35. Rebirth: East Asia and the Pacific Rim

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35. Rebirth: East Asia and the Pacific Rim

  1. 2. <ul><li>I. East Asia in the Postwar Settlements II. Japan, Incorporated III. Mao's China and Beyond </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Colonialism and Revolution in Vietnam </li></ul>
  2. 3. <ul><li>I. East Asia in the Postwar Settlements </li></ul><ul><li>Korea divided </li></ul><ul><li>Russian, American zone </li></ul><ul><li>Taiwan </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese occupation </li></ul><ul><li>Chiang Kai-shek </li></ul><ul><li>Reoccupation of some areas </li></ul><ul><li>Japan occupied by United States </li></ul><ul><li>A. New Divisions and the End of Empires </li></ul><ul><li>Postwar decolonization </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. loses Philippines </li></ul><ul><li>Dutch: Indonesia </li></ul><ul><li>British: Malaya </li></ul><ul><li>Chiang, Guomintang </li></ul><ul><li>driven to Taiwan </li></ul>The Pacific Rim Area by 1960
  3. 4. <ul><li>I. East Asia in the Postwar Settlements </li></ul><ul><li>B. Japanese Recovery American occupation </li></ul><ul><li>ends, 1952 </li></ul><ul><li>Democratization </li></ul><ul><li>women get the vote </li></ul><ul><li>unions encouraged </li></ul><ul><li>Shintoism disestablished </li></ul><ul><li>land redistribution </li></ul><ul><li>new constitution </li></ul><ul><li>modified, 1963 </li></ul><ul><li>Liberal Democratic Party, 1955 </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>I. East Asia in the Postwar Settlements </li></ul><ul><li>C. Korea: Intervention and War </li></ul><ul><li>North </li></ul><ul><li>communist </li></ul><ul><li>Kim Il-Sung, to 1994 </li></ul><ul><li>South </li></ul><ul><li>Syngman Rhee </li></ul><ul><li>parliamentary government </li></ul><ul><li>North invades South, 1950 </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. leads UN effort </li></ul><ul><li>China supports North </li></ul><ul><li>1953, armistice </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>I. East Asia in the Postwar Settlements </li></ul><ul><li>D. Emerging Stability in Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Singapore </li></ul><ul><li>Taiwan </li></ul><ul><li>Guomindang retreats to Taiwan </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Support </li></ul><ul><li>Hong Kong </li></ul><ul><li>British colony </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese control, 1997 </li></ul><ul><li>Singapore </li></ul><ul><li>independence, 1965 </li></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>II. Japan, Incorporated </li></ul><ul><li>A. Japan's Distinctive Political and Cultural Style Liberal Democrat Party, 1955-1993 </li></ul><ul><li>corruption raises questions </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural continuity </li></ul><ul><li>Hiraoka Kimitoke </li></ul><ul><li>nationalist </li></ul><ul><li>B. The Economic Surge Company unions </li></ul><ul><li>cooperation between management, labor </li></ul><ul><li>Women </li></ul><ul><li>traditional attitudes </li></ul><ul><li>Popular culture </li></ul><ul><li>Western influence </li></ul><ul><li>Political change </li></ul><ul><li>C. The Pacific Rim: New Japans? Follow Japanese model </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>II. Japan, Incorporated D. The Korean Miracle </li></ul><ul><li>South Korea </li></ul><ul><li>Chung-hee, 1961-1979 military loses power </li></ul><ul><li>more open press, political action </li></ul><ul><li>new companies </li></ul><ul><li>Hyundai </li></ul><ul><li>E. Advances in Taiwan and the City-States Taiwan </li></ul><ul><li>rapid economic growth </li></ul><ul><li>more contact with China, other neighbors </li></ul><ul><li>Death of Chiang Kai-shek, 1978 </li></ul><ul><li>gap narrows between China and Taiwan </li></ul><ul><li>Singapore </li></ul><ul><li>similar to Taiwan </li></ul><ul><li>Lee Kuan Yew </li></ul><ul><li>authoritarian rule </li></ul><ul><li>returned to China, 1997 </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>II. Japan, Incorporated </li></ul><ul><li>F. Common Themes and New Problems Common culture </li></ul><ul><li>group loyalty stronger than individualism </li></ul><ul><li>Confucianism important in economic development </li></ul><ul><li>benefit from Japanese influence </li></ul><ul><li>Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia follow </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>III. Mao's China and Beyond Chiang Kai-shek Japanese invasion </li></ul><ul><li>allies with Communists </li></ul><ul><li>Guomindang's position lessened </li></ul><ul><li>partly due to military defeat </li></ul><ul><li>Communism popular </li></ul><ul><li>Mao gaining power by 1945 </li></ul><ul><li>Defeat of Japan, 1949 </li></ul><ul><li>Communists ascendant </li></ul>China in the Years of Japanese Occupation and Civil War
