Copyright 2007, Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Longman
<ul><li>I. The Persian Empire: Parallel Power in the Middle East II. The Hellenistic Period III. Creativity in Greek and H...
<ul><li>I. The Persian Empire: Parallel Power in the Middle East </li></ul><ul><li>A. The Persians </li></ul><ul><li>550 B...
<ul><li>I. The Persian Empire: Parallel Power in the Middle East </li></ul><ul><li>B. The Political Character of Classical...
<ul><li>I. The Persian Empire: Parallel Power in the Middle East </li></ul><ul><li>C. The City-State as a Political Unit <...
<ul><li>I. The Persian Empire: Parallel Power in the Middle East </li></ul><ul><li>D. The Rise of Democracy in Athens </li...
<ul><li>I. The Persian Empire: Parallel Power in the Middle East </li></ul><ul><li>E. Fragmentation and Unity </li></ul><u...
<ul><li>II. The Hellenistic Period </li></ul><ul><li>Spread of Greek rule, Greek culture </li></ul><ul><li>Formation of a ...
<ul><li>II. The Hellenistic Period </li></ul><ul><li>B. Alexander the Great </li></ul><ul><li>Conquests, 334-331  B.C.E. <...
<ul><li>II. The Hellenistic Period </li></ul><ul><li>C. Later Hellenistic States </li></ul><ul><li>Division </li></ul><ul>...
<ul><li>III. Creativity in Greek and Hellenistic Culture </li></ul><ul><li>A. Religion, Philosophy, and Science </li></ul>...
<ul><li>III. Creativity in Greek and Hellenistic Culture </li></ul><ul><li>B. Literature and the Visual Arts Drama </li></...
<ul><li>III. Creativity in Greek and Hellenistic Culture </li></ul><ul><li>C. Hellenistic Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Focus ...
<ul><li>IV. Patterns of Greek and Hellenistic Society </li></ul><ul><li>A. Economic and Social Structure </li></ul><ul><li...
<ul><li>IV. Patterns of Greek and Hellenistic Society </li></ul><ul><li>C. A Complex Legacy </li></ul><ul><li>Ideas </li><...
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Classical Civilizations: Persia and Greece

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Classical Civilizations: Persia and Greece

  1. 1. Copyright 2007, Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Longman
  2. 2. <ul><li>I. The Persian Empire: Parallel Power in the Middle East II. The Hellenistic Period III. Creativity in Greek and Hellenistic Culture </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Patterns of Greek and Hellenistic Society </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>I. The Persian Empire: Parallel Power in the Middle East </li></ul><ul><li>A. The Persians </li></ul><ul><li>550 B.C.E., Cyrus the Great </li></ul><ul><li>Empire </li></ul><ul><li>Conquered peoples retain culture </li></ul><ul><li>Zoroaster </li></ul><ul><li>Good vs. evil </li></ul><ul><li>Last judgment </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>I. The Persian Empire: Parallel Power in the Middle East </li></ul><ul><li>B. The Political Character of Classical Greece </li></ul><ul><li>Variety of polities Aristocracy generally dominant </li></ul><ul><li>Literacy </li></ul><ul><li>From 8th century B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Iliad, Odyssey </li></ul><ul><li>Basis for Hellenic culture </li></ul><ul><li>Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Colonnaded buildings </li></ul><ul><li>Arts </li></ul><ul><li>Sculpture Black and red pottery </li></ul>The Greek World
  5. 5. <ul><li>I. The Persian Empire: Parallel Power in the Middle East </li></ul><ul><li>C. The City-State as a Political Unit </li></ul><ul><li>City-states (polis) </li></ul><ul><li>Participation </li></ul><ul><li>Assemblies, councils </li></ul><ul><li>500s </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict between aristocracy and middling class Reform </li></ul><ul><li>Solon of Athens </li></ul><ul><li>Greater participation </li></ul><ul><li>Poleis deeply united </li></ul><ul><li>Public religion </li></ul><ul><li>Political participation </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural events, e.g. theatre </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>I. The Persian Empire: Parallel Power in the Middle East </li></ul><ul><li>D. The Rise of Democracy in Athens </li></ul><ul><li>Solon </li></ul><ul><li>Peisistratus </li></ul><ul><li>Cleisthenes </li></ul><ul><li>Council </li></ul><ul><li>Popular assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Oversight of most of the government </li></ul><ul><li>Offices filled by lot </li></ul><ul><li>Who was excluded? </li></ul><ul><li>Women </li></ul><ul><li>Slaves </li></ul><ul><li>Foreigners and their children </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>I. The Persian Empire: Parallel Power in the Middle East </li></ul><ul><li>E. Fragmentation and Unity </li></ul><ul><li>Colonization </li></ul><ul><li>Spread of Greek culture </li></ul><ul><li>Expansion of trade </li></ul><ul><li>Religious games </li></ul><ul><li>Truces </li></ul><ul><li>Competition </li></ul><ul><li>Olympics </li></ul><ul><li>Delphi </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict between cities </li></ul><ul><li>Persian Wars </li></ul><ul><li>Temporary unity </li></ul><ul><li>Delian League </li></ul><ul><li>Dominated by Athens </li></ul><ul><li> Athens versus Sparta </li></ul><ul><li>Political contrast </li></ul><ul><li>Competing alliances </li></ul><ul><li> Peloponnesian War, 431-404 B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Athenian surrender, 404 B.C.E. </li></ul>Greece and Greek Colonies, c. 431 B.C.E.
