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Classical Civilizations: Persia and Greece

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  • 1. Copyright 2007, Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Longman
  • 2.
    • I. The Persian Empire: Parallel Power in the Middle East II. The Hellenistic Period III. Creativity in Greek and Hellenistic Culture
    • IV. Patterns of Greek and Hellenistic Society
  • 3.
    • I. The Persian Empire: Parallel Power in the Middle East
    • A. The Persians
    • 550 B.C.E., Cyrus the Great
    • Empire
    • Conquered peoples retain culture
    • Zoroaster
    • Good vs. evil
    • Last judgment
  • 4.
    • I. The Persian Empire: Parallel Power in the Middle East
    • B. The Political Character of Classical Greece
    • Variety of polities Aristocracy generally dominant
    • Literacy
    • From 8th century B.C.E.
    • Iliad, Odyssey
    • Basis for Hellenic culture
    • Architecture
    • Colonnaded buildings
    • Arts
    • Sculpture Black and red pottery
    The Greek World
  • 5.
    • I. The Persian Empire: Parallel Power in the Middle East
    • C. The City-State as a Political Unit
    • City-states (polis)
    • Participation
    • Assemblies, councils
    • 500s
    • Conflict between aristocracy and middling class Reform
    • Solon of Athens
    • Greater participation
    • Poleis deeply united
    • Public religion
    • Political participation
    • Cultural events, e.g. theatre
  • 6.
    • I. The Persian Empire: Parallel Power in the Middle East
    • D. The Rise of Democracy in Athens
    • Solon
    • Peisistratus
    • Cleisthenes
    • Council
    • Popular assembly
    • Oversight of most of the government
    • Offices filled by lot
    • Who was excluded?
    • Women
    • Slaves
    • Foreigners and their children
  • 7.
    • I. The Persian Empire: Parallel Power in the Middle East
    • E. Fragmentation and Unity
    • Colonization
    • Spread of Greek culture
    • Expansion of trade
    • Religious games
    • Truces
    • Competition
    • Olympics
    • Delphi
    • Conflict between cities
    • Persian Wars
    • Temporary unity
    • Delian League
    • Dominated by Athens
    • Athens versus Sparta
    • Political contrast
    • Competing alliances
    • Peloponnesian War, 431-404 B.C.E.
    • Athenian surrender, 404 B.C.E.
    Greece and Greek Colonies, c. 431 B.C.E.
  • 8.
    • II. The Hellenistic Period
    • Spread of Greek rule, Greek culture
    • Formation of a common cultural area
    • Mediterranean, Near East
    • A. Macedonian Conquest
    • Macedon compared to southern Greece
    • Monarchy v. city-state
    • Plains v. mountainous
    • Linguistic differences
    • Philip II (359-336 B.C.E. )
    • By 338 B.C.E. , Greece conquered
  • 9.
    • II. The Hellenistic Period
    • B. Alexander the Great
    • Conquests, 334-331 B.C.E.
    • Into India, Egypt Cities founded
    • Alexandria
    • Death, 323 B.C.E.
    Alexander’s Empire and the Hellenistic World,, c. 323 B.C.E.
  • 10.
    • II. The Hellenistic Period
    • C. Later Hellenistic States
    • Division
    • “ Successor states”
    • Alexander’s generals rule
    • Egypt: Ptolemies
    • Relative stability
    • Persia: Seleucids
    • Macedonia: Antigonids
    • Civil wars
    • Bactria
    • Blend of Indian and Greek culture
  • 11.
    • III. Creativity in Greek and Hellenistic Culture
    • A. Religion, Philosophy, and Science
    • Religion
    • Pantheon of gods with human traits
    • Mystery religions
    • More emotional
    • Philosophy
    • Socrates
    • Skepticism
    • Plato
    • Stoics
    • Moral fortitude
    • Science
    • Pythagoras
    • Euclid
    • Galen
    • Archimedes
  • 12.
    • III. Creativity in Greek and Hellenistic Culture
    • B. Literature and the Visual Arts Drama
    • Public, religious, typified by conflict
    • Sophocles
    • Tragedy
    • Aristophanes
    • Comedy
    • Oral epic
    • Homer
    • History
    • Herodotus
    • Thucydides
    • Visual arts
    • Public
    • e.g. temples, victory sculpture
    • Human achievement central
    • Especially in Hellenistic period
  • 13.
    • III. Creativity in Greek and Hellenistic Culture
    • C. Hellenistic Culture
    • Focus on exact sciences
    • Geometry, medicine, etc.
    • Art more emotional, less idealized
    • Philosophy emphasizes withdrawal, not engagement
  • 14.
    • IV. Patterns of Greek and Hellenistic Society
    • A. Economic and Social Structure
    • Aristocracy
    • Power from land, military role
    • Economic expansion, colonization
    • Challenges role of aristocracy
    • Merchants
    • Ambiguous place in society
    • Slavery
    • From captives
    • B. Men, Women, and Social Divisions Patriarchy
    • Women
    • Legal and cultural disabilities
    • Adultery in men tolerated
    • Punishable in women
    • Some improvement in Hellenistic period
  • 15.
    • IV. Patterns of Greek and Hellenistic Society
    • C. A Complex Legacy
    • Ideas
    • No lasting polities
    • Artistic legacy
    • Direct and indirect
    • Consciously imitated, revived
    • Mingled with Middle Eastern legacy