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17.  The Transformation of the West
17.  The Transformation of the West
17.  The Transformation of the West
17.  The Transformation of the West
17.  The Transformation of the West
17.  The Transformation of the West
17.  The Transformation of the West
17.  The Transformation of the West
17.  The Transformation of the West
17.  The Transformation of the West
17.  The Transformation of the West
17.  The Transformation of the West
17.  The Transformation of the West
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17. The Transformation of the West

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  • 1. Copyright 2007, Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Longman
  • 2. <ul><li>I. The First Big Changes: Culture and Commerce </li></ul><ul><li>II. Science and Politics: The Next Phase of Change </li></ul><ul><li>III. The West by 1750 </li></ul>
  • 3. <ul><li>I. The First Big Changes: Culture and Commerce </li></ul><ul><li>A. A New Spirit Francesco Petrarch (1304-1374) Secular writing </li></ul><ul><li>B. The Italian Renaissance Begins 14th, 15th centuries </li></ul><ul><li>In northern Italy </li></ul><ul><li>Italy </li></ul><ul><li>Urbanized </li></ul><ul><li>Merchant class </li></ul><ul><li>Political rivalry </li></ul><ul><li>Petrarch, Boccaccio </li></ul><ul><li>Use Italian </li></ul><ul><li>Secular topics </li></ul><ul><li>Painting </li></ul><ul><li>Use of perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Shadow, distance </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on humans </li></ul>Western Europe in the Renaissance and Reformation
  • 4. <ul><li>I. The First Big Changes: Culture and Commerce </li></ul><ul><li>B. The Italian Renaissance Michelango Buonarotti </li></ul><ul><li>Leonardo da Vinci </li></ul><ul><li>Nicolo Machiavelli </li></ul><ul><li>Humanism </li></ul><ul><li>Looking back to classical past </li></ul><ul><li>Study of texts, especially ancient </li></ul><ul><li>C. The Renaissance Moves Northward </li></ul><ul><li>By 1500, impetus moves north </li></ul><ul><li>Northern Renaissance </li></ul><ul><li>France, Low Countries, England, Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Thence to eastern Europe </li></ul><ul><li>More concerned with religious matters </li></ul><ul><li>William Shakespeare </li></ul><ul><li>Miguel de Cervantes </li></ul>
  • 5. <ul><li>I. The First Big Changes: Culture and Commerce </li></ul><ul><li>D. The Protestant and Catholic Reformations </li></ul><ul><li>1517, Martin Luther&apos;s challenge </li></ul><ul><li>Attacks church institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Bible the only authority </li></ul><ul><li>Vernacular translations </li></ul><ul><li>Protestant protest used for political gain </li></ul><ul><li>German opposition to the papacy </li></ul><ul><li>Rulers seize church lands </li></ul><ul><li>Henry VIII </li></ul><ul><li>Establishes Anglican church </li></ul><ul><li>Jean Calvin </li></ul><ul><li>Calvinism </li></ul><ul><li>Predestination </li></ul><ul><li>Catholic Reformation </li></ul><ul><li>Renewal </li></ul><ul><li>Jesuits </li></ul><ul><li>Missionaries </li></ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul>
  • 6. <ul><li>I. The First Big Changes: Culture and Commerce </li></ul><ul><li>E. The End of Christian Unity in the West </li></ul><ul><li>Religious Wars </li></ul><ul><li>France </li></ul><ul><li>Calvinists v. Catholics </li></ul><ul><li>1598, Edict of Nantes </li></ul><ul><li>Promises Protestants’ toleration </li></ul><ul><li>30 Years War (1618-1648) </li></ul><ul><li>Devastating to Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Netherlands independent </li></ul><ul><li>Literacy increases </li></ul><ul><li>F. The Commercial Revolution Inflation, 16th century </li></ul><ul><li>Gold, silver from New World </li></ul><ul><li>Demand outstrips supply </li></ul><ul><li>G. Social Protest Proletariat develops </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes towards poor change </li></ul><ul><li>Protests </li></ul><ul><li>Witchcraft hysteria </li></ul>Western Europe in the Renaissance and Reformation
