Frederick Herzberg - Two-factor Hygiene-Motivator Theory
Frederick Herzberg Motivation-Hygiene Theory Albert Winadi 19 October 2012 Eleonora Ellen UPH Eric Setiawan Meliana Lumban Raja Rocky Novanda
2 Frederick Herzberg (18 April 1923 – 19 January 2000) “Father of job enrichment principle” WWII Nazi Dachau Concentration Camp witness, Germany 1946 Graduate, City College 1950 Ph.D., University of Pittsburgh 1951 Research Director, Psychological Services of Pittsburgh 1957 Professor of Psychology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland 1972 Professor of Management, University of Utah 1968 publication on motivation:1959 book release: “One More Time,“The Motivation to Work” How Do You Motivate Employees?”Focuses on a particular motivation theorywhich based his future publications. 1.2 million reprints in 1987 Most requested article from Harvard Business Review
“The Motivation to Work” 1959 One question:Motivation study Interview “ whenThinkfelt exceptionally you of the time good, or exceptionally bad about your job; either your present job or any other Accountants Engineers job you have had... Pittsburgh Tell me what happened. ” Two unique sets of results I like my job! I don’t like my job! • Achievement • Company policy • Recognition • Bad administration • Nature of work • Incompetent supervisor • Responsibility and advancement • Poor working condition
Two-factor motivation Motivators Job contentPromote The absence of these conditions doesnt necessarily dissatisfy. But when present, they build strong levels of motivation that result in good job performance. Hygiene factors Job contextImprove The presence of these conditions to the satisfaction of the employee doesnt necessarily motivate, but their absence results in dissatisfaction. Hygiene factors are merely a launch pad - when damaged or undermined we have no platform, but in themselves they do not motivate. The contrast is true for motivators.
How to implement Hygiene-Motivator? Motivators • Improve safety standards at work • Give more recognition or • Offer flexibility in working rewards for good performance Improve hours and location • Offer opportunity to obtain • Improve working environment more experience and knowledge Promote (better air conditioning, water dispenser, clean toilet) • Give a sense of reliance for the • Provide security via health employee’s performance benefits, etc. • Give room for “improvisation” Hygiene factors
This chart shows how motivator elements are commonly different with hygiene factors, but in some cases one element can take both roles.
Implementation at different professions LOW hygiene, HIGH motivator HIGH hygiene, HIGH motivatorHIGH Coping with working condition for a purpose Intense, high-risk high-reward positions • Artistic workers • Cutting edge research & development in hi- • “LSM”, non-profit organization workers tech companies • Volunteer workers • Marketing in highly rewarding companies • Management trainee • ConsultantsMotivators LOW hygiene, LOW motivator HIGH hygiene, LOW motivator Entry level or relatively undesirable jobs Focus on getting paycheck, not needing challenge • Prison guards • Internal accountants • Garbage man • Factory workers • China Foxconn laborers that produce iPhone 5 • Security guards • Tellers and cashiers • State-owned employeesLOW LOW Hygiene factors HIGH
In different environments, it can Strengths Weaknesses be difficult toDistinguishes identify an elementmotivators and as hygiene factor /demotivators. motivator. Ambiguity of Two-factors elements Small sample forHighly customizable survey, i.e. 200depending on Questionable professionals, whiteindustry, job Flexible male. Also uses surveyposition, country, etc questionable ”critical. incident technique” Simple Too “general”Provides quick list of Tends to generalizeready-to-use and disregardelements. Also allows individual characters,prioritization of e.g. Policies. Thus thehygiene / motivators. weakness against diverse environment. Strengths and weaknesses
Implementation at country dimensionGeert – Hofstede cultural dimension approach Power Malaysia High power distance can be viewed as a deterrent for Distance unorthodox approaches, thus workers tend to aim for Israel stability. As such, hygiene factors are preferred. Individualism USA High individualism strongly suggest high sense of achievement and self-reward. In this situation, both Indonesia factors may take effect depending on economy. Uncertainty Japan High uncertainty avoidance relates to safety and security, Avoidance thus challenge is viewed negatively. As such, this trait Singapore relates to hygiene factors more. Masculinity Austria Masculinity symbolizes hard work, perfection and achievement, even in adverse situations. As such, high Sweden masculinity relates to motivators more.Challenges• Theory is difficult to be applied to diverse, multicultural countries.• Various factors other than culture are also considerable, e.g. Economy, Politic stability, Nature.• Commonly, there may be contrasting factors (e.g. Japan (UAI, MAS), Singapore (PDI,UAI)).
Hygiene-Motivator Motivation Programfor Generation X and Generation Y Identify the Determine Hygiene- Propose motivation characteristics Motivator balance program
Identify the characteristics Identify the characteristics Determine Hygiene- Motivator balance Propose motivation program Comparing Gen X and Gen Y Traditionalist Boomer Gen X Gen Y Too much Continuous &Training The hard way Required to keep me and I’ll leave expected Collaborative &Learning style Classroom Facilitated Independent networkedCommunication style Top down Guarded Hub & Spoke CollaborativeProblem-solving Hierarchical Horizontal Independent CollaborativeDecision-making Seeks Approval Team informed Team included Team decided Command &Leadership style Get out of the way Coach Partner control No news is goodFeedback Once per year Weekly / Daily On demand news Unable to work UnfathomableTechnology use Uncomfortable Unsure without it if not provided Part of my dailyJob changing Unwise Sets me back Necessary routineLancaster, L.C. and Stillman, D. When Generations Collide: Who They Are. Why They Clash. How to Solve the Generational Puzzle at Work. Wheaton, IL. Harper Business, 2003.
Determine balance Identify the characteristics Determine Hygiene- Motivator balance Propose motivation programHygiene factors - Motivators Hygiene Motivators Hygiene Motivators Freedom to Regular work anywhere feedback Unable to work Coaching w/o technology opportunities Seeks financial Seeks challenge stability Generation X Generation Y
Propose motivation program Identify the characteristics Determine Hygiene- Motivator balance Propose motivation programGeneration X and Generation Y Gen X : Gen Y : Communication Team Building Multitasking preferred Training Opportunities Give them team Establish clear expectations & Flexible Work Schedule rewards Help them grow and Learn Increased Pay Feedback Increase promotional Flexibility opportunities Expect them to go
Sample study cases• Tesco Tesco aims to motivate its employees both by paying attention to hygiene factors and by enabling motivators.• Kellogg’s Awareness of motivating factors helps Kelloggs to build a business that delivers consistently strong results.• ARM ARM uses employee engagement as a key tool in motivation. This is a satisfier as employees develop a genuine attachment to the teams in which they work.