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Intelligent Line Monitoring System


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  • 1. GEDigital EnergyMultilin™ IntelligentLine Monitoring SystemCost effective end-to-end solutiondelivering actionable intelligence through Increased Networkadvanced analytics CapacityThe Multilin Intelligent Line Monitoring System is an end-to-end overhead line monitoring solution • Advanced dynamic line rating enableswith advanced analytics that provides actionable intelligence to distribution utilities for improving maximum load throughput in medium voltagethe reliability and efficiency of their networks. GE’s innovative solution enables utilities to maximize and sub-transmission linesnetwork throughput, reduce outage duration through accurate identification of fault location, and • Key overhead line measurements includingoptimize maintenance activities on assets when needed. current load and conductor temperature deliver line sag/clearance valuesInstalling GE’s Intelligent Line Monitoring System helps utilities solve multiple key challenges. Thissolution reduces network downtime by providing utilities with visibility of faulted and soon to be • Distributed weather data delivers line capacityfaulted circuits, and advanced analytics allow utilities to effectively dispatch crews to address valuesnetwork problems. In addition, the system dynamically rates the feeders to allow for maximizationof throughput while helping ensure safety due to increased sag conditions. Reduced OutageKey Benefits Duration • Quickly determines fault location and notifies• End-to-end solution with built-in analytics operators and repair crews via visual, email• Reduced outage duration by enabling efficient crew dispatching and SMS messaging• Time synchronized system enables accurate fault location • Enables faster repair of faults, reducing SAIDI• Increased network capacity through dynamic line rating and CAIDI impact• Overhead line sensor designed for fast installation on live networks • Suitable for low and high impedance grounding• Scalable system for piloting or network wide deployment treatmentsApplications Optimized Maintenance• Fault notification in high and low impedance grounding treatments • Tracks and logs history of transient faults by• Dynamic line rating delivering additional network capacity each feeder and feeder section• Line sag monitoring improving network safety • Identifies parts of network with multiple continuous overload and reclosing activities• Optimization of maintenance through identification of troubled circuits • Reduce maintenance cost by performing• Load monitoring for improved planning and operational safety maintenance only on feeders requiring itg imagination at work
  • 2. Dynamic Line Rating System (T-NET)• Identifies additional capacity that can safely pass through the line• Determines incremental line sag and clearance from the line to the ground• Incorporates effect of cooling from wind and terrain on different parts of the lineAdvanced Dynamic Line Weather StationOverhead Line Rating Software (WKIT)Sensor (FMC-T6) (T-NET) Distributed weatherAdvanced overhead line sensors with time Dynamic line rating application providing stations provide input for the calculation of linesynchronized monitoring of load and conductor system operators with real-time amount of rating, taking into account wind speed, windtemperature, suitable for voltages up to 140kV. conductor sag and available spare capacity direction, ambient temperature and solar gain. based on prevailing conditions.T-NETAdditional Current CapacityThe T-NET dynamic line rating system collects line loading, conductortemperature, and weather characteristics from multiple node locations Max. Capacity Max. Capacity Max. Capacityto determine the maximum amount of load the conductor can carry. 92 86 88System operators are also able to monitor the amount of sag occurringat each node location. Substation Substation Radiant heat from roads reduces line capacity The cooling effect of wind blowing across the conductor allows greater capacity2
  • 3. Fault Location System (X-NET)• Determines which segment of the line the fault occurred in• Directly notifies Field Crews of where to travel to fix faulted circuits• Tracks overcurrent events to enable Optimized Maintenance SchedulingCommunications Fault Location AdvancedGateway (SNG) and Analysis Overhead LineCollects and stores data Software (X-NET) Sensor (FMC-T4)recorded in local sensors and provides backhaul Fault location and analysis application providing Overhead line sensors with visual indicationcommunication to application software through immediate notification to system operators of downstream faults and time synchronizedembedded GPRS or private area networks. and field crews with the location of permanent monitoring of load and conductor temperature. feeder faults. Suitable for voltages up to 38kV. X-NET Wide Area Fault Analysis The X-NET fault analysis software delivers fault location and detail, in time aligned format so that system operators and field crews can quickly isolate find and repair faulted feeders. 3
