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28. Descent into the Abyss

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  • 1.  
  • 2.
    • I. The Coming of the Great War II. A World at War III. Failed Peace IV. The Nationalist Assault on the European Colonial Order
  • 3.
    • I. The Coming of the Great War
    • A. The Long March to War Triple Entente
    • Russia, France, Britain
    • v. Germany
    • Central Powers
    • Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy
    •  
    • Italy joins Entente, 1915
    •  
  • 4.
    • I. The Coming of the Great War  
    • B. The Outbreak of the War
    • Gavriel Princip
    • Assassinates Austrian archduke, 1914
    •  
    • Austria-Hungary, Germany
    • Attack Serbia
    •  
    • Russia mobilizes
    • Germany declares war on Russia, France
    •  
    • Germany invades Belgium
    • Britain declares war
  • 5.
    • II. A World at War Quick war expected
    •  
    • A. The War in Europe Stalemate on Western Front
    • Trench warfare
    • Massive losses
    •  
    • B. The War in the East and in Italy Russians
    • Offensives against Germany
    •  
    • Italians
    • War with Austrians stalemated
    •  
    World War I Fronts in Europe and the Middle East
  • 6.
    • II. A World at War  
    • C. The Home Fronts in Europe Little sympathy at home
    • Growth in governments
    • Propaganda
    • Suppression of criticism
    • Labor groups dissatisfied
    • Weakens Germany
    • Russia falls
    •  
    • Women in work force
    •  
  • 7.
    • II. A World at War   D. The War Outside Europe British block supplies to Central Powers
    • Uses imperial resources, manpower
    • Indians deployed in many areas
    •  
    • French
    • Use African troops
    •  
    • Japan
    • Fights Germans in China, the Pacific
    •  
    • Ottomans
    • Side with Germany
    • Armenian genocide
    •  
    • United States
    • Begins neutral
    • German submarines attack American shipping
    • 1917, enter war
  • 8.
    • III. Failed Peace Woodrow Wilson
    •  
    • Peace of Paris
    • German war guilt
    • Reparations
    • Austria-Hungary
    • Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Yugoslavia
    • Poland independent
    • League of Nations
    •  
  • 9.
    • IV. The Nationalist Assault on the European Colonial Order Campaigns in Africa, Middle East
    • Britain draws on colonial resources
    • Indian production stepped up
    • Asians, Africans work, serve
    • Colonies
    • Indigenous personnel given more opportunity
    • A. India: The Makings of the Nationalist Challenge to the British Raj India, Burma, Indonesia, the Philippines
    • Nationalist movements
    •  
    • Worldwide patterns
    • Leadership of Western-educated elite
    • Charismatic leaders
    • Nonviolence
    •  
    • India
    • Indian National Congress, 1885
    • Initially loyal to British Spurred by racism
    • Builds Indian identity
  • 10.
    • IV. The Nationalist Assault on the European Colonial Order  
    • B. Social Foundations of a Mass Movement Critique of British rule
    • Economic privilege for British
    • Indian army used for British interests
    • High-paid British officials Cash crops push out food production
    •  
    • C. The Rise of Militant Nationalism
    • Hindu/Muslim split
    •  
    • B.G. Tilak
    • Nationalism above religious concerns
    • Boycotts of British goods
    • Bombay regions
    • Imprisoned
    •  
    • Hindu communalists
    • Violent means
    • Terrorism in Bengal
    •  
    • Morley-Minto reforms, 1909
    • More opportunity for Indians
    •  
  • 11.
    • IV. The Nationalist Assault on the European Colonial Order D. The Emergence of Gandhi and the Spread of the Nationalist Struggle Loyal to British at start of war
    • But war casualties and costs mount
    • Inflation, famine
    • Promises broken
    •  
    • Montagu-Chelmsford reforms, 1919
    • Greater Indian participation in government
    • Rowlatt Act, 1919
    • Civil rights restricted
    • Gandhi protests
    •  
    • Mohandas K. Ghandi
    • Nonviolence
    • Satyagraha , or truth force
    •  
  • 12.
    • IV. The Nationalist Assault on the European Colonial Order
    •  
    • E. Egypt and the Rise of Nationalism in the Middle East Egyptian nationalism
    • Ahmad Orabi
    • Rising, 1882
    • Lord Cromer
    • Reforms
    • Benefit upper classes
    •  
    • Journalists predominate
    • 1890s
    • Political parties form
    • Harsh repression
    •  
    • Dinshawi Incident, 1906
    • Focuses Egyptian nationalism
    • British grant constitution, 1913
    •  
    The Middle East After World War I
  • 13.
    • IV. The Nationalist Assault on the European Colonial Order  
    • F. War and Nationalist Movements in the Middle East Mustafa Kemal (Ataturk, father of the Turks)
    • Independence by 1923
    • Reforms
    • Westernizing
    •  
    • France, Britain
    • Promises to former Ottoman subjects
    • Renege
    • Occupy former Turkish lands: mandates
    •  
    • Arabs and Jews given conflicting assurances
    • Balfour Declaration
    •  
    • Zionism
    • World Zionist Organization
    • Theodore Herzl
    •  
  • 14.
    • IV. The Nationalist Assault on the European Colonial Order  
    • G. Revolt in Egypt, 1919 Egypt a British protectorate, 1914
    • Martial law to protect Suez Canal
    • War drains Egyptian resources
    •  
    • Egyptians refused to present at Versailles
    • Wafd Party
    • Sa'd Zaghlul
    • British agree to independence
    • From 1922
    • To withdrawal from Canal zone, 1936
    •  
    • Early regimes
    • Little progress
    •  
    • [1952, Gamal Abdul Nasser]
  • 15.
    • IV. The Nationalist Assault on the European Colonial Order H. The Beginnings of the Liberation Struggle in Africa General loyalty
    • War
    • Drains resources
    • Western-educated Africans gain authority
    •  
    • Pan-African movement
    • Marcus Garvey
    • W.E.B. Du Bois
    •  
    • Paris
    • Négritude
    • Sédar Senghor Aimé Césaire Léon Damas

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