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The Classical Period

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  • 1.  
  • 2.
    • I. The Spread of Civilization in Africa II. Africa, Civilization, and the Wider World III. Nomadic Societies and Indo-European Migrations IV. The Spread of Chinese Civilization to Japan V. The Scattered Societies of Polynesia
  • 3.
    • I. The Spread of Civilization in Africa
    • Varied ecosystems: Savannas, grasslands, plains, deserts
    • Climate change
    • Sahara, fertile in Late Stone Age
    • Desert by 3000 B.C.E. ,
    • Migration north and south
    • A. Agriculture, Livestock, and Iron
    • Millet and sorghum by 3000 B.C.E.
    • Domesticated animals from Asia
    • Horses into Egypt, 2nd millennium B.C.E.
    • Tsetse fly
    • Attacks horses and cattle
    • Camel from 1st century C.E.
    • No bronze age
    • Stone to iron
    • Iron from Mediterranean coast, Red Sea
    • to southern Africa by 1000 C.E.
  • 4.
    • I. The Spread of Civilization in Africa
    • B. The Bantu Dispersal
    • Agriculture and iron accompany Bantu dispersal
    • Bantu homeland in Nigeria
    • Saharan desiccation may have forced flight
    • Knowledge of iron an advantage
    • Spread throughout continent by 1200 C.E.
    • Culture
    • Agriculture, fishing, goats, cattle
    • Villages untied by kinship
    • Council of elders
    Bantu Migrations
  • 5.
    • II. Africa, Civilization, and the Wider World
    • Relationship between Egypt and the rest of Africa?
    • Similarities
    • Dynastic brother-sister marriage
    • Divine kingship
    • Direction of influence?
    • A. Axum: A Christian Kingdom
    • Axum defeats Meroë, 3rd century C.E.
    • Influence in Arabia
    • Axum
    • Urban center
    • Ge'ez - writing system
    • Used Arabic script
    • Controlled Red Sea trade
    • c. 350 C.E. , King Ezana converts to Christianity
    • Invade in 1076
    • Period of instability
  • 6.
    • II. Africa, Civilization, and the Wider World
    • B. Golden Ghana: A Trading State
    • Savanna peoples
    • Trade intermediaries
    • Link northern Africa and Niger and Senegal rivers
    • Salt for gold; gold for textiles, finished goods
    • Trade leads to state formation
    • Gao, Ghana
    • 925 C.E. , Gao's leader converts to Islam,
    • then elites convert
    • Ghana
    • Soninke people
    • Kumbi Saleh, capital
    • Tolls on commerce create wealth
    • State grows
    • Influence into Sahara
    • Almoravids
    • Invade in 1076
    • Period of instability
    West African States
  • 7.
    • III. Nomadic Societies and Indo-European Migrations
    • Culture
    • Pastoralism: cames, reindeer, sheep, horses
    • Varied roles for women
    • Facilitate long-distance agriculture
    • Indo-Europeans
    • 2nd millennium B.C.E.
    • North of the Black and Caspian seas
    • Middle East, Indus Plain
    • Included the Hittites, Hyksos, and Hsiung-nu (Huns)
    • Attack Chinese and Roman territories
    • Destroy the Gupta
  • 8.
    • III. Nomadic Societies and Indo-European Migrations A. The Celts and Germans
    • Celts
    • Ireland to Russia
    • Culture
    • Small kingdoms
    • Warrior elite
    • Kinship groups
    • Pastoralism, agriculture
    • No cities, writing
    • Oral literature
    • including law codes
    • Animistic religion
    • Roman influence
    • especially Gauls
    • Germanic peoples
    • Culture
    • Much in common with Celts
    • Matrilineal
    • Women holy
    • Admired and despised by Romans
    • Larger political groupings by 3rd century C.E .
    Germanic and Slavic Peoples on the Move, 375-450
  • 9.
    • III. Nomadic Societies and Indo-European Migrations
    • B. The Slavs in Eastern Europe
    • Agriculture to southern Russia by 3000 B.C.E.
    • Iron brought by Indo-Europeans, c. 1000 B.C.E.
    • Scythian state
    • 7th to 3rd centuries B.C.E.
    • Followed by the Sarmatians
    • Spread culture of Greeks and Persians
    • Slavs in by 4th C.E.
    • Kingdoms by 5th B.C.E.
    Germanic and Slavic Peoples on the Move, 375-450
  • 10.
    • IV. The Spread of Chinese Civilization to Japan
    • Politically independent of China
    • Cultural borrowings
    • A. Natural Setting and the Peopling of the Islands
    • Mountainous
    • Population concentrates on coastal plains
    • Asians from 5000 B.C.E.
    • From Korea, Manchuria
    • Jomon culture Hunting-and-gathering
    • 3rd millennium B.C.E.
    • Ainu displaced
    East Asia at the End of the Classical Period
  • 11.
    • IV. The Spread of Chinese Civilization to Japan
    • B. Indigenous Culture and Society
    • Yayoi epoch
    • Last centuries B.C.E.
    • New techniques from mainland
    • Society
    • Clans
    • 90% peasants
    • Rigid social distinctions
    • Matriarchal Women head households
    • Hold religious, political roles
    • Yamato clan
    • Dominate in 4th, 5th centuries
    • Influence over southern Korea
    • Imperial cult
    • Shinto worship
    The Rise of Japanese Civilization
  • 12.
    • IV. The Spread of Chinese Civilization to Japan
    • C. The Chinese Model and the Remaking of Japan
    • Chinese script adopted 300s C.E.
    • Used by Yamato to build state
    • Buddhism
    • Important from c. 550
    • Korean mission to Japan
    • Official in 580s
    • Does not replace Shintoism
    • D. Political and Social Change
    • Emulation of Chinese rulers
    • Capitals at Nara, Heian
    • Scholar-monks
    • Merchant class
    • Women's roles changed by contact with China
    • E. Chinese Influence and Japanese Resistance
    • Elite copy Chinese
    • Difficulties
    • Opposed by local lords, warriors
  • 13.
    • V. The Scattered Societies of Polynesia
    • Australia, New Guinea settled
    • Others come from Asia
    • Settle other islands
    • A. The Great Migration
    • c. 4000 years ago Austronesian expansion
    • Lapita pottery
    • Common culture with differences
    • B. The Voyagers of the Pacific
    • Double canoes, triangular sails ( pahi )
    • Sail windward
    • Up to 120 miles/day
    • C. Ancient Hawaii
    • Two colonization waves, from c. 300 C.E.
    • Approx. 200,000 by 1700s
    • Kamehameha I
    • Unification, 1810
    • At head of hierarchy
    • Chiefs ( ali'i )
    The Spread of Polynesian Peoples
  • 14.
    • V. The Scattered Societies of Polynesia
    • D. The New Zealand Landfall and the Development of Maori Culture
    • Society Islanders
    • 8th century C.E. Ancient Hawaii
    • Two colonization waves, from c. 300 C.E.
    • Approx. 200,000 by 1700s
    • Kamehameha I
    • Unification, 1810
    • At head of hierarchy
    • Chiefs ( ali'i ) Fishing, agriculture
    • Approx. 200,000 by 18th century
    • Maori Culture
    • Hapu , tribal units
    • Common land
    • Council
    • Led by chief
    • Chiefs also priests
    • Shamans
    The Spread of Polynesian Peoples