  • 4. GE’s Overhead Line Monitoring System Data Synchronization When looking to deliver an effective data platform, accurate and reliable data isGE provides an intelligent overhead line monitoring system that is modular, required. However, for the network to become truly ‘smart’ this data must alsoaccurate, reliable and simple to install. It is a cost effective solution that be time coherent. This adds an advanced analytical component to the system,enables a utility to remotely manage and optimize its distribution assets and gives the network operator the ability to take a momentary snapshot ofthrough the use of advanced analytics, while minimizing outages and the network. System wide synchronization means that data gathered fromdisruption to customer supply. different parts of the network can be aligned in time (similar to a PMU).System OverviewThe modular design of GE’s monitoring system enables customers to tailor Solution Building Blockstheir own monitoring platform so that it aligns with their key strategies forperformance improvement of the network, whether this is fault location, Line Mounted Sensorsincreased capacity through dynamic line rating or simply enhanced network The Multilin FMC-T6 advanced overhead line sensor is designed to be installedvisibility. The system consists of three key components: by hot-stick or hot-glove, and sits at the same potential as the line. There are• Multilin FMC-T6™ line sensors provide accurate data inputs on line load two models of the sensor with different measurement ranges, a 300A and and conductor temperature a 600A version, and both will operate on circuits up to 140kV. The sensors• Multilin SNG™ (Sensor Network Gateway) which collects data from the line measure the electrical current, both amplitude and phase at a sampling sensors and locally mounted weather stations, and forwards this data to rate of 1.6kHz, and deliver data via an on-board 2.4 GHz radio. Sensors can a server for processing by the System Console be supplied with an optional temperature probe on a flying lead. This probe• System Console (Server-Based): measures the surface temperature of the conductor. Sensors weigh 6kgs and will sit on conductors between 10mm and 28mm in diameter. The magnetic -- Fault location and analysis software (Multilin X-NET™) field of the line provides the power for the sensor, and also charges a 48 hour -- Dynamic line rating calculation and analysis software (Multilin T-NET™) battery back-up that keeps the sensor fully operational in the event of an -- Calculates and displays sag/clearance and ice load warning (Rime) outage. All sensors are fully synchronized to the timing pulse of the GPS, and -- Displays and logs load, conductor temperature and weather data have an 80 minute on-board buffer memory that logs data and downloads -- Monitors the performance of the installed equipment for accuracy and events when polled. reliability -- Provides the operator interface to set-up and configure the system Weather Stations Weather information is a critical data source for dynamic line rating andEquipment Platform ice load warning. These applications depend on wind speed and direction,The modular design provides the customer with multiple options for the ambient temperature, dew point and solar radiation. GE supplies aequipment they deploy, and the installed equipment becomes a type compatible weather station as an option, but the system can be installedof ‘nervous system’ for the network. The system console processes the with or without weather stations depending on the customer’s requirements.distributed data into various applications providing actionable intelligence This optional weather station plugs into the SNG version that has a weatherand adding a layer of visibility to the network that is critical to improving station communications port fitted (Note: Weather data is only required fornetwork performance. dynamic line rating and not for fault location).GE’s Intelligent Line Monitoring System System Console (Server-Based) Multilin SNG™ Multilin FMC-T6 (Sensor Network Gateway) Line Sensor4
  • 5. Sensor Network Gateway (SNG) • Multilin X-NET Software Applications: -- Fault locationThe SNG is the gateway communications device that links the line sensors,weather station (if used) and substation open delta voltage (high impedance -- Fault signature as RMS values on a cycle by cycle basisgroundling treatments) with the system console. It communicates back and -- Fault activity ‘look back’ capabilityforward to the line sensors by radio, and to the weather station by a wired -- Load profilingserial link. The SNG delivers all the data to the system console at a central -- Data download facility - all monitored network data, in user definedserver over GPRS for processing and storage. The SNG synchronizes the time periods (provided in Microsoft® Excel format)sensors to the satellite PPS timing pulse via its