Copyright 2007, Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Longman
<ul><li>I. The Age of Brahmin Dominance </li></ul><ul><li>II. An Era of Widespread Social Change </li></ul><ul><li>III. Re...
<ul><li>I. The Age of Brahmin Dominance </li></ul><ul><li>A. The Kingdoms of the Gangetic Plains </li></ul><ul><li>Aryan s...
<ul><li>II. An Era of Widespread Social Change </li></ul><ul><li>Economic changes </li></ul><ul><li>Towns grow </li></ul><...
<ul><li>II. An Era of Widespread Social Change </li></ul><ul><li>B. The Family and the Changing Status of Women </li></ul>...
<ul><li>III. Religious Ferment and the Rise of Buddhism </li></ul><ul><li>Widespread changes in 500s, 400s  B.C.E.   </li>...
<ul><li>III. Religious Ferment and the Rise of Buddhism </li></ul><ul><li>B.  The Buddhist Challenge </li></ul><ul><li>Cha...
<ul><li>IV. The Mauryas </li></ul><ul><li>A. The Rise of the Mauryas </li></ul><ul><li>Alexander's retreat leaves vacuum <...
<ul><li>IV. The Mauryas </li></ul><ul><li>B. Ashoka’s Conversion and the Flowering of Buddhism in the Mauryan Age  </li></...
<ul><li>V. Brahminical Recovery and the Splendors of the Gupta Age </li></ul><ul><li>A. Three religions compete </li></ul>...
<ul><li>V. Brahminical Recovery and the Splendors of the Gupta Age </li></ul><ul><li>B. The Gupta Empire </li></ul><ul><li...
<ul><li>V. Brahminical Recovery and the Splendors of the Gupta Age C. Intensifying Caste and Gender Iniquities </li></ul><...
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Religious Rivalries and India

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Religious Rivalries and India

  1. 1. Copyright 2007, Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Longman
  2. 2. <ul><li>I. The Age of Brahmin Dominance </li></ul><ul><li>II. An Era of Widespread Social Change </li></ul><ul><li>III. Religious Ferment and the Rise of Buddhism </li></ul><ul><li>IV. The Mauryas </li></ul><ul><li>V. Brahminical Recovery and the Splendors of the Gupta Age </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>I. The Age of Brahmin Dominance </li></ul><ul><li>A. The Kingdoms of the Gangetic Plains </li></ul><ul><li>Aryan settlers </li></ul><ul><li>Into Ganges plain after 1000 B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Small states </li></ul><ul><li>Warrior councils </li></ul><ul><li>Brahmins dominate </li></ul><ul><li>Dramatic changes from Harappan period </li></ul><ul><li>B. Sources of Brahmin Power </li></ul><ul><li>Mediators </li></ul><ul><li>Perform rites </li></ul><ul><li>Monopoly on literacy </li></ul><ul><li>Vedic texts </li></ul><ul><li>Sanskrit </li></ul><ul><li>Special status </li></ul><ul><li>Inviolate, exempt from taxes </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>II. An Era of Widespread Social Change </li></ul><ul><li>Economic changes </li></ul><ul><li>Towns grow </li></ul><ul><li>Merchants, artisans more important </li></ul><ul><li>Pastoralism replaced by agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Peasant villages proliferate </li></ul><ul><li>A. The Caste System </li></ul><ul><li>Varnas, categories; based on pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Brahmins </li></ul><ul><li>Warriors </li></ul><ul><li>Merchants </li></ul><ul><li>Peasants </li></ul><ul><li>Artisans </li></ul><ul><li>Untouchables </li></ul><ul><li>Status ( dharma ) determined by birth </li></ul><ul><li>Transmigration of souls </li></ul><ul><li>Karma </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>II. An Era of Widespread Social Change </li></ul><ul><li>B. The Family and the Changing Status of Women </li></ul><ul><li>Extended family only among higher castes </li></ul><ul><li>Most families nuclear </li></ul><ul><li>Women subordinate </li></ul><ul><li>Mahabharata and Ramayana </li></ul><ul><li>Epics </li></ul><ul><li>From earlier period of greater freedom for women </li></ul><ul><li>C. The End of an Era </li></ul><ul><li>Social and armed conflict lead to unrest </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>III. Religious Ferment and the Rise of Buddhism </li></ul><ul><li>Widespread changes in 500s, 400s B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>China: Confucius, Laozi Persia: Zoroaster </li></ul><ul><li>Israel: prophets Greece: classical philosophers </li></ul><ul><li>India: Buddha </li></ul><ul><li>A. The Making of a Religious Teacher </li></ul><ul><li>Buddha, born in 6th century B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Takes to wandering life, asceticism </li></ul><ul><li>Four Noble Truths </li></ul><ul><li>Escape suffering by renouncing worldly things </li></ul><ul><li>Achievement of nirvana </li></ul><ul><li>Followers </li></ul><ul><li>Form principles into religion </li></ul><ul><li>Worship Buddha as god </li></ul><ul><li>Dissension </li></ul><ul><li>Good works v. contemplative