  10. 11. <ul><li>III. Mao's China and Beyond A. The Communists Come to Power Secession movements </li></ul><ul><li>Inner Mongolia, Tibet </li></ul><ul><li>Korean War </li></ul><ul><li>China supports division </li></ul><ul><li>Vietnam </li></ul><ul><li>support liberation </li></ul><ul><li>Alliance with Soviet Union </li></ul><ul><li>collapses by late 1950s </li></ul><ul><li>border disputes </li></ul><ul><li>post-Stalin changes </li></ul><ul><li>War with India </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>III. Mao's China and Beyond </li></ul><ul><li>B. Planning for Economic Growth and Social Justice Land reform </li></ul><ul><li>First five-year plan, 1953 </li></ul><ul><li>Mass Line approach, 1955 </li></ul><ul><li>agricultural cooperatives </li></ul><ul><li>farming through collectives from 1956 </li></ul><ul><li>Purge of intellectuals, 1957 </li></ul><ul><li>C. The Great Leap Backward The Great Leap Forward, 1958 based on peasant communes </li></ul><ul><li>peasants un-cooperative </li></ul><ul><li>famine </li></ul><ul><li>ended by 1960 </li></ul><ul><li>Mao no longer state chairman </li></ul><ul><li>still head of Central Committee </li></ul><ul><li>replaced by pragmatists </li></ul><ul><li>Zhou Enlai, Liu Shaoui, Deng Xiaoping </li></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>III. Mao's China and Beyond </li></ul><ul><li>D. &quot;Women Hold Up Half of the Heavens&quot; Mao and Jiang Qing Guomindang </li></ul><ul><li>not supportive of women's rights </li></ul><ul><li>Communist promising </li></ul><ul><li>legal equalilty </li></ul><ul><li>work outside the home </li></ul><ul><li>opportunities increase </li></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>III. Mao's China and Beyond </li></ul><ul><li>E. Mao's Last Campaign and the Fall of the Gang of Four Cultural Revolution, 1965 </li></ul><ul><li>Zhou Enlai </li></ul><ul><li>into seclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Liu Shaoqui </li></ul><ul><li>killed </li></ul><ul><li>Deng Xiaoping </li></ul><ul><li>emprisoned ended, 1968 </li></ul><ul><li>Gang of Four </li></ul><ul><li>Jiang Qing </li></ul><ul><li>opposed by Deng </li></ul><ul><li>defeated by pragmatists </li></ul><ul><li>imprisoned </li></ul><ul><li>Pragmatists </li></ul><ul><li>more open to West, capitalism </li></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>IV. Colonialism and Revolution in Vietnam French </li></ul><ul><li>interest since 1600s </li></ul><ul><li>hope to convert to Catholicism </li></ul><ul><li>Tayson peasant rebellion, 1770s </li></ul><ul><li>Nguyen, Trinh dynasties out </li></ul><ul><li>French back Nguyen Anh (Gia Long) </li></ul><ul><li>unification by 1802 </li></ul><ul><li>new capital at Hue </li></ul><ul><li>Minh Mang </li></ul><ul><li>persecution of Vietnamese Catholics </li></ul><ul><li>French intervene, 1840s </li></ul><ul><li>Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos taken over by 1890s </li></ul><ul><li>Nguyen as puppets </li></ul><ul><li>French takeover </li></ul><ul><li>discredits emperor, bureaucracy, Confucianism </li></ul>Vietnam: Divisions in the Nguyen and French Periods
  15. 16. <ul><li>IV. Colonialism and Revolution in Vietnam A. Vietnamese Nationalism: Bourgeois Dead Ends and Communist Survival French influence </li></ul><ul><li>Western-educated middle class </li></ul><ul><li>Vietnamese Nationalist Party (VNQDD) </li></ul><ul><li>from 1920s </li></ul><ul><li>repressed, 1929 </li></ul><ul><li>Communist the focus of resistance crushed by French </li></ul><ul><li>aided by Comintern </li></ul><ul><li>Japan occupies Vietnam, 1941 </li></ul><ul><li>B. The War of Liberation against the French </li></ul><ul><li>Viet Minh </li></ul><ul><li>communist-dominated resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Vo Nguyen Giap </li></ul><ul><li>proclaims independence, 1945 </li></ul><ul><li>only in North </li></ul><ul><li>War </li></ul><ul><li>French defeated at Dien Bien Phu, 1954 </li></ul><ul><li>Geneva conference promises elections </li></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><li>IV. Colonialism and Revolution in Vietnam C. The War of Liberation Against the United States Communists v. United States </li></ul><ul><li>South </li></ul><ul><li>Ngo Dinh Diem, president </li></ul><ul><li>fights communists (Viet Cong) </li></ul><ul><li>North </li></ul><ul><li>supports Viet Cong </li></ul><ul><li>United States </li></ul><ul><li>supports military overthrow of Diem </li></ul><ul><li>withdraws, 1970s </li></ul><ul><li>Communists </li></ul><ul><li>take South Vietnam </li></ul><ul><li>D. After Victory: The Struggle to Rebuild Vietnam Difficulties </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. blocks international aid </li></ul><ul><li>reprisals </li></ul><ul><li>Economy more open in 1980s </li></ul><ul><li>better relations with U.S. </li></ul>

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