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Insights into the Cybercrime Ecosystem

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  • “We didn’t just get the command and control servers; with Mariposa we got the guys behind it. The problem is that we can take down the botnet but the criminals are still out there and can start a new botnet – that happens most of the times.” said Luis Corrons, technical director at PandaLabs.
  • Only the hackers who perform break-ins and thefts, and the financial operators are clearly criminal.
  • Drive-by downloads
  • Investopedia Dictionary defines money laundering as “the process of creating the appearance that large amounts of money obtained from serious crimes, such as drug trafficking or terrorist activity, originated from a legitimate source.”

    According to the International Monetary Fund (IMF), money laundering transactions are almost beyond imagination – 2 percent to 5 percent of global Gross Domestic Product.

    Necessary element of any criminal activity undertaken for profit.

    placement -> layering -> integration
  • Smurfing, a subset of structuring, the practice of executing financial transactions in a specific pattern calculated to avoid the creation of certain records and reports required by law (Bank Secrecy Act (BSA)).
  • Nigeria scam? Sometimes you actually do receive the money.
  • Transcript

    • 1. INSIGHTS INTO THE CYBERCRIME ECOSYSTEM Albert Hui GREM, GCIA, GCIH, GCFA, CISA
    • 2. WHO AM I?  Member of: • Digital Phishnet • Association of Certified Fraud Examiners • SANS Advisory Board  Former incident analyst / researcher at top-tier retail, commercial, and investment banks.  Former government security auditor.  Now a security ronin.
    • 3. JURISDICTION ARBITRAGE Cybercrime is borderless; cyber law enforcement is not.
    • 4. TEN YEARS AGO Copyright © 2010 Albert Hui (CC) BY-NC-SA 4
    • 5. TODAY Copyright © 2010 Albert Hui (CC) BY-NC-SA 5
    • 6. TODAY Copyright © 2010 Albert Hui (CC) BY-NC-SA 6 Photofromhttp://krebsonsecurity.com
    • 7. TODAY Copyright © 2010 Albert Hui (CC) BY-NC-SA 7 “In Spain, it is not a crime to own and operate a botnet or distribute malware,” Capt. Lorenzana told Krebsonsecurity in March. “So even if we manage to prove they are using a botnet, we will need to prove they also were stealing identities and other things, and that is where our lines of investigation are focusing right now.”
    • 8. BUSINESS FUNCTION SPECIALIZATION Scale up the business.
    • 9. CYBERCRIME ECOSYSTEM Copyright © 2010 Albert Hui (CC) BY-NC-SA 9 Security Researchers Malware Writers publish / sell exploits Script Kiddies sell malwares / exploit kits Packer / Crypter Developer Sell packers / crypters sell / publish / make known of vulnerabilities / techniques Hackers pay per install P2P File Downloaders / Web Surfers (Victims) spread malwares Crack Programmer Software Pirates supply software steal accounts (e.g. QQ, game, credit card numbers, e-banking logins) sell accounts / zombies Accounts / Zombies Resellers Spammers, Virtual Asset Resellers, Personal Info Resellers Fraudsters sell accounts sell credit card numbers / e-banking logins Money Launderers Money Mules Bulletproof Hosting buy hosting services Botnet Operators Sell zombies sell botnet Traffic Resellers
    • 10. WHY SPECIALIZE?  Scale up  Legitimize most business activities Copyright © 2010 Albert Hui (CC) BY-NC-SA 10
    • 11. PAY-PER-INSTALL Copyright © 2010 Albert Hui (CC) BY-NC-SA 11
    • 12. INSTALL SERVICE Copyright © 2010 Albert Hui (CC) BY-NC-SA 12
    • 13. EXPLOIT KIT Copyright © 2010 Albert Hui (CC) BY-NC-SA 13
    • 14. CRYPTER Copyright © 2010 Albert Hui (CC) BY-NC-SA 14
    • 15. DOWNLOADER Copyright © 2010 Albert Hui (CC) BY-NC-SA 15
    • 16. SEO Copyright © 2010 Albert Hui (CC) BY-NC-SA 16
    • 17. DOORWAY PAGE Copyright © 2010 Albert Hui (CC) BY-NC-SA 17
    • 18. CASH IN Realizing financial gains
    • 19. SPAMMING  Spamming ads  Spamming scam emails  Spamming phishing emails  Spam-assisted pump and dump Copyright © 2010 Albert Hui (CC) BY-NC-SA 19
    • 20. BOTNET  Leasing out botnets (leave dirty jobs to the buyers)  Why people pay for botnets? • Orchestrate click frauds • Cyber extortion rackets using DDoS • Distribute more sinister malwares (e.g. Zeus, Torpig, Silent Banker) Copyright © 2010 Albert Hui (CC) BY-NC-SA 20
    • 21. CAPITALIZING ACCOUNTS  Selling in-game items  Selling game accounts  Selling personal information (for telemarketing / defrauding) Copyright © 2010 Albert Hui (CC) BY-NC-SA 21
    • 22. VIRTUAL CURRENCIES  WoW gold, Linden Dollar, Q幣, etc. Copyright © 2010 Albert Hui (CC) BY-NC-SA 22
    • 23. MONEY LAUNDERING
    • 24. WASH THY MONEY CLEAN Copyright © 2010 Albert Hui (CC) BY-NC-SA 24
    • 25. STORED-VALUE CARDS  Prepaid credit cards  Merchant gift cards Copyright © 2010 Albert Hui (CC) BY-NC-SA 25
    • 26. SAFE HAVENS  Online gambling sites  Offshore financial services Copyright © 2010 Albert Hui (CC) BY-NC-SA 26
    • 27. ONLINE AUCTIONS  Money laundering via product purchase (洗寶) Copyright © 2010 Albert Hui (CC) BY-NC-SA 27
    • 28. SMURFING Copyright © 2010 Albert Hui (CC) BY-NC-SA 28 $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $$
    • 29. MONEY MULE Copyright © 2010 Albert Hui (CC) BY-NC-SA 29
    • 30. BUSINESS ETHICS OF THE UNDERWORLD
    • 31. SHAVING  Many PPIs are accused of shaving Copyright © 2010 Albert Hui (CC) BY-NC-SA 31
    • 32. PHISHING Copyright © 2010 Albert Hui (CC) BY-NC-SA 32
    • 33. LOOK BEHIND YOUR BACK Copyright © 2010 Albert Hui (CC) BY-NC-SA 33
    • 34. LOOK BEHIND YOUR BACK Copyright © 2010 Albert Hui (CC) BY-NC-SA 34
    • 35. THANK YOU! albert.hui@gmail.com Copyright © 2010 Albert Hui (CC) BY-NC-SA 35