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26.  Civilization in Crisis
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26. Civilization in Crisis

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  • 1.  
  • 2.
    • I. From Empire to Nation: Ottoman Retreat and the Birth of Turkey II. Western Intrusions and the Crisis in the Arab Islamic Heartlands III. The Last Dynasty: The Rise and Fall of the Qing Empire in China
  • 3.
    • I. From Empire to Nation: Ottoman Retreat and the Birth of Turkey
    • Ottoman decline
    • By early 1700s
    • Power struggles
    • Rivalry with the West for trade
    •  
    • Results
    • Austrian Habsburgs
    • Ottomans driven from Hungary, northern Balkans
    • Russians expand into Caucasus, Crimea
    • Christian Balkans challenge Ottomans
    • Greeks, independent, 1830
    • Serbia, 1867
    • By 1870, most of the Balkans
    • Capital threatened
    •  
  • 4.
    • I. From Empire to Nation: Ottoman Retreat and the Birth of Turkey
    •  
    Ottoman Empire from Late 18th Century to World War I
  • 5.
    • I. From Empire to Nation: Ottoman Retreat and the Birth of Turkey
    •  
    • A. Reform and Survival Europeans fear Ottoman breakup
    • British support Ottomans v. Russia
    •  
    • Selim III
    • Reforms anger Janissaries
    • 1807, deposed, assassinated
    •  
    • Mahmud II
    • Professional army
    • Replaces Janissaries, 1826
    • Reforms: Tanzimat
    • Universities on Western models
    • Railways
    • 1876, European-style constitution
    •  
  • 6.
    • II. Western Intrusions and the Crisis in the Arab Islamic Heartlands
    • A. Muhammad Ali and the Failure of Westernization in Egypt Napoleon
    • Defeats Ottoman Mamluk vassals in Egypt
    • Muhammad Ali
    • Emerges after French withdraw
    • Albanian Ottoman
    • Reforms
    • Military: army, navy
    • Agricultural modernization
    •  
  • 7.
    • II. Western Intrusions and the Crisis in the Arab Islamic Heartlands B. Bankruptcy, European Intervention, and Strategies of Resistance Muhammad Ali's successors
    • Drop reform
    • Ayans profit from peasantry
    • Cotton
    • Crucial export crop
    •  
    • Indebtedness to foreign creditors
    • Suez Canal, open, 1869
    •  
    • University of al-Azhar Center of Muslim thinkers
    • al-Afghani, Muhammad Abduh
    • Push for Westernization
    • Underline traditional Muslim rationalism
    • Ahmad Orabai
    • Revolt against khedive, 1882
    • British intervene
    • Period of puppet khedives under British
  • 8.
    • II. Western Intrusions and the Crisis in the Arab Islamic Heartlands
    • C. Jihad: The Mahdist Revolt in the Sudan Sudan challenges British
    • Can't control camel nomads
    •  
    • Muhammad Achmad, the Mahdi
    • Proclaims jihad against Egyptians, British
    • Controls Sudan
    • Succeeded by Khalifa Abdallahi
    •  
    • General Kitchner
    • Omdurman, 1896
    • Mahdists crushed
    Ottoman Empire from Late 18th Century to World War I
  • 9.
    • III. The Last Dynasty: The Rise and Fall of the Qing Empire in China Nurhaci (1559-1626)
    • Manchu leader
    • Drives Chinese south of Great Wall
    • Signification of Manchuria
    • 1644, take Beijing
    • Found Qing dynasty
    • Qing
    • Retain Ming rule
    •  
    Qing Empire from Opium War of 1839-1841 to World War I
  • 10.
    • III. The Last Dynasty: The Rise and Fall of the Qing Empire in China A. Economy and Society in the Early Centuries of Qing Rule Qing social system maintained
    •  
    • Manchu
    • Rural reforms
    • Infrastructure maintained
    • Burdens lessened
    •  
    • Silver influx to 1800
    • Compradors
    • Merchants along coast
    • Tie China to outside
    •  
  • 11.
    • III. The Last Dynasty: The Rise and Fall of the Qing Empire in China B. Rot from Within: Bureaucratic Breakdown and Social Disintegration Qing decline
    • Exam system corrupt
    •  
    • Yellow River dikes not maintained
    • Flooding
    •  
    • Unrest: migration, outlaws
    •  
    • C. Barbarians at the Southern Gates: The Opium War and After British
    • Import Indian opium to China
    • Chinese react
    • Lin Zexu
    • Blockades European trade
    •  
    • British invade, 1839
    • Chinese defeated
    • Hong Kong to British
    • Ports forced to reopen
  • 12.
    • III. The Last Dynasty: The Rise and Fall of the Qing Empire in China D. A Civilization at Risk: Rebellion and Failed Reforms Hong Xiuquan
    • Taiping rebellion
    • Calls for social, land reforms
    • Criticize Qing, Manchus
    • Crushed by Empress Cixi, 1898
    •  
    • Boxer Rebellion
    • Anti-foreign conflict
    • Crushed by Western powers
    • E. The Fall of the Qing: The End of a Civilization? Resistance goes underground
    • Plots to push Westernization
    • Sun Yat-sen
    • 1905, civil service exams ended
    • End of scholar-gentry
    •  
    • 1911, rebellions
    •  
    • 1912, last Qing emperor removed