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The Classical Period
The Classical Period
The Classical Period
The Classical Period
The Classical Period
The Classical Period
The Classical Period
The Classical Period
The Classical Period
The Classical Period
The Classical Period
The Classical Period
The Classical Period
The Classical Period
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The Classical Period

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  • 1.  
  • 2.
    • I. The Spread of Civilization in Africa II. Africa, Civilization, and the Wider World III. Nomadic Societies and Indo-European Migrations IV. The Spread of Chinese Civilization to Japan V. The Scattered Societies of Polynesia
  • 3.
    • I. The Spread of Civilization in Africa
    • Varied ecosystems: Savannas, grasslands, plains, deserts
    • Climate change
    • Sahara, fertile in Late Stone Age
    • Desert by 3000 B.C.E. ,
    • Migration north and south
    • A. Agriculture, Livestock, and Iron
    • Millet and sorghum by 3000 B.C.E.
    • Domesticated animals from Asia
    • Horses into Egypt, 2nd millennium B.C.E.
    • Tsetse fly
    • Attacks horses and cattle
    • Camel from 1st century C.E.
    • No bronze age
    • Stone to iron
    • Iron from Mediterranean coast, Red Sea
    • to southern Africa by 1000 C.E.
  • 4.
    • I. The Spread of Civilization in Africa
    • B. The Bantu Dispersal
    • Agriculture and iron accompany Bantu dispersal
    • Bantu homeland in Nigeria
    • Saharan desiccation may have forced flight
    • Knowledge of iron an advantage
    • Spread throughout continent by 1200 C.E.
    • Culture
    • Agriculture, fishing, goats, cattle
    • Villages untied by kinship
    • Council of elders
    Bantu Migrations
  • 5.
    • II. Africa, Civilization, and the Wider World
    • Relationship between Egypt and the rest of Africa?
    • Similarities
    • Dynastic brother-sister marriage
    • Divine kingship
    • Direction of influence?
    • A. Axum: A Christian Kingdom
    • Axum defeats Meroë, 3rd century C.E.
    • Influence in Arabia
    • Axum
    • Urban center
    • Ge'ez - writing system
    • Used Arabic script
    • Controlled Red Sea trade
    • c. 350 C.E. , King Ezana converts to Christianity
    • Invade in 1076
    • Period of instability
  • 6.
    • II. Africa, Civilization, and the Wider World
    • B. Golden Ghana: A Trading State
    • Savanna peoples
    • Trade intermediaries
    • Link northern Africa and Niger and Senegal rivers
    • Salt for gold; gold for textiles, finished goods
    • Trade leads to state formation
    • Gao, Ghana
    • 925 C.E. , Gao's leader converts to Islam,
    • then elites convert
    • Ghana
    • Soninke people
    • Kumbi Saleh, capital
    • Tolls on commerce create wealth
    • State grows
    • Influence into Sahara
    • Almoravids
    • Invade in 1076
    • Period of instability
    West African States
  • 7.
    • III. Nomadic Societies and Indo-European Migrations
    • Culture
    • Pastoralism: cames, reindeer, sheep, horses
    • Varied roles for women
    • Facilitate long-distance agriculture
    • Indo-Europeans
    • 2nd millennium B.C.E.
    • North of the Black and Caspian seas
    • Middle East, Indus Plain
    • Included the Hittites, Hyksos, and Hsiung-nu (Huns)
    • Attack Chinese and Roman territories
    • Destroy the Gupta
  • 8.
    • III. Nomadic Societies and Indo-European Migrations A. The Celts and Germans
    • Celts
    • Ireland to Russia
    • Culture
    • Small kingdoms
    • Warrior elite
    • Kinship groups
    • Pastoralism, agriculture
    • No cities, writing
    • Oral literature
    • including law codes
    • Animistic religion
    • Roman influence
    • especially Gauls
    • Germanic peoples
    • Culture
    • Much in common with Celts
    • Matrilineal
    • Women holy
    • Admired and despised by Romans
    • Larger political groupings by 3rd century C.E .
    Germanic and Slavic Peoples on the Move, 375-450
  • 9.
    • III. Nomadic Societies and Indo-European Migrations
    • B. The Slavs in Eastern Europe
    • Agriculture to southern Russia by 3000 B.C.E.
    • Iron brought by Indo-Europeans, c. 1000 B.C.E.
    • Scythian state
    • 7th to 3rd centuries B.C.E.
    • Followed by the Sarmatians
    • Spread culture of Greeks and Persians
    • Slavs in by 4th C.E.
    • Kingdoms by 5th B.C.E.
    Germanic and Slavic Peoples on the Move, 375-450
  • 10.
    • IV. The Spread of Chinese Civilization to Japan
    • Politically independent of China
    • Cultural borrowings
    • A. Natural Setting and the Peopling of the Islands
    • Mountainous
    • Population concentrates on coastal plains
    • Asians from 5000 B.C.E.
    • From Korea, Manchuria
    • Jomon culture Hunting-and-gathering
    • 3rd millennium B.C.E.
    • Ainu displaced
    East Asia at the End of the Classical Period
  • 11.
    • IV. The Spread of Chinese Civilization to Japan
    • B. Indigenous Culture and Society
    • Yayoi epoch
    • Last centuries B.C.E.
    • New techniques from mainland
    • Society
    • Clans
    • 90% peasants
    • Rigid social distinctions
    • Matriarchal Women head households
    • Hold religious, political roles
    • Yamato clan
    • Dominate in 4th, 5th centuries
    • Influence over southern Korea
    • Imperial cult
    • Shinto worship
    The Rise of Japanese Civilization
  • 12.
    • IV. The Spread of Chinese Civilization to Japan
    • C. The Chinese Model and the Remaking of Japan
    • Chinese script adopted 300s C.E.
    • Used by Yamato to build state
    • Buddhism
    • Important from c. 550
    • Korean mission to Japan
    • Official in 580s
    • Does not replace Shintoism
    • D. Political and Social Change
    • Emulation of Chinese rulers
    • Capitals at Nara, Heian
    • Scholar-monks
    • Merchant class
    • Women's roles changed by contact with China
    • E. Chinese Influence and Japanese Resistance
    • Elite copy Chinese
    • Difficulties
    • Opposed by local lords, warriors
  • 13.
    • V. The Scattered Societies of Polynesia
    • Australia, New Guinea settled
    • Others come from Asia
    • Settle other islands
    • A. The Great Migration
    • c. 4000 years ago Austronesian expansion
    • Lapita pottery
    • Common culture with differences
    • B. The Voyagers of the Pacific
    • Double canoes, triangular sails ( pahi )
    • Sail windward
    • Up to 120 miles/day
    • C. Ancient Hawaii
    • Two colonization waves, from c. 300 C.E.
    • Approx. 200,000 by 1700s
    • Kamehameha I
    • Unification, 1810
    • At head of hierarchy
    • Chiefs ( ali'i )
    The Spread of Polynesian Peoples
  • 14.
    • V. The Scattered Societies of Polynesia
    • D. The New Zealand Landfall and the Development of Maori Culture
    • Society Islanders
    • 8th century C.E. Ancient Hawaii
    • Two colonization waves, from c. 300 C.E.
    • Approx. 200,000 by 1700s
    • Kamehameha I
    • Unification, 1810
    • At head of hierarchy
    • Chiefs ( ali'i ) Fishing, agriculture
    • Approx. 200,000 by 18th century
    • Maori Culture
    • Hapu , tribal units
    • Common land
    • Council
    • Led by chief
    • Chiefs also priests
    • Shamans
    The Spread of Polynesian Peoples

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