  8. 8. <ul><li>II. The Hellenistic Period </li></ul><ul><li>Spread of Greek rule, Greek culture </li></ul><ul><li>Formation of a common cultural area </li></ul><ul><li>Mediterranean, Near East </li></ul><ul><li>A. Macedonian Conquest </li></ul><ul><li>Macedon compared to southern Greece </li></ul><ul><li>Monarchy v. city-state </li></ul><ul><li>Plains v. mountainous </li></ul><ul><li>Linguistic differences </li></ul><ul><li>Philip II (359-336 B.C.E. ) </li></ul><ul><li>By 338 B.C.E. , Greece conquered </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>II. The Hellenistic Period </li></ul><ul><li>B. Alexander the Great </li></ul><ul><li>Conquests, 334-331 B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Into India, Egypt Cities founded </li></ul><ul><li>Alexandria </li></ul><ul><li>Death, 323 B.C.E. </li></ul>Alexander’s Empire and the Hellenistic World,, c. 323 B.C.E.
  10. 10. <ul><li>II. The Hellenistic Period </li></ul><ul><li>C. Later Hellenistic States </li></ul><ul><li>Division </li></ul><ul><li>“ Successor states” </li></ul><ul><li>Alexander’s generals rule </li></ul><ul><li>Egypt: Ptolemies </li></ul><ul><li>Relative stability </li></ul><ul><li>Persia: Seleucids </li></ul><ul><li>Macedonia: Antigonids </li></ul><ul><li>Civil wars </li></ul><ul><li>Bactria </li></ul><ul><li>Blend of Indian and Greek culture </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>III. Creativity in Greek and Hellenistic Culture </li></ul><ul><li>A. Religion, Philosophy, and Science </li></ul><ul><li>Religion </li></ul><ul><li>Pantheon of gods with human traits </li></ul><ul><li>Mystery religions </li></ul><ul><li>More emotional </li></ul><ul><li>Philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>Socrates </li></ul><ul><li>Skepticism </li></ul><ul><li>Plato </li></ul><ul><li>Stoics </li></ul><ul><li>Moral fortitude </li></ul><ul><li>Science </li></ul><ul><li>Pythagoras </li></ul><ul><li>Euclid </li></ul><ul><li>Galen </li></ul><ul><li>Archimedes </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>III. Creativity in Greek and Hellenistic Culture </li></ul><ul><li>B. Literature and the Visual Arts Drama </li></ul><ul><li>Public, religious, typified by conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Sophocles </li></ul><ul><li>Tragedy </li></ul><ul><li>Aristophanes </li></ul><ul><li>Comedy </li></ul><ul><li>Oral epic </li></ul><ul><li>Homer </li></ul><ul><li>History </li></ul><ul><li>Herodotus </li></ul><ul><li>Thucydides </li></ul><ul><li>Visual arts </li></ul><ul><li>Public </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. temples, victory sculpture </li></ul><ul><li>Human achievement central </li></ul><ul><li>Especially in Hellenistic period </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>III. Creativity in Greek and Hellenistic Culture </li></ul><ul><li>C. Hellenistic Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on exact sciences </li></ul><ul><li>Geometry, medicine, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Art more emotional, less idealized </li></ul><ul><li>Philosophy emphasizes withdrawal, not engagement </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>IV. Patterns of Greek and Hellenistic Society </li></ul><ul><li>A. Economic and Social Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Aristocracy </li></ul><ul><li>Power from land, military role </li></ul><ul><li>Economic expansion, colonization </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges role of aristocracy </li></ul><ul><li>Merchants </li></ul><ul><li>Ambiguous place in society </li></ul><ul><li>Slavery </li></ul><ul><li>From captives </li></ul><ul><li>B. Men, Women, and Social Divisions Patriarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Women </li></ul><ul><li>Legal and cultural disabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Adultery in men tolerated </li></ul><ul><li>Punishable in women </li></ul><ul><li>Some improvement in Hellenistic period </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>IV. Patterns of Greek and Hellenistic Society </li></ul><ul><li>C. A Complex Legacy </li></ul><ul><li>Ideas </li></ul><ul><li>No lasting polities </li></ul><ul><li>Artistic legacy </li></ul><ul><li>Direct and indirect </li></ul><ul><li>Consciously imitated, revived </li></ul><ul><li>Mingled with Middle Eastern legacy </li></ul>
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