life </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>III. Religious Ferment and the Rise of Buddhism </li></ul><ul><li>B. The Buddhist Challenge </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges to Brahmins Buddha denies Vedas as scripture </li></ul><ul><li>Critique of caste system </li></ul><ul><li>Untouchables and women can gain nirvana </li></ul><ul><li>Monasteries open to all </li></ul><ul><li>C. The Greek Interlude </li></ul><ul><li>Alexander the Great, 327 B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Contact between India and Hellenistic world improves </li></ul><ul><li>Greek mathematics and astronomy </li></ul><ul><li>Indian religious ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Stoics and mystery religions influenced </li></ul><ul><li>Synthesis of sculptural traditions </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>IV. The Mauryas </li></ul><ul><li>A. The Rise of the Mauryas </li></ul><ul><li>Alexander's retreat leaves vacuum </li></ul><ul><li>Chandragupta Maurya Forms empire </li></ul><ul><li>Absolute monarch </li></ul><ul><li>Arthashastra , Kautilya </li></ul><ul><li>Influential treatise </li></ul><ul><li>Successors extend empire </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>IV. The Mauryas </li></ul><ul><li>B. Ashoka’s Conversion and the Flowering of Buddhism in the Mauryan Age </li></ul><ul><li>Ashoka Grandson of Chandragupta </li></ul><ul><li>Conversion to Buddhism </li></ul><ul><li>Becomes pacific, vegetarian Infrastructure: roads, hospitals, inns </li></ul><ul><li>Opposed by Brahmins </li></ul><ul><li>Buddhism extended to Sri Lanka, Himalayan kingdoms, central Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Thence to Burma, Java, southeast Asia, Tibet, China, beyond </li></ul><ul><li>C. Imperial Patronage and Social Change </li></ul><ul><li>Merchants, artisans benefit </li></ul><ul><li>Women's status improves Monasteries spread </li></ul><ul><li>Stupas </li></ul><ul><li>Ashoka’s Death Successors less competent </li></ul><ul><li>Division follows </li></ul><ul><li>By 185 B.C.E. , empire ended </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>V. Brahminical Recovery and the Splendors of the Gupta Age </li></ul><ul><li>A. Three religions compete </li></ul><ul><li>Buddhism </li></ul><ul><li>Loses popular appeal: </li></ul><ul><li>Monastic isolation, scholarship </li></ul><ul><li>Serve wealthy </li></ul><ul><li>Association with international trade </li></ul><ul><li>As trade declines, so does Buddhism </li></ul><ul><li>Hinduism </li></ul><ul><li>Widens appeal </li></ul><ul><li>Individual worship </li></ul><ul><li>More frequent, humble offerings </li></ul><ul><li>Shiva, Vishnu, Kali, Lakshmi dominate </li></ul><ul><li>Temples more common </li></ul><ul><li>More participation: all castes, women somewhat </li></ul><ul><li>Adopts Buddhism </li></ul><ul><li>Brahmins appeal to elites </li></ul><ul><li>Upanishads </li></ul>The Gupta Empire
  11. 11. <ul><li>V. Brahminical Recovery and the Splendors of the Gupta Age </li></ul><ul><li>B. The Gupta Empire </li></ul><ul><li>Gupta family </li></ul><ul><li>By 4th century C.E. , build empire </li></ul><ul><li>Allow autonomy of elites </li></ul><ul><li>A Hindu Renaissance </li></ul><ul><li>Brahmins restored as royal supporters </li></ul><ul><li>Educate elite </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulate artistic, scientific rebirth </li></ul><ul><li>Hindu temples </li></ul><ul><li>Urban centers </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulate urban growth </li></ul><ul><li>Literature and the Sciences </li></ul><ul><li>Kalidasa </li></ul><ul><li>Poet </li></ul><ul><li>Mathematics </li></ul><ul><li>Zero, decimals, &quot;Arabic&quot; number system </li></ul><ul><li>Medicine </li></ul><ul><li>Hospitals, surgery </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>V. Brahminical Recovery and the Splendors of the Gupta Age C. Intensifying Caste and Gender Iniquities </li></ul><ul><li>Distinctions more rigid </li></ul><ul><li>Status of women reduced </li></ul><ul><li>No longer allowed to read the Vedas Permanent legal minority </li></ul><ul><li>Female infanticide more common in some regions </li></ul><ul><li>The Pleasures of an Elite Life Four stages of ideal life </li></ul><ul><li>Youth: study, diversion </li></ul><ul><li>Householder, raise sons, increase family position </li></ul><ul><li>Ascetic, meditation </li></ul><ul><li>Holy life </li></ul><ul><li>Lifestyles of the Ordinary People </li></ul><ul><li>More freedom for lower-caste women </li></ul><ul><li>Festivals, social gatherings </li></ul><ul><li>D. Gupta Decline </li></ul><ul><li>Hun invasions, 400s C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Local rulers profit </li></ul><ul><li> Fragmentation </li></ul>
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