14. The Last Great Nomadic Challenges

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14. The Last Great Nomadic Challenges

  1. 2. <ul><li>I. The Mongol Empire of Chinggis Khan II. The Mongol Drive to the West III. The Mongol Interlude in Chinese History </li></ul>
  2. 3. <ul><li>I. The Mongol Empire of Chinggis Khan </li></ul><ul><li>Mongol Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Nomadic pastoralists </li></ul><ul><li>Goats, sheep </li></ul><ul><li>Tribe </li></ul><ul><li>Divided into clans </li></ul><ul><li>Temporary confederations </li></ul><ul><li>Leaders elected </li></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>I. The Mongol Empire of Chinggis Khan </li></ul><ul><li>Mongol Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Nomadic pastoralists </li></ul><ul><li>Goats, sheep </li></ul><ul><li>Tribe </li></ul><ul><li>Divided into clans </li></ul><ul><li>Temporary confederations </li></ul><ul><li>Leaders elected </li></ul>The Mongol Empire of Chinggis Khan
  4. 5. <ul><li>I. The Mongol Empire of Chinggis Khan </li></ul><ul><li>A. The Making of a Great Warrior: The Early Career of Chinggis Khan </li></ul><ul><li>Kabul Khan </li></ul><ul><li>1100s, defeats Qin forces </li></ul><ul><li>Grandson, Temujin </li></ul><ul><li>Chinggis Khan </li></ul><ul><li>Born Temujin </li></ul><ul><li>Develops alliances among Mongols </li></ul><ul><li>1206, elected khagan (supreme ruler) </li></ul>The Mongol Empire of Chinggis Khan
  5. 6. <ul><li>I. The Mongol Empire of Chinggis Khan </li></ul><ul><li>B. Building the Mongol War Machine </li></ul><ul><li>Mounted warriors </li></ul><ul><li>Tumens ,10,000 troops </li></ul><ul><li>Messenger force </li></ul><ul><li>Adopted gunpowder, cannons </li></ul><ul><li>C. Conquest: The Mongol Empire under Chinggis Khan </li></ul><ul><li>1207, expedition </li></ul><ul><li>China </li></ul><ul><li>Xi-Xia, Tangut king defeated </li></ul><ul><li>D. First Assault on the Islamic World: Conquest in China </li></ul><ul><li>Kara Khitai defeated </li></ul><ul><li>Mongolian </li></ul><ul><li>Khwarazm, Muhammad Shah II defeated </li></ul><ul><li>Return to China </li></ul><ul><li>Xi-Xia kingdom and Qin Empire destroyed </li></ul><ul><li>1227, death of Chinggis Khan </li></ul><ul><li>Empire from Persia to North China Sea </li></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>I. The Mongol Empire of Chinggis Khan </li></ul><ul><li>E. Life Under the Mongol Imperium </li></ul><ul><li>Harsh, tolerant </li></ul><ul><li>Chinggis Khan </li></ul><ul><li>Capital at karakorum </li></ul><ul><li>Shamanistic </li></ul><ul><li>Tolerated other religions </li></ul><ul><li>New administration </li></ul><ul><li>Commerce thrives </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>I. The Mongol Empire of Chinggis Khan </li></ul><ul><li>F. The Death of Chinggis Khan and the Division of the Empire </li></ul><ul><li>1227, division of empire </li></ul><ul><li>Three sons, one grandson </li></ul><ul><li>Ogedei, third son </li></ul><ul><li>Elected great khan </li></ul>The Four Khanates of the Divided Monghol Empire
  8. 9. <ul><li>II. The Mongol Drive to the West </li></ul><ul><li>Golden Horde </li></ul><ul><li>Khan's tent </li></ul><ul><li>Russia in the 1200s </li></ul><ul><li>Many kingdoms </li></ul><ul><li>Mongols (Tartars) invade </li></ul><ul><li>Batu, grandson of Chinggis Khan </li></ul><ul><li>1236, begins conquest of Russia </li></ul><ul><li>1240, Kiev taken and sacked </li></ul><ul><li>Novgorod spared </li></ul><ul><li>A. Russia in Bondage </li></ul><ul><li>Russians in vassalage to Golden Horde </li></ul><ul><li>Commerce benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Moscow thrives </li></ul><ul><li>Metropolitan head of Orthodox church </li></ul><ul><li>Leads Russian resistance to Mongol </li></ul><ul><li>Kulikova, 1380 </li></ul><ul><li>Golden Horde defeated </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>II. The Mongol Drive to the West </li></ul><ul><li>B. Mongol Incursions and the Retreat from Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Hungary, 1240 </li></ul><ul><li>Death of Ogedei </li></ul><ul><li>Batu retreats </li></ul><ul><li>C. The Mongol Assault on the Islamic Heartlands </li></ul><ul><li>Hulegu </li></ul><ul><li>Grandson of Chinggis Khan </li></ul><ul><li>Ilkhan </li></ul><ul><li>West to Mesopotamia, north Africa </li></ul><ul><li>1258, Baghdad sacked </li></ul><ul><li>1260, stopped by Baibars </li></ul><ul><li>Egyptian Mamluks </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>III. The Mongol Interlude in Chinese History </li></ul><ul><li>Ogedei renews attack on China </li></ul><ul><li>Kubilai Khan </li></ul><ul><li>Grandson of Chinggis Khan </li></ul><ul><li>Attacks Song </li></ul><ul><li>1271, transformation to Yuan dynasty </li></ul><ul><li>Capital at Tatu (Beijing) </li></ul><ul><li>A. Gender Roles and the Convergence of Mongol and Chinese Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Mongol women retain liberties </li></ul><ul><li>Chabi, wife of Kubilai, influential B. Mongol Tolerance and Foreign Cultural Influence </li></ul><ul><li>Mongol patronage </li></ul><ul><li>Attracts scholars, artists </li></ul><ul><li>Religious toleration </li></ul><ul><li>Buddhists, Nestorians, Latin Christians, Daoists, Muslims </li></ul><ul><li>Marco Polo </li></ul><ul><li>Visits court </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>III. The Mongol Interlude in Chinese History </li></ul><ul><li>C. Social Policies and Scholar-Gentry Resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnic Chinese resist </li></ul><ul><li>Especially scholar-gentry </li></ul><ul><li>Kubilai </li></ul><ul><li>Protects peasant lands </li></ul><ul><li>Famine relief </li></ul><ul><li>Tax, labor burden lessened </li></ul><ul><li>D. The Fall of the House of Yuan </li></ul><ul><li>Death of Kubilai </li></ul><ul><li>Dynasty already weakened </li></ul><ul><li>Song revolt </li></ul><ul><li>1274, 1280, Japan attacked </li></ul><ul><li>Failure </li></ul><ul><li>By 1350s, territory lost </li></ul><ul><li>Ju Yanzhang </li></ul><ul><li>Founds Ming dynasty </li></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>III. The Mongol Interlude in Chinese History </li></ul><ul><li>E. Aftershock: The Brief Ride of Timur </li></ul><ul><li>Timur-i Lang (Tamerlane) </li></ul><ul><li>Turkish </li></ul><ul><li>Base at Samarkand </li></ul><ul><li>1360s, conquests </li></ul><ul><li>Persia, Fertile Crescent, India, Russia </li></ul><ul><li>1405, death </li></ul><ul><li>Empire dissolves </li></ul><ul><li>End of steppe nomad conquests </li></ul>

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