GPS transceiver. • Multilin T-NET Software Applications:The SNG is built into an easily installed, pole or substation mounted -- Dynamic line rating calculation (CIGRE model)enclosure. Radio range between the line sensors and the SNG is typically -- Sag/clearance calculator30 m/100 ft, and an SNG fitted out on the feeder is normally mounted on -- Ice load warning (Rime)the same pole or structure underneath the sensors. It is a low power device -- Weather data monitoringand can be powered by a solar panel (suitable for latitudes not greater -- Load profilingthan 55 degrees N/S), or alternatively by a 100V/250V AC power supply. An -- Data download facility - all monitored network data, in user definedSNG usually has 3 sensors reporting to it (one sensor per phase). At certain time periods (provided in excel format)locations, for example at a branch point, a single SNG can accommodate 6sensors, effectively monitoring two circuits simultaneously. • System Set-Up and Maintenance: -- System diagnostics -- Firmware updatesSystem Console (Server-Based) -- Fault notification (SMS and email)The system console is a secure interface that is accessed via the internet. It -- Installation set-upmanages all the applications, configuration, set-up and maintenance of the -- User access to input static values for programs such as dynamic linesystem. It is the only operator interface that the customer needs to run the rating and sag/clearance calculationsystem, and can be used by smart phones with internet access, lap-tops anddesktop PCs. The system console manages the system, stores/displays thedata, and provides the operator with the actionable intelligence required tooptimize network performance.Continual monitoring of critical feederparameters providing miximum andminimum load profiles Tracking of weather conditions allow for determining the effect of local weather conditions on capacity of the feeders 5
  • 6. Installation Communications The communications structure has been made as simple as possible. It is a server-based solution with two-way communications between the serverMultilin FMC-T6 and line sensors via the SNG. The SNG-to-server communication is overThe Multilin FMC-T6 advanced overhead line sensor (either 300A or 600A GPRS, and line sensor-to-SNG communications are over 2.4 GHz radio. Theversion) can be installed on a live line using either hot-stick or hot-glove, and SNG has a dedicated serial port which is used for weather data from antakes just minutes to complete. The sensor commences operation as soon external weather station. The system is time synchronized to within 35µSas it is closed around the conductor. using GPS, and data is forwarded to the server as a fault activity or userGE offers the option of a conductor temperature measurement probe on the scheduled data report. Data reporting intervals are programmable in thesensor, which is attached to the sensor on a flying lead. The lead is wrapped system console at selectable intervals of ≥ 1 minute.around the conductor with its temperature sensing tip at the end of thelead tied to the conductor surface. To ensure that the probe is thermallycoupled to the conductor, GE recommends that a thermal compound is System Overviewused between the conductor and the probe tip (please refer to the sensorinstallation instruction manual). Sensors can be installed on voltages upto and including 140kV, and indicate locally that they are functioning via asmall flashing LED mounted in the sensor housing. GPS providesMultilin SNG accurate timing pulse to SNGsOut on the feeder, the Multilin SNG is mounted within radio range (30 m/100 ft)of the line sensors, and a weather station (if used) is wired into the SNG 1weather station communications port. The SNG requires a 12 Volt DCsupply, and there are two methods for powering: 100V/250V AC supply orsolar via a 30W panel (suitable for latitudes not greater than 55 degreesN/S). In high impedance grounding treatments, an SNG is required to befitted in the substation to capture the open delta voltage, and when the SNG 2is installed, whether in the substation or out on the feeder, a data-enabled SNGs align the FMC-T6 sensorsGPRS SIM  card is inserted into the SNGs’ modem, and it commences to the same timing reference Sensors andcommunication to the system console at the server. SNGs distributed throughout the network are time aligned andSystem Console viewable on the System ConsoleThe set-up of the system console is carried out by the customer. The GE systemdivides the network up into data nodes, A node is a set of 3 co-located line 3sensors (and weather station if installed). Local place names of pole numbersare added to each node location, and also to each feeder and substation. Asimple schematic of the network is automatically generated by the console.GE provides a hosted service for pilot installations.System Network Model6
