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7. Abbasid Decline and the Spread of Islam

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  • 1.  
  • 2.
    • I. The Islamic Heartlands in the Middle and Late Abbasid Eras II. An Age of Learning and Artistic Refinements III. The Coming of Islam to South Asia IV. The Spread of Islam to Southeast Asia
  • 3.
    • I. The Islamic Heartlands in the Middle and Late Abbasid Eras
    • Abbasid empire weakened, 9th-13th centuries
    • Peasant revolts
    • Al-Mahdi (775-785)
    • Shi’a unreconciled
    • Succession not secure
    • A. Imperial Extravagance and Succession Disputes
    • Harun al-Rashid
    • Son of al-Mahdi
    • The Thousand and One Nights
    • Barmicides
    • Persian advisors
    • Death followed by civil war
    • Al-Ma'mun
    The Abbasid Empire at Its Peak
  • 4.
    • I. The Islamic Heartlands in the Middle and Late Abbasid Eras
    • B. Imperial Breakdown and Agrarian Disorder
    • Civil unrest
    • Caliphs build lavishly
    • Tax burden increases
    • Agriculture suffers
    The Abbasid Empire at Its Peak
  • 5.
    • I. The Islamic Heartlands in the Middle and Late Abbasid Eras
    • C. The Declining Position of Women in the Family and Society
    • Seclusion, veil
    • Polygyny
    • D. Nomadic Incursions and the Eclipse of Caliphal Power
    • Former provinces threaten Abbasids
    • Buyids, Persia
    • Take Baghdad, 945
    • Sultans
    • Seljuk Turks
    • 1055, defeat Buyids
    • Sunnis
    • Shi'a purges
    • Defeat Byzantines, Egypt
    • E. The Impact of the Christian Crusades
    • 1096, western European Christian knights
    • Small kingdoms established
    • Saladin retakes lands
    • Last in 1291
  • 6.
    • II. An Age of Learning and Artistic Refinements
    • Urban growth
    • Merchants thrive
    • A. The Full Flowering of Persian Literature
    • Persian the court language
    • Administration, literature
    • Arabic in religion, law, sciences
    • Calligraphy
    • Firdawsi
    • Shah-Nama
    • Epic poem
    • Sa'di
    • Omar Kayyan
    • Rubaiyat
  • 7.
    • II. An Age of Learning and Artistic Refinements
    • B. Achievements in the Sciences
    • Math
    • Build on Greek work
    • Chemistry
    • Experiments
    • Al-Razi
    • Al-Biruni
    • Specific weights
    • Medicine
    • Hospitals
    • Courses of study
  • 8.
    • II. An Age of Learning and Artistic Refinements
    • C. Religious Trends and the New Push for Expansion
    • Sufis
    • Mysticism
    • Ulama
    • Conservative
    • Against outside influence
    • Greek philosophy rejected
    • Qur'an sufficient
    • Al-Ghazali
    • Synthesis of Greek, Qur'anic ideas
    • Opposed by orthodoxy
    • D. New Waves of Nomadic Invasions and the End of the Caliphate
    • Mongols
    • Chinggis Khan
    • Hulegu
    • 1258, Baghdad falls
    • Last Abbasid killed
  • 9.
    • III. The Coming of Islam to South Asia
    • By 1200, Muslims rule much of north, central
    • Conflict between two different systems
    • Hindu religion v. Muslim monotheism
    • Muslim egalitarianism v. Indian caste system
    • A. Political Divisions and the First Muslim Invasions
    • First as traders, 8th century
    • Attacks lead to invasion
    • Muhammad ibn Qasim
    • Umayyad general
    • Takes Sind, Indus valleys
    • Indians treated as dhimmi
    The Spread of Islam, 10th-16th Centuries
  • 10.
    • III. The Coming of Islam to South Asia B. Indian Influences on Islamic Civilization
    • Science, math, medicine, music, astronomy
    • India influences Arab
    • C. From Booty to Empire: The Second Wave of Muslim Invasions
    • 10th century, Turkish dynasty established in Afghanistan
    • Mahmud of Ghazni
    • Begins invasion of India
    • Muhammad of Ghur
    • Persian
    • State in Indus valley
    • Thence to Bengal
    • His lieutenant, Qutb-ud-Din Aibak
    • forms state at Delhi
    • Delhi sultanate rules for 300 years
    • D. Patterns of Conversion
    • Converts especially among Buddhists, lower castes, untouchables
    • Also, conversion to escape taxes
    • Muslims fleeing Mongols, 13th, 14th centuries
  • 11.
    • III. The Coming of Islam to South Asia
    • E. Patterns of Accommodation
    • High-caste Hindus remain apart
    • Muslims also often fail to integrate
    • F. Islamic Challenge and Hindu Revival
    • Bhakti
    • Devotional cults
    • Emotional approach
    • Caste distinctions dissolved
    • Shiva, Vishnu, Kali especially
    • Mira Bai, Kabir,
    • Songs in regional languages
    • G. Stand-off: The Muslim Presence in India at the End of the Sultanate Period
    • Brahmins v. ulama
    • Separate communities
  • 12.
    • IV. The Spread of Islam to Southeast Asia
    • Shrivijaya
    • A. Trading Contacts and Conversion
    • Trading leads to peaceful conversion
    • Sufis important
    • Starting with Sumatran ports
    • Malacca
    • Thence to Malaya, Sumatra, Demak (Java)
    • Coastal cities especially receptive
    • Buddhist elites, but population converts to Islam