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Asia's First Civilizations
Asia's First Civilizations
Asia's First Civilizations
Asia's First Civilizations
Asia's First Civilizations
Asia's First Civilizations
Asia's First Civilizations
Asia's First Civilizations
Asia's First Civilizations
Asia's First Civilizations
Asia's First Civilizations
Asia's First Civilizations
Asia's First Civilizations
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Asia's First Civilizations

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  • 1. Copyright 2007, Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Longman
  • 2.
    • I. The Indus River Valley and the Birth of South Asian Civilization II. The Aryans III. A Bend in the River and the Beginnings of China IV. The Decline of the Shang and the Era of Zhou Dominance
  • 3.
    • River valley systems
    • I. The Indus River Valley and the Birth of South Asian Civilization
    • Harappan civilization, 3rd millennium B.C.E.
    • Indus river system
    • Valley plains, snow-fed rivers
    • A. The Great Cities of the Indus Valley Harappa, Mohenjo-Daro
    • Densely populated Walled
    • Square grid pattern
    • Construction: kiln-dried bricks Citadels
    • Defensive retreats
    • Civic centers
    • Bathing tanks Granaries
    • Sewage system Residences
    • Courtyards
    India in the Age of Harappa and the Early Aryan Migrations
  • 4.
    • I. The Indus River Valley and the Birth of South Asian Civilization
    • B. Harappan Culture and Society
    • Agriculture
    • Wheat, rye, peas, cotton, and possibly rice Domesticated animals
    • Irrigation systems
    • Trade with Mesopotamia, China, and Burma
    • Priests
    • Privileged
    • Intermediaries
    • Fertility central Female figures and phallic symbols common
    • C. The Slow Demise of Harappan Civilization c. 1150 B.C.E.
    • Causes unclear
    • Floods at Mohenjo-Daro
    • Fertile areas drier Migrants lead to deterioration of irrigation system
  • 5.
    • II. The Aryans
    • Indo-Europeans
    • Pastoralists
    • From Black and Caspian areas
    • 3rd, 2nd millennia B.C.E.
    • Into Asia Minor, Europe, Iran Indus and Ganges river systems
    • A. Aryan Warrior Culture
    • Dominated by warriors
    • Turn to agriculture in Ganges Villages Oral literature The Vedas Religious hymns
    • Horses
    • Chariots
    • Indra, god of battle and lightning
  • 6.
    • II. The Aryans
    • B. Aryan Society
    • Originally: warriors, priests, and commoners Added serfs ( dasas ) from indigenous Indians
    • Develops into caste system
    • Four castes ( varnas )
    • Priests (brahmin)
    • Warriors
    • Merchants
    • Peasants Plus non-Aryan conquered peoples
    • Patriarchal, patrilinial, patrilocal Brides bring dowries
  • 7.
    • II. The Aryans
    • C. Aryan Religion
    • Polytheistic
    • Male gods dominate
    • D. Harappa’s Fall
    • After 1500 B.C.E. , civilization > pastoralism, small settlements
    • Tribal organization predominates
    • Comparatively egalitarian
    • Aryans later turn to agriculture
    • Form small kingdoms
    • New culture forms from synthesis
  • 8.
    • III. A Bend in the River and the Beginnings of China
    • A. Beginnings
    • Peking man
    • Neolithic
    • Ordos Bulge of Huanghe
    • Migrants
    • By 4000 B.C.E. , two cultural centers
    • Yangshao culture (2500-2000 B.C.E. )
    • Longshan culture (2000-1500 B.C.E. )
    • Millet, larger villages
    • Controlled river with dikes
    • Rulers associated with flood control
    • Mythical Yu, ruler of Xia
    China in the Shang and Zhou Eras
  • 9.
    • III. A Bend in the River and the Beginnings of China
    • B. The Warrior Kings of the Shang Era
    • Early legend
    • Yu’s rule of Xia
    • c. 1500 B.C.E. Small kingdoms near Ordos Bulge
    • Culture develops
    • Divination, using bones Silk worms, silk fabrics
    • Ancestor worship
    • Shang tribe
    • Nomadic
    • Kings Intermediaries
    China in the Shang and Zhou Eras
  • 10.
    • III. A Bend in the River and the Beginnings of China
    • C. Shang Society
    • Anyang, capital
    • Farming
    • Peasant cooperatives
    • Millet, wheat, beans, rice
    • Slaves
    • Ruling class
    • Walled towns
    • Extended families
    • Patrilocal Commoners
    • Nuclear families
  • 11.
    • III. A Bend in the River and the Beginnings of China
    • D. Shang Culture Religion
    • Fertility central
    • Human sacrifice
    • Shamans
    • Divination
    • Bones, tortoise shells
    • Writing
    • From religious script
    • Pictograms initially
    • 3000 characters
    • Paper used by 100 C.E.
  • 12.
    • IV. The Decline of the Shang and the Era of Zhou Dominance
    • Zhou
    • Turkic
    • Initially vassals of Shang
    • Take power by 1100 B.C.E.
    • Feudal
    • Oaths of allegiance
    • Grants of fiefs for military service Wu
    • Extended rule to east and south
    • A. Changes in the Social Order
    • Two developments weaken feudal order Idea of Mandate of Heaven
    • begins with Wu
    • Professional bureaucracy
    • Shi
    China in the Shang and Zhou Eras
  • 13.
    • IV. The Decline of the Shang and the Era of Zhou Dominance
    • B. New Patterns of Life Capitals, Xian and Loyang
    • Garrison towns
    • Peasants
    • Military, labor requirements
    • C. Migrations and the Expansion of the Chinese Core
    • Movement along Huanghe Valley,
    • then into Huai, Yangzi basins
    • Non-Chinese displaced
    • D. Cultural Change in the Early Zhou Period Patriarchy reinforced Correct behavior, ritual important
    • Decline by 8th
    • 771 B.C.E., assassination
    • Xian abandoned
    • Loyang the basis of smaller realm Fragmentation, disunity follows

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