  • 7. Where to InstallSelecting the location of each node is dependent on the primary applicationrequired. If the requirement is for fault location, deployment will be moredense at the head of the feeder, and nodes will be spaced further apartmoving down the feeder. When the primary application is dynamic linerating, the nodes will be placed in locations where the line changesdirection or where there are sheltering effects from hills or structures. Therecommendation is that nodes are installed at 5 kM intervals, but the systemis flexible. Additional nodes may be added at any stage as load conditionschange over time, or distributed generation is installed.GE is happy to assist in the deployment strategy, whether the application isfor fault location, dynamic line rating or both combined and can provide anumber of services if required, including:• Network survey• Node deployment strategy• Server hostingMaintenance and Modification Local SynchronizationKey equipment performance is tracked by the system console, and newnodes or equipment can be added very simply and quickly. MV overhead networks have separated phases. When sensors are mounted on separate phases and utilize radio communication, each sensor thatThe system has been designed to give the customer full control of forms a set of three need be time synchronized to each other to achievemaintenance, configuration and set-up. All inputs are menu driven and their correct phase relationship. This technique, when it is part of an overallrequire minimal staff training. network synchronization, makes a much more valuable source of data, for example in determining sequence currents and correcting imbalance.Fault Location and Analysis Software Network Synchronization(X-NET) In high impedance grounding treatments it is necessary to get a feeder reference voltage to compare the phase of the distributed fault currents at each node. This technique extracts the real part of the fault current, andOverview delivers fault location in these types of grounding treatments. In order forThe advanced analytics delivered by the Multilin Intelligent Line Monitoring this to work, the voltage reference monitoring device needs to be in accurateSystem provides a platform for fault location and analysis. This has been time synchronization with the overhead line current sensors. The polarizingdeveloped as a unique software package that captures, displays and notifies voltage is captured in the Multilin monitoring system via an ODV enabledusers of the following information: SNG fitted in the substation. This ODV enabled SNG needs to be mounted outside the substation cubicle with a view of the sky so that it can captureFault location GPS timing. This type of SNG can also communicate with line sensors if they• Earth faults (in high and low impedance grounding treatments) are mounted within the radio range.• Short circuits• Dropped phases Fault Identification• Cross country faults (high impedance grounding) Fault and Event DefinitionFault activity ‘look back’ facility The system tracks for alarms and fault events 24/7. Any network event activity that exceeds the set thresholds and is longer than 2 cycles inGraphically displays sections of the network that have historically caused duration is downloaded and processed by the Multilin X-NET software and isevent and outage problems. stored into the database as a network event. The system differentiates faults from events and defines a fault as an event that has caused an outage forGrounding Treatments & Synchronization longer than a user predefined duration (1 minute default). It is only when theUtilities around the globe use various types of grounding treatments, and system sees this type of activity that it will notify personnel by SMS or email.these can be generally classified as high impedance and low impedance. In All types of event activity captured, however short in duration, are stored tosome cases, utilities use a mixture of grounding treatments in separate parts the database and are available for analysis in the ‘look back’ facility.of their networks. GE’s system has been designed to meet the challenges ofcapturing faults in both of these grounding treatments, and fundamental Fault Locationto meeting this challenge is accurate timing synchronization. GE’s system The system reports the fault location as the section of network between thetiming synchronization works in two distinct ways that is applicable to both last node that has seen the fault and the first node on that feeder that hastypes of grounding treatment. not seen the fault. 7