  • 7. <ul><li>II. Science and Politics: The Next Phase of Change </li></ul><ul><li>A. Did Copernicus Copy? Nicolai Copernicus </li></ul><ul><li>Polish monk </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge of work of al-Urdi, al-Tusi? </li></ul><ul><li>Earlier Arab scientists </li></ul>
  • 8. <ul><li>II. Science and Politics: The Next Phase of Change B. Science: The New Authority New instruments add to data collection </li></ul><ul><li>Galileo Galilei </li></ul><ul><li>Uses Copernicus&apos; work </li></ul><ul><li>Kepler’s observations confirm earlier work </li></ul><ul><li>William Harvey </li></ul><ul><li>Circulatory system </li></ul><ul><li>Methods </li></ul><ul><li>Francis Bacon </li></ul><ul><li>Empirical research </li></ul><ul><li>René Descartes </li></ul><ul><li>Skepticism </li></ul><ul><li>Isaac Newton </li></ul><ul><li>System of natural laws </li></ul><ul><li>Deism </li></ul><ul><li>God does not intervene with nature </li></ul><ul><li>John Locke </li></ul><ul><li>Use of reason </li></ul>
  • 9. <ul><li>II. Science and Politics: The Next Phase of Change C. Absolute and Parliamentary Monarchies 17th century, medieval balance disrupted </li></ul><ul><li>France dominates </li></ul><ul><li>Centralized monarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Bureaucracy </li></ul><ul><li>“Absolute monarchy&amp;quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Louis XIV the best example </li></ul><ul><li>Nobles kept at court </li></ul><ul><li>Other absolute monarchs </li></ul><ul><li>Spain, Prussia, Austria-Hungary </li></ul><ul><li>Territorial expansion </li></ul><ul><li>England </li></ul><ul><li>Difference </li></ul><ul><li>Civil War </li></ul><ul><li>Parliament triumphant </li></ul>Western Europe under Absolute Monarchies
  • 10. <ul><li>II. Science and Politics: The Next Phase of Change D. The Nation-State Definition </li></ul><ul><li>Common language, culture </li></ul><ul><li> National literature, songs, foods </li></ul><ul><li>Territorial aspect </li></ul><ul><li>Common allegiance </li></ul>
  • 11. <ul><li>III. The West by 1750 </li></ul><ul><li>A. Political Patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Great change in central Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Frederick the Great of Prussia </li></ul><ul><li>Religious freedom </li></ul><ul><li>State regulates economy </li></ul><ul><li>Overseas commercial networks </li></ul><ul><li>Continual warfare </li></ul><ul><li>France v. Britain </li></ul><ul><li>Rivalry over overseas territory </li></ul><ul><li>Prussia v. Austria </li></ul><ul><li>Territorial conflicts </li></ul>
  • 12. <ul><li>III. The West by 1750 </li></ul><ul><li>B. Enlightenment Thought and Popular Culture Scientific Revolution leads to Enlightenment </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific methods applied to other fields </li></ul><ul><li>General principles </li></ul><ul><li>People are good </li></ul><ul><li>Reason the answer </li></ul><ul><li>Belief in progress </li></ul><ul><li>Political science </li></ul><ul><li>Adam Smith </li></ul><ul><li>Laissez-faire </li></ul><ul><li>Criminology </li></ul><ul><li>Society </li></ul><ul><li>Women&apos;s rights </li></ul><ul><li>Protection of children </li></ul><ul><li>Attack inequities </li></ul>
  • 13. <ul><li>III. The West by 1750 </li></ul><ul><li>C. Ongoing Change in Commerce and Manufacturing </li></ul><ul><li>Mass consumerism </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrogen-fixing crops </li></ul><ul><li>Stockbreeding </li></ul><ul><li>Swamp drainage </li></ul><ul><li>Potatoes, etc. introduced </li></ul><ul><li>Domestic system </li></ul><ul><li>Households produce finished goods </li></ul><ul><li>D. Innovation and Instability Change becomes the norm </li></ul>

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