Asia's First Civilizations

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Asia's First Civilizations

  1. 1. Copyright 2007, Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Longman
  2. 2. <ul><li>I. The Indus River Valley and the Birth of South Asian Civilization II. The Aryans III. A Bend in the River and the Beginnings of China IV. The Decline of the Shang and the Era of Zhou Dominance </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>River valley systems </li></ul><ul><li>I. The Indus River Valley and the Birth of South Asian Civilization </li></ul><ul><li>Harappan civilization, 3rd millennium B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Indus river system </li></ul><ul><li>Valley plains, snow-fed rivers </li></ul><ul><li>A. The Great Cities of the Indus Valley Harappa, Mohenjo-Daro </li></ul><ul><li>Densely populated Walled </li></ul><ul><li>Square grid pattern </li></ul><ul><li>Construction: kiln-dried bricks Citadels </li></ul><ul><li>Defensive retreats </li></ul><ul><li>Civic centers </li></ul><ul><li>Bathing tanks Granaries </li></ul><ul><li>Sewage system Residences </li></ul><ul><li>Courtyards </li></ul>India in the Age of Harappa and the Early Aryan Migrations
  4. 4. <ul><li>I. The Indus River Valley and the Birth of South Asian Civilization </li></ul><ul><li>B. Harappan Culture and Society </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Wheat, rye, peas, cotton, and possibly rice Domesticated animals </li></ul><ul><li>Irrigation systems </li></ul><ul><li>Trade with Mesopotamia, China, and Burma </li></ul><ul><li>Priests </li></ul><ul><li>Privileged </li></ul><ul><li>Intermediaries </li></ul><ul><li>Fertility central Female figures and phallic symbols common </li></ul><ul><li>C. The Slow Demise of Harappan Civilization c. 1150 B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Causes unclear </li></ul><ul><li>Floods at Mohenjo-Daro </li></ul><ul><li>Fertile areas drier Migrants lead to deterioration of irrigation system </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>II. The Aryans </li></ul><ul><li>Indo-Europeans </li></ul><ul><li>Pastoralists </li></ul><ul><li>From Black and Caspian areas </li></ul><ul><li>3rd, 2nd millennia B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Into Asia Minor, Europe, Iran Indus and Ganges river systems </li></ul><ul><li>A. Aryan Warrior Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Dominated by warriors </li></ul><ul><li>Turn to agriculture in Ganges Villages Oral literature The Vedas Religious hymns </li></ul><ul><li>Horses </li></ul><ul><li>Chariots </li></ul><ul><li>Indra, god of battle and lightning </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>II. The Aryans </li></ul><ul><li>B. Aryan Society </li></ul><ul><li>Originally: warriors, priests, and commoners Added serfs ( dasas ) from indigenous Indians </li></ul><ul><li>Develops into caste system </li></ul><ul><li>Four castes ( varnas ) </li></ul><ul><li>Priests (brahmin) </li></ul><ul><li>Warriors </li></ul><ul><li>Merchants </li></ul><ul><li>Peasants Plus non-Aryan conquered peoples </li></ul><ul><li>Patriarchal, patrilinial, patrilocal Brides bring dowries </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>II. The Aryans </li></ul><ul><li>C. Aryan Religion </li></ul><ul><li>Polytheistic </li></ul><ul><li>Male gods dominate </li></ul><ul><li>D. Harappa’s Fall </li></ul><ul><li>After 1500 B.C.E. , civilization > pastoralism, small settlements </li></ul><ul><li>Tribal organization predominates </li></ul><ul><li>Comparatively egalitarian </li></ul><ul><li>Aryans later turn to agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Form small kingdoms </li></ul><ul><li>New culture forms from synthesis </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>III. A Bend in the River and the Beginnings of China </li></ul><ul><li>A. Beginnings </li></ul><ul><li>Peking man </li></ul><ul><li>Neolithic </li></ul><ul><li>Ordos Bulge of Huanghe </li></ul><ul><li>Migrants </li></ul><ul><li>By 4000 B.C.E. , two cultural centers </li></ul><ul><li>Yangshao culture (2500-2000 B.C.E. ) </li></ul><ul><li>Longshan culture (2000-1500 B.C.E. ) </li></ul><ul><li>Millet, larger villages </li></ul><ul><li>Controlled river with dikes </li></ul><ul><li>Rulers associated with flood control </li></ul><ul><li>Mythical Yu, ruler of Xia </li></ul>China in the Shang and Zhou Eras
  9. 9. <ul><li>III. A Bend in the River and the Beginnings of China </li></ul><ul><li>B. The Warrior Kings of the Shang Era </li></ul><ul><li>Early legend </li></ul><ul><li>Yu’s rule of Xia </li></ul><ul><li>c. 1500 B.C.E. Small kingdoms near Ordos Bulge </li></ul><ul><li>Culture develops </li></ul><ul><li>Divination, using bones Silk worms, silk fabrics </li></ul><ul><li>Ancestor worship </li></ul><ul><li>Shang tribe </li></ul><ul><li>Nomadic </li></ul><ul><li>Kings Intermediaries </li></ul>China in the Shang and Zhou Eras
  10. 10. <ul><li>III. A Bend in the River and the Beginnings of China </li></ul><ul><li>C. Shang Society </li></ul><ul><li>Anyang, capital </li></ul><ul><li>Farming </li></ul><ul><li>Peasant cooperatives </li></ul><ul><li>Millet, wheat, beans, rice </li></ul><ul><li>Slaves </li></ul><ul><li>Ruling class </li></ul><ul><li>Walled towns </li></ul><ul><li>Extended families </li></ul><ul><li>Patrilocal Commoners </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear families </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>III. A Bend in the River and the Beginnings of China </li></ul><ul><li>D. Shang Culture Religion </li></ul><ul><li>Fertility central </li></ul><ul><li>Human sacrifice </li></ul><ul><li>Shamans </li></ul><ul><li>Divination </li></ul><ul><li>Bones, tortoise shells </li></ul><ul><li>Writing </li></ul><ul><li>From religious script </li></ul><ul><li>Pictograms initially </li></ul><ul><li>3000 characters </li></ul><ul><li>Paper used by 100 C.E. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>IV. The Decline of the Shang and the Era of Zhou Dominance </li></ul><ul><li>Zhou </li></ul><ul><li>Turkic </li></ul><ul><li>Initially vassals of Shang </li></ul><ul><li>Take power by 1100 B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Feudal </li></ul><ul><li>Oaths of allegiance </li></ul><ul><li>Grants of fiefs for military service Wu </li></ul><ul><li>Extended rule to east and south </li></ul><ul><li>A. Changes in the Social Order </li></ul><ul><li>Two developments weaken feudal order Idea of Mandate of Heaven </li></ul><ul><li>begins with Wu </li></ul><ul><li>Professional bureaucracy </li></ul><ul><li>Shi </li></ul>China in the Shang and Zhou Eras
  13. 13. <ul><li>IV. The Decline of the Shang and the Era of Zhou Dominance </li></ul><ul><li>B. New Patterns of Life Capitals, Xian and Loyang </li></ul><ul><li>Garrison towns </li></ul><ul><li>Peasants </li></ul><ul><li>Military, labor requirements </li></ul><ul><li>C. Migrations and the Expansion of the Chinese Core </li></ul><ul><li>Movement along Huanghe Valley, </li></ul><ul><li>then into Huai, Yangzi basins </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Chinese displaced </li></ul><ul><li>D. Cultural Change in the Early Zhou Period Patriarchy reinforced Correct behavior, ritual important </li></ul><ul><li>Decline by 8th </li></ul><ul><li>771 B.C.E., assassination </li></ul><ul><li>Xian abandoned </li></ul><ul><li>Loyang the basis of smaller realm Fragmentation, disunity follows </li></ul>

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