  • 8. Fault Triggering Fault NotificationsThe notification of a fault in the network is triggered by the system in three Notification emails and SMS messages for the reporting of faults are key todistinct ways: mobilizing repair teams, and having this facility means that valuable outage time is saved:• The line sensor sees a load exceeding its maximum user configured threshold • Rapid notification of faults, rather than waiting for customer notification• The line sensor sees a load that is below its minimum user configured • Knowing where in the network the fault has occurred so that the teams threshold will go directly to the fault site and have the correct equipment on hand• A substation SNG monitoring open delta voltage exceeds its maximum The example below is a typical fault notification SMS that describes: user configured threshold (high impedance grounding) • Time and Date • SubstationFault/Event Capture Sequence • Feeder• A line sensor or substation SNG reports a threshold crossing event to the • Location system console with a time stamp • Type of Fault• The system console selects the feeder substation that is the source of supply to the fault and polls all the sensors installed on feeders out from this substation for 10 cycles of current data on either side of the event Improved and Targeted Preventive Maintenance time stamp The Multilin X-NET software delivers a very useful fault activity ‘look-back’• Multilin X-NET analyzes the data received and displays the section where facility. The ‘look-back’ allows the user to define a time period and view all the fault or event has occurred. In the case of a fault, the system then of the fault and event activity over this period. Network problem spots are delivers an SMS or email to a table of recipients as defined by the user in easily identified, supporting preventive maintenance by highlighting the the system console most critical or problematic sections of the network.• If it is an event, i.e. a transient or short duration outage, the system It is a well understood characteristic of networks that in most cases transient console stores the details of this in the database event activity is indicative of the emergence of a permanent fault, therefore• When the fault is over and power is restored, the sequence is reversed the facility to look at the location of accumulated short duration events is and the operator interface graphic is cleared very useful in determining where faults are likely to happen in the future. In• All network event activity is available in the ‘look-back’ facility networks where reclosers are used, the system enhances the overall value of the reloser function by delivering the location of faults that have beenIn addition to an SMS or email message, the Multilin X-NET provides a visual corrected by the reclosers, and guiding the network teams to correct theseidentification of the faulty section on the operator interface. To view the problems before they cause permanent rather than short duration outages.fault in greater depth, the user can also call up a 20 cycle graph of the faultcurrent by clicking on the red part of the fault graphic. Fault notifications including details of faulted feeder segment are instantly sent directly to field crews via SMS messagingGraphical display of fault location and fault current profile8
  • 9. Notification and User Access Management Dynamic Line Rating SoftwareAll notification cell numbers and email addresses are managed and setup in the system console. Roster schedules can be implemented by the (T-NET)administrator and new contacts added and removed. GE’s Multilin T-NET software analyzes the data delivered from deployedRemote access to authorized network staff is controlled by the system sensors and weather stations to increase circuit rating. The hybrid approachconsole. There are two levels of access, each protected by individual of using conductor temperature, load and distributed weather data deliversusernames and passwords: an accurate and safer method of increasing circuit capacity. The Multilin T-NET software provides a calculation of dynamic line rating at each node1. Field Operator Access: installed. -- Full X-NET access -- Displays all data Static Circuit Rating -- Data download access Static or seasonal rating has been the standard in circuit capacity ratings2. Administrator Access: for many years, but static rating techniques are not efficient, as they do not -- Full X-NET access take into account the prevailing conditions that impact the real time rating. -- Displays all data Capturing the correct capacity of circuits is critical in two distinct ways: -- Data download access • Underestimating capacity means that assets are being underutilized and -- System configuration are not delivering full value for their cost -- Set-up of thresholds and data reporting intervals • Overestimating capacity creates unsafe conditions due to ground -- Set-up of static inputs for programs clearance issues -- Set-up and maintenance of SMS and email notifications Static rating does not deal with either of these issues. -- Access to system performance diagnostics Capacity calculation based on real time influences such as weather and conductor temperature is generally described as dynamic line rating, and willRemote Web Interface increase circuit capacity while at the same time safeguard against clearanceThe use of remote web devices allows operators to access the Multilin X-NET problems. The Multilin T-NET software has been designed to optimize circuitoperator interface in the field. With this level of detail, the operator can view capacity and clearance safety on circuits up to 140kV. It achieves this bya 20 cycle fault current trace, or in the case of high impedance grounding utilizing all of the influencing ambient data such as wind speed and direction,treatments, look at related events such as cross country fault activity. The as well as the fundamental factor, which is the temperature of the conductor.