Copyright 2007, Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Longman
<ul><li>I. The First Big Changes: Culture and Commerce </li></ul><ul><li>II. Science and Politics: The Next Phase of Chang...
<ul><li>I. The First Big Changes: Culture and Commerce </li></ul><ul><li>A. A New Spirit Francesco Petrarch (1304-1374) Se...
<ul><li>I. The First Big Changes: Culture and Commerce </li></ul><ul><li>B. The Italian Renaissance Michelango Buonarotti ...
<ul><li>I. The First Big Changes: Culture and Commerce </li></ul><ul><li>D. The Protestant and Catholic Reformations </li>...
<ul><li>I. The First Big Changes: Culture and Commerce </li></ul><ul><li>E. The End of Christian Unity in the West </li></...
<ul><li>II. Science and Politics: The Next Phase of Change </li></ul><ul><li>A. Did Copernicus Copy? Nicolai Copernicus </...
<ul><li>II. Science and Politics: The Next Phase of Change B. Science: The New Authority New instruments add to data colle...
<ul><li>II. Science and Politics: The Next Phase of Change C. Absolute and Parliamentary Monarchies 17th century, medieval...
<ul><li>II. Science and Politics: The Next Phase of Change D. The Nation-State Definition </li></ul><ul><li>Common languag...
<ul><li>III. The West by 1750 </li></ul><ul><li>A. Political Patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Great change in central Europe </l...
<ul><li>III. The West by 1750 </li></ul><ul><li>B. Enlightenment Thought and Popular Culture Scientific Revolution leads t...
<ul><li>III. The West by 1750 </li></ul><ul><li>C. Ongoing Change in Commerce and Manufacturing </li></ul><ul><li>Mass con...
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17. The Transformation of the West

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17. The Transformation of the West

  1. 1. Copyright 2007, Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Longman
  2. 2. <ul><li>I. The First Big Changes: Culture and Commerce </li></ul><ul><li>II. Science and Politics: The Next Phase of Change </li></ul><ul><li>III. The West by 1750 </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>I. The First Big Changes: Culture and Commerce </li></ul><ul><li>A. A New Spirit Francesco Petrarch (1304-1374) Secular writing </li></ul><ul><li>B. The Italian Renaissance Begins 14th, 15th centuries </li></ul><ul><li>In northern Italy </li></ul><ul><li>Italy </li></ul><ul><li>Urbanized </li></ul><ul><li>Merchant class </li></ul><ul><li>Political rivalry </li></ul><ul><li>Petrarch, Boccaccio </li></ul><ul><li>Use Italian </li></ul><ul><li>Secular topics </li></ul><ul><li>Painting </li></ul><ul><li>Use of perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Shadow, distance </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on humans </li></ul>Western Europe in the Renaissance and Reformation
  4. 4. <ul><li>I. The First Big Changes: Culture and Commerce </li></ul><ul><li>B. The Italian Renaissance Michelango Buonarotti </li></ul><ul><li>Leonardo da Vinci </li></ul><ul><li>Nicolo Machiavelli </li></ul><ul><li>Humanism </li></ul><ul><li>Looking back to classical past </li></ul><ul><li>Study of texts, especially ancient </li></ul><ul><li>C. The Renaissance Moves Northward </li></ul><ul><li>By 1500, impetus moves north </li></ul><ul><li>Northern Renaissance </li></ul><ul><li>France, Low Countries, England, Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Thence to eastern Europe </li></ul><ul><li>More concerned with religious matters </li></ul><ul><li>William Shakespeare </li></ul><ul><li>Miguel de Cervantes </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>I. The First Big Changes: Culture and Commerce </li></ul><ul><li>D. The Protestant and Catholic Reformations </li></ul><ul><li>1517, Martin Luther's challenge </li></ul><ul><li>Attacks church institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Bible the only authority </li></ul><ul><li>Vernacular translations </li></ul><ul><li>Protestant protest used for political gain </li></ul><ul><li>German opposition to the papacy </li></ul><ul><li>Rulers seize church lands </li></ul><ul><li>Henry VIII </li></ul><ul><li>Establishes Anglican church </li></ul><ul><li>Jean Calvin </li></ul><ul><li>Calvinism </li></ul><ul><li>Predestination </li></ul><ul><li>Catholic Reformation </li></ul><ul><li>Renewal </li></ul><ul><li>Jesuits </li></ul><ul><li>Missionaries </li></ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>I. The First Big Changes: Culture and Commerce </li></ul><ul><li>E. The End of Christian Unity in the West </li></ul><ul><li>Religious Wars </li></ul><ul><li>France </li></ul><ul><li>Calvinists v. Catholics </li></ul><ul><li>1598, Edict of Nantes </li></ul><ul><li>Promises Protestants’ toleration </li></ul><ul><li>30 Years War (1618-1648) </li></ul><ul><li>Devastating to Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Netherlands independent </li></ul><ul><li>Literacy increases </li></ul><ul><li>F. The Commercial Revolution Inflation, 16th century </li></ul><ul><li>Gold, silver from New World </li></ul><ul><li>Demand outstrips supply </li></ul><ul><li>G. Social Protest Proletariat develops </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes towards poor change </li></ul><ul><li>Protests </li></ul><ul><li>Witchcraft hysteria </li></ul>Western Europe in the Renaissance and Reformation
