New Media: Political participation presentation


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New Media: Political participation presentation

  1. 1. Political participation in the UK.. Albert & Charlotte
  2. 2. • What is political participation? -Huntington & Nelson (1976: 3): "By political participation we mean activity by private citizens designed to influence government decision-making.” -Verba et al. (1995: 38): "By political participation we refer simply to activity that has the intent or effect of influencing government action – either directly by affecting the making or implementation of public policy or indirectly by influencing the selection of people who make those policies."
  3. 3. Offline & traditional political participation.. Examples of traditional participation: • • • • • Protesting / demonstrating Attending MP surgery Signing a petition Joining a pressure group Attending parliamentary session Traditional methods of political participation are quickly declining: • Joining political parties – 2010, just 1% UK electorate now have full party memberships (1950s: Conservatives nearly 3 million members, Labor more than 1 million members) • Voting in elections* – Very low turnout since 1997 (59.4% in 2001 = the lowest since 1918)
  4. 4. New Media: online political participation.. General use of internet in the UK seen a huge increase, of course: • 2006 = 16million adults going online everyday • 2012 = 33million adults going online everyday UK internet users: • 2011 = 45.5million & 72.6% of the population • 2013 = 48million & 75.7% of the population Example: • In the first year of UK e-petitions, the site was visited 17million times (46,500 times a day) and gathered 6.4million signatures.
  5. 5. • New Media: effect on political participation..
  6. 6. How New Media can alter politcal participation? In 2007, Estonian parliamentary and European elections took place online: • Internet voting did not result in a higher turnout • However, did result in lower transaction costs and increased efficiency
  7. 7. Who are the online activists? Examinating demographic and socioeconomic datas from a study by Oxford Internet Survey (oxIS) of the Internet adoption and use in Britain in 2005. • • • • There is no significant difference in term of gender, and but it tends spread more over men. More than a half of people from lower socioeconomic grades have ever engaged in any king of political participation. Even if younger people are higher Internet users, older people use it more in term of politic activism More likely to be a young male, better educated and well off.
  8. 8. How to explain these inequalities? • Inequal access to new media • Feeling that they have a lack off knowledge over politics concerns. • Low self-efficiencly evaluation of their skills (novice users, middle range users, veterans users) • Younger are under-represented in online participation: do not trust in political parties and politician (in 2011 only 7% said to have some or great deal of trust in politician)
  9. 9. Offline and Online activism • Online participation tends to reproduce the same inequalities as in offline participation. • ‘Digital divide’= social inequalities of access to Internet • According to Gibson and his colleagues ‘online and offline participation tend to reinforce each other but enable increase participation at the margins’ • New media can envolve new people: 1/3 of people are only engaged in online activism: new media can attract new people.
  10. 10. Young people, the new challenge for politician
  11. 11. • Young people does not trust politician= 66% do not think UK government to be honest and trustworthy. • They think politician do not care about them • Do not believe in politicians effectiveness • Want to participate to political life