‘look-back’ facility that displays problematic sections of networks can alsobe accessed by a Smart Phone. Dynamic Line Rating Approach There are a number of approaches used by the industry to deliver dynamic line rating, among which are: • istributed weather and substation load data D approach: monitors the influences that impact the conductor temperature, such as weather and load, and couples these with the static factors such as conductor size and type • istributed load and conductor temperature D approach: measures the temperature and load of the conductor directly on the conductor distributed throughout the circuit • Combination approach: a combination of distributed weather, load and conductor temperature data A calculated capacity derived by using distributed weather data and substation load approach is viewed by utilities as high in risk, and the rating ceiling is generally decreased to reduce this risk. The algorithms can become unreliable due to changes in the conductors’ thermal characteristics over time, which tends to make the calculated rating less accurate. Capturing weather conditions however is very useful in forecasting rating, as weather conditions are reasonably predictable over a short time window.Determine Maintenance Requirements by identifying the history all fault activity occuring on eachsegment of the feeders 9
  • 10. Using a distributed conductor temperature and load approach is the most Typical CIGRE algorithm inputs:accurate real time engineering solution, as the circuit is feeding back actual • Maximum conductor temperatureinformation on the state of the line, as opposed to calculating it. But forthis technique to be utilized, the conductor temperature and load gathering • Temperature coefficient of resistancenodes need to be extensively deployed, which makes this an expensive • Conductor typesolution, and it misses the forecast capability provided by weather data. • Ambient temperatureThe combination of using distributed weather data, load and conductor • Speed and angle of attack of the windtemperature is a cost effective and comprehensive way to deliver dynamic • Diameter of conductor and outer wireline rating. It enables the rating algorithms to become dynamic in their own • DC resistance at 20°Cright, as the conductor temperature measurement provides the potentialfor a calibration input to the algorithm to correct the thermal changes to • Solar radiationthe static values of the conductor over time, and uses the weather data to • AC resistancefacilitate short term forecasting of rating. The conductor temperature input • Latitude and elevation above sea level also delivers further value, as it delivers a line sag/clearance application. Thecombination of weather with distributed conductor load/temperature data The Multilin T-NET software utilizes the CIGRE rating calculation model in ais what the Multilin T-NET software uses, and it delivers a low cost solution simple operator interface. The operator configures the algorithm with boththat optimizes capacity and delivers a ground to conductor clearance static and dynamic inputs in the set-up page.safeguard. When the circuit changes, for example when a different conductor is installed In various sections, the operator can modify the algorithm on aCalculating Dynamic Line Rating node by node basis.The Multilin T-NET software delivers real time ratings of the circuit beingmonitored using the CIGRE model. The calculation is based on regular Operator Interfacedata reports at ≥ 1 minute intervals from each of the deployed nodes on The operator interface delivers a read–out of the rating of the circuit bythe circuit. The operator interface displays three values; the present load, selecting the node that has the lowest calculated rating.the present rating and the present available spare capacity, and the rating It displays three fundamental values from this critical node:is updated after each data report. The CIGRE model calculator comes asstandard with the T-NET software. • Present loadRating algorithms in general were developed at a time when measuring • Present maximum capacitydistributed conductor temperature and load accurately was not an • Present available capacityoption. With the development of low power radio equipment and GPS time These values are refreshed at user configurable intervals of ≥ 1 minute andsynchronization, accurate conductor temperature and load monitoring is the system will automatically shift to the node with the lowest achievable, and this greatly enhances the accuracy and safety of using The rating values and conductor temperature can also be integrated intothese algorithms. SCADA (based on a server interface). SCADA integration is carried out by GE’s engineering team on a project by project basis.The T-NET Operator Interface displays the line’s capacitybottlenecks and determines the additional capacity that can besupported by each section of the line The Line Sag and distance from the line to the ground is available to system operators to verify safety constrains while maximizing utilization of the line10