  7. 7. <ul><li>II. Science and Politics: The Next Phase of Change </li></ul><ul><li>A. Did Copernicus Copy? Nicolai Copernicus </li></ul><ul><li>Polish monk </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge of work of al-Urdi, al-Tusi? </li></ul><ul><li>Earlier Arab scientists </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>II. Science and Politics: The Next Phase of Change B. Science: The New Authority New instruments add to data collection </li></ul><ul><li>Galileo Galilei </li></ul><ul><li>Uses Copernicus' work </li></ul><ul><li>Kepler’s observations confirm earlier work </li></ul><ul><li>William Harvey </li></ul><ul><li>Circulatory system </li></ul><ul><li>Methods </li></ul><ul><li>Francis Bacon </li></ul><ul><li>Empirical research </li></ul><ul><li>René Descartes </li></ul><ul><li>Skepticism </li></ul><ul><li>Isaac Newton </li></ul><ul><li>System of natural laws </li></ul><ul><li>Deism </li></ul><ul><li>God does not intervene with nature </li></ul><ul><li>John Locke </li></ul><ul><li>Use of reason </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>II. Science and Politics: The Next Phase of Change C. Absolute and Parliamentary Monarchies 17th century, medieval balance disrupted </li></ul><ul><li>France dominates </li></ul><ul><li>Centralized monarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Bureaucracy </li></ul><ul><li>“Absolute monarchy&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Louis XIV the best example </li></ul><ul><li>Nobles kept at court </li></ul><ul><li>Other absolute monarchs </li></ul><ul><li>Spain, Prussia, Austria-Hungary </li></ul><ul><li>Territorial expansion </li></ul><ul><li>England </li></ul><ul><li>Difference </li></ul><ul><li>Civil War </li></ul><ul><li>Parliament triumphant </li></ul>Western Europe under Absolute Monarchies
  10. 10. <ul><li>II. Science and Politics: The Next Phase of Change D. The Nation-State Definition </li></ul><ul><li>Common language, culture </li></ul><ul><li> National literature, songs, foods </li></ul><ul><li>Territorial aspect </li></ul><ul><li>Common allegiance </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>III. The West by 1750 </li></ul><ul><li>A. Political Patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Great change in central Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Frederick the Great of Prussia </li></ul><ul><li>Religious freedom </li></ul><ul><li>State regulates economy </li></ul><ul><li>Overseas commercial networks </li></ul><ul><li>Continual warfare </li></ul><ul><li>France v. Britain </li></ul><ul><li>Rivalry over overseas territory </li></ul><ul><li>Prussia v. Austria </li></ul><ul><li>Territorial conflicts </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>III. The West by 1750 </li></ul><ul><li>B. Enlightenment Thought and Popular Culture Scientific Revolution leads to Enlightenment </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific methods applied to other fields </li></ul><ul><li>General principles </li></ul><ul><li>People are good </li></ul><ul><li>Reason the answer </li></ul><ul><li>Belief in progress </li></ul><ul><li>Political science </li></ul><ul><li>Adam Smith </li></ul><ul><li>Laissez-faire </li></ul><ul><li>Criminology </li></ul><ul><li>Society </li></ul><ul><li>Women's rights </li></ul><ul><li>Protection of children </li></ul><ul><li>Attack inequities </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>III. The West by 1750 </li></ul><ul><li>C. Ongoing Change in Commerce and Manufacturing </li></ul><ul><li>Mass consumerism </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrogen-fixing crops </li></ul><ul><li>Stockbreeding </li></ul><ul><li>Swamp drainage </li></ul><ul><li>Potatoes, etc. introduced </li></ul><ul><li>Domestic system </li></ul><ul><li>Households produce finished goods </li></ul><ul><li>D. Innovation and Instability Change becomes the norm </li></ul>
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