28. Descent into the Abyss

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28. Descent into the Abyss

  1. 2. <ul><li>I. The Coming of the Great War II. A World at War III. Failed Peace IV. The Nationalist Assault on the European Colonial Order </li></ul>
  2. 3. <ul><li>I. The Coming of the Great War </li></ul><ul><li>A. The Long March to War Triple Entente </li></ul><ul><li>Russia, France, Britain </li></ul><ul><li>v. Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Central Powers </li></ul><ul><li>Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Italy joins Entente, 1915 </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>I. The Coming of the Great War   </li></ul><ul><li>B. The Outbreak of the War </li></ul><ul><li>Gavriel Princip </li></ul><ul><li>Assassinates Austrian archduke, 1914 </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Austria-Hungary, Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Attack Serbia </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Russia mobilizes </li></ul><ul><li> Germany declares war on Russia, France </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Germany invades Belgium </li></ul><ul><li>Britain declares war </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>II. A World at War Quick war expected </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>A. The War in Europe Stalemate on Western Front </li></ul><ul><li>Trench warfare </li></ul><ul><li>Massive losses </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>B. The War in the East and in Italy Russians </li></ul><ul><li>Offensives against Germany </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Italians </li></ul><ul><li>War with Austrians stalemated </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>World War I Fronts in Europe and the Middle East
  5. 6. <ul><li>II. A World at War   </li></ul><ul><li>C. The Home Fronts in Europe Little sympathy at home </li></ul><ul><li>Growth in governments </li></ul><ul><li>Propaganda </li></ul><ul><li>Suppression of criticism </li></ul><ul><li>Labor groups dissatisfied </li></ul><ul><li>Weakens Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Russia falls </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Women in work force </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>II. A World at War   D. The War Outside Europe British block supplies to Central Powers </li></ul><ul><li>Uses imperial resources, manpower </li></ul><ul><li>Indians deployed in many areas </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>French </li></ul><ul><li>Use African troops </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Japan </li></ul><ul><li>Fights Germans in China, the Pacific </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Ottomans </li></ul><ul><li>Side with Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Armenian genocide </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>United States </li></ul><ul><li>Begins neutral </li></ul><ul><li>German submarines attack American shipping </li></ul><ul><li>1917, enter war </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>III. Failed Peace Woodrow Wilson </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Peace of Paris </li></ul><ul><li>German war guilt </li></ul><ul><li>Reparations </li></ul><ul><li>Austria-Hungary </li></ul><ul><li>Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Yugoslavia </li></ul><ul><li>Poland independent </li></ul><ul><li>League of Nations </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>IV. The Nationalist Assault on the European Colonial Order Campaigns in Africa, Middle East </li></ul><ul><li>Britain draws on colonial resources </li></ul><ul><li>Indian production stepped up </li></ul><ul><li>Asians, Africans work, serve </li></ul><ul><li>Colonies </li></ul><ul><li>Indigenous personnel given more opportunity </li></ul><ul><li>A. India: The Makings of the Nationalist Challenge to the British Raj India, Burma, Indonesia, the Philippines </li></ul><ul><li>Nationalist movements </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Worldwide patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership of Western-educated elite </li></ul><ul><li>Charismatic leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Nonviolence </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>India </li></ul><ul><li>Indian National Congress, 1885 </li></ul><ul><li>Initially loyal to British Spurred by racism </li></ul><ul><li>Builds Indian identity </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>IV. The Nationalist Assault on the European Colonial Order   </li></ul><ul><li>B. Social Foundations of a Mass Movement Critique of British rule </li></ul><ul><li>Economic privilege for British </li></ul><ul><li>Indian army used for British interests </li></ul><ul><li>High-paid British officials Cash crops push out food production </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>C. The Rise of Militant Nationalism </li></ul><ul><li>Hindu/Muslim split </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>B.G. Tilak </li></ul><ul><li>Nationalism above religious concerns </li></ul><ul><li>Boycotts of British goods </li></ul><ul><li>Bombay regions </li></ul><ul><li>Imprisoned </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Hindu communalists </li></ul><ul><li>Violent means </li></ul><ul><li>Terrorism in Bengal </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Morley-Minto reforms, 1909 </li></ul><ul><li>More opportunity for Indians </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>IV. The Nationalist Assault on the European Colonial Order D. The Emergence of Gandhi and the Spread of the Nationalist Struggle Loyal to British at start of war </li></ul><ul><li>But war casualties and costs mount </li></ul><ul><li>Inflation, famine </li></ul><ul><li>Promises broken </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Montagu-Chelmsford reforms, 1919 </li></ul><ul><li>Greater Indian participation in government </li></ul><ul><li>Rowlatt Act, 1919 </li></ul><ul><li>Civil rights restricted </li></ul><ul><li>Gandhi protests </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Mohandas K. Ghandi </li></ul><ul><li>Nonviolence </li></ul><ul><li>Satyagraha , or truth force </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>IV. The Nationalist Assault on the European Colonial Order </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>E. Egypt and the Rise of Nationalism in the Middle East Egyptian nationalism </li></ul><ul><li>Ahmad Orabi </li></ul><ul><li>Rising, 1882 </li></ul><ul><li>Lord Cromer </li></ul><ul><li>Reforms </li></ul><ul><li>Benefit upper classes </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Journalists predominate </li></ul><ul><li>1890s </li></ul><ul><li>Political parties form </li></ul><ul><li>Harsh repression </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Dinshawi Incident, 1906 </li></ul><ul><li>Focuses Egyptian nationalism </li></ul><ul><li>British grant constitution, 1913 </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>The Middle East After World War I
  12. 13. <ul><li>IV. The Nationalist Assault on the European Colonial Order   </li></ul><ul><li>F. War and Nationalist Movements in the Middle East Mustafa Kemal (Ataturk, father of the Turks) </li></ul><ul><li>Independence by 1923 </li></ul><ul><li>Reforms </li></ul><ul><li>Westernizing </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>France, Britain </li></ul><ul><li>Promises to former Ottoman subjects </li></ul><ul><li>Renege </li></ul><ul><li>Occupy former Turkish lands: mandates </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Arabs and Jews given conflicting assurances </li></ul><ul><li>Balfour Declaration </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Zionism </li></ul><ul><li>World Zionist Organization </li></ul><ul><li>Theodore Herzl </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>IV. The Nationalist Assault on the European Colonial Order   </li></ul><ul><li>G. Revolt in Egypt, 1919 Egypt a British protectorate, 1914 </li></ul><ul><li>Martial law to protect Suez Canal </li></ul><ul><li>War drains Egyptian resources </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Egyptians refused to present at Versailles </li></ul><ul><li>Wafd Party </li></ul><ul><li>Sa'd Zaghlul </li></ul><ul><li>British agree to independence </li></ul><ul><li>From 1922 </li></ul><ul><li>To withdrawal from Canal zone, 1936 </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Early regimes </li></ul><ul><li>Little progress </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>[1952, Gamal Abdul Nasser] </li></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>IV. The Nationalist Assault on the European Colonial Order H. The Beginnings of the Liberation Struggle in Africa General loyalty </li></ul><ul><li>War </li></ul><ul><li>Drains resources </li></ul><ul><li>Western-educated Africans gain authority </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Pan-African movement </li></ul><ul><li>Marcus Garvey </li></ul><ul><li>W.E.B. Du Bois </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Paris </li></ul><ul><li>Négritude </li></ul><ul><li>Sédar Senghor Aimé Césaire Léon Damas </li></ul>

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