  • 11. Weather data along with conductor load and temperature profiles Rime Ice Load Warnings can enable utilities to ready respond crews to address impending line damageThe value of capturing conductor temperature is easily demonstrated in theMultilin T-NET software sag/clearance calculation. This calculation is based Network Monitoringon conductor temperature, line dimensions and conductor type where Regular delivery of time synchronized data from within the network providesthe operator interface shows a calculation of the ground-to-conductor advanced analysis to different users:clearance. The mechanical parameters are input by the operator in a sag/ • Field Personnelclearance calculation algorithm set up page. • PlannersThe Multilin T-NET software provides monitoring functions based on the data • Network engineersreceived from the nodes: In addition to fault location and dynamic line rating, the Multilin Intelligent• Conductor temperature monitoring* Line Monitoring System delivers regular data reports on the following:• Load monitoring • Individual phase current• Sag/clearance calculation* • Positive and negativeWeather data monitoring: sequence currents• Wind speed** • Conductor temperature*• Wind direction** • Wind speed and direction**• Ambient °C** • Ambient temperature, solar radiation, dew point**• Solar radiation• Dew point/humidity**A further example of the value of the combination of conductor temperatureand weather data is demonstrated by the T-NET’s conductor ice build upwarning application:Ice load warning (Rime) Green: Minimal risk Orange: Medium to low risk Red: Conditions are right for ice loading* Requires sensors with temperature probes Line load profiling identifies magnitude of line imbalance for each segment** Requires weather stations of the feeders 11
  • 12. Field Personnel Diagnostic SoftwareLocal access to individual phase load is a powerful tool for field personnel The system constantly monitors the installed equipment to optimizeas it gives them immediate and local information on loading across the performance and notifies the administrator by email of any performancephases. This facility assists in improving phase selection for new tap offs issues.or repairs, and assists in balancing the loading throughout the network. • Records time of last activityThe caption on page 11 shows a typical imbalance in a network with anoveruse of the red phase. Network operators now have a tool that they can • CSQ (GSM signal strength)use to avoid/correct unbalanced networks and thereby improve network • GPS timing statusefficiency. • Battery voltage and charge/discharge current on the SNG • Communication with weather station (if installed)Planners • Communication with line sensorsAll data gathered can be downloaded from the system console in excel • Battery voltage and charge/discharge current on the line sensorsformat. The user simply selects a date and time range, and all the data can • Modem/SNG resetsbe copied for analysis.An example of the way that this data can be used is in dynamic line ratingsurveys. The capacity of the circuit being monitored can be analysed tocapture critical spans. These spans can then be targeted for conductorre-enforcement to achieve overall network capacity uplift.Network EngineersThe graphic in the system console profiles the measured data over a userdefined time period.The use of load profiling is very useful as an indicator of consumptionchanges or patterns, giving an early detection of non-technical losses.Monitored data can be configured with respect to the reporting intervals, andthe user can select ≥ 1 minute gaps.Operator Interface Set-upThe operator interface uses a simple schematic as its model of the network.This schematic is generated in the system console by the customer at theset-up stage of the installation. The system uses this information to provide Constant monitoring of the performance of all the components of thethe logic for applications such as fault location. For example, the system system is critical to meeting the reliability levels required by the new networkneeds to know the order of the nodes, ie up-stream or down-stream on the performance modelfeeder. Also, each sensor needs to know which phase it is sitting on so thatit can call faults, not just between nodes but also on which phase(s) the faulthas occurred. GE’s system is designed to be simple to set-up, and GE assistscustomers with training on set-up, configuration and programing.12
