, but which are used much as if they were. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Speak and the world will speak with you, </li></ul><ul><li>Be quiet and you’ll always be alone, </li></ul><ul><li>Understand and the world will understand you, </li></ul><ul><li>Be dumb and you weep alone. </li></ul>