  • 13. Hardware Specifications MULTILIN FMC-T6 PERFORMANCE Current Range Two Versions 300A or 600A Current Measurement Accuracy +/- 1% of Amplitude Plus 0.3A Phase Accuracy +/- 0.6° Conductor Temp Measurement Range -10°C to +85°C Accuracy of Conductor Temp Probe +/- 2°C Measurement Sampling Rate 1.6 kHz Min Line Current Required to Power the Sensor 10A for the 300A version, 30A for the 600A version Line Voltage Range 480V to 140kV Radio Frequency 2.4 GHZ Radio Range 30 m/100 ft Line of Sight Flash Memory 80 Minutes of Data Battery Back-up Minimum 48 hrs with a Fully Charged Battery Operating Temperature Range -40°C to +65°C Weight 6 kg/13 lb MULTILIN SNG PERFORMANCE Radio Range 30 m/100 ft Battery Back up 200 hrs (solar version) and 100hours (LV A.C. powered version) with fully charged battery Operating Temperature Range* -20°C to +65°C* An SNG enclosure heater may be added for customers that require temperatures below -20° (This will only be available on the LV A.C. powered version) MULTILIN SNG STANDARD OPTIONAL GPS Location and Timing • GPRS Communications • 2.4 GHz Radio • Weather Station Communications Port  • Communications TCP/IP • Open Delta Voltage Volt Input (High Impedance Grounding Treatment), • Not Available on Solar Powered Version Standard Wooden Pole Mounting Bracket • LV AC Power Supply 100V-250V ~ 50HZ/60HZ  • Multilin X-NET Software Application • Solar Powering with 30W Solar Panel and 35Ah Battery Back-up • Multilin T-NET Software Application • 13
  • 14. System Console Specifications SYSTEM DESCRIPTION Captured Fault Data Earth Faults (High Low Impedance), Phase to Phase, Over Currents, Under Currents, Dropped Phases Threshold Settings Remotely User Configurable Operator Interface Web-based Typical GPRS Usage per Controller 250MB per Month per Node (Typical Usage) System Synchronization +/- 0.6 ° at 50Hz (+/-33uS)Software Specifications SYSTEM DESCRIPTION Monitoring Software (Standard) Monitors and Reports at Each Node: • Individual Phase, Positive and Negative Sequence Currents • Conductor Temperature* • Wind Speed and Direction** • Dew Point** • Solar Gain** Multilin X-NET Application Detects and Reports at Each Node: • Earth Faults (In high and Low Impedance Grounding Treatments) • Phase to Phase Faults • Over Currents • Under Currents • Dropped Phase or Phases Multilin T-NET Application Calculates and Reports at Each Node: • Dynamic Rating of Conductor** • Sag/clearance* • Ice Load Warning (Rime)**** Requires Multilin FMC-T6 sensors with temperature probes** Requires an installed weather station*** Requires Multilin FMC-T6 Sensors with temperature probes and an installed weather stationCertifications ISO Manufactured under an ISO9001 registered program CE Conforms to: 2004/108/EEC EMC Directive December 2004 2006/95/EC Low Voltage Directive December 2006 1999/5/EC Radio equipment and telecommunications terminal equipment Directive RTTE March 1999Type tests Document No. Title Edition/Issue EN 55011 Class A Emissions 2009 +A1 2010 EN 61326-1 EMC requirements for ISM equipment 2006 EN 61010-1 Safety requirements for electrical equipment for measurement, control, and laboratory use 2010 ETSI EN 301 489-7 Electromagnetic compatibility and Radio spectrum Matters. Specific conditions for mobile and portable radio and ancillary equipment of digital cellular radio telecommunications systems 2006-10 ETSI EN 301 489-1 Electromagnetic compatibility and Radio spectrum Matters. Common technical requirements 2008-04 ETSI EN 301 489-17 Electromagnetic compatibility and Radio spectrum Matters. Specific conditions for 2,4 GHz wideband transmission systems, 2008-0214
  • 15. Ordering Codes SENSOR FMC-T6 - * * * Description Type 0 Without Temperature Probe 1 With Temperature Probe Frequency 0 50Hz 1 60Hz Current Range 0 300A 1 600A SNG SNG -3 * * * * Description Powering Options 0 AC Supply 100v-250v 1 AC Supply 100V-250V with ODV Input (High Impedance Grounding) 2 Solar Powered with 30 Watt Panel Weather Data Input 0 Without Weather Station Comms Port 1 With Weather Station Comms Port Communications 0 GPRS Frequency 0 50 Hertz 1 60 HertzThe option of an SNG with an open delta input for high impedance grounding treatments is only available in the LV A.C. version. WEATHER STATION MULTILIN T-NET HOSTED SOFTWARE MULTILIN X-NET HOSTED SOFTWARE WKIT - A T-NET - * Number of Nodes X-NET - * Number of Nodes Type 1 1 Node Type 1 1 Node 2 5 Nodes 2 5 Nodes 3 10 Nodes 3 10 Nodes 4 25 Nodes 4 25 Nodes 5 50 Nodes 5 50 NodesTo order equipment, software and hosting services, please visit the online store at 15
  • 16. Digital Energy 650 Markland St. Markham, ON Canada L6C 0M1 Toll Free (NA Only): 1-800-547-8629 Tel: 905-927-7070 Fax: 905-927-5098 Microsoft is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation.g GE, the GE monogram, Multilin, FMC-T6, FMC-T4, SNG, X-NET and T-NET are trademarks of the General Electric Company. GE reserves the right to make changes to specifications of products described at any time without notice and without obligation to notify any person of such changes. imagination at work © Copyright 2012, General Electric Company. All Rights Reserved. GEA-12689A(E) English 120905