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14. The Last Great Nomadic Challenges

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  • 1.  
  • 2.
    • I. The Mongol Empire of Chinggis Khan II. The Mongol Drive to the West III. The Mongol Interlude in Chinese History
  • 3.
    • I. The Mongol Empire of Chinggis Khan
    • Mongol Culture
    • Nomadic pastoralists
    • Goats, sheep
    • Tribe
    • Divided into clans
    • Temporary confederations
    • Leaders elected
  • 4.
    • I. The Mongol Empire of Chinggis Khan
    • Mongol Culture
    • Nomadic pastoralists
    • Goats, sheep
    • Tribe
    • Divided into clans
    • Temporary confederations
    • Leaders elected
    The Mongol Empire of Chinggis Khan
  • 5.
    • I. The Mongol Empire of Chinggis Khan
    • A. The Making of a Great Warrior: The Early Career of Chinggis Khan
    • Kabul Khan
    • 1100s, defeats Qin forces
    • Grandson, Temujin
    • Chinggis Khan
    • Born Temujin
    • Develops alliances among Mongols
    • 1206, elected khagan (supreme ruler)
    The Mongol Empire of Chinggis Khan
  • 6.
    • I. The Mongol Empire of Chinggis Khan
    • B. Building the Mongol War Machine
    • Mounted warriors
    • Tumens ,10,000 troops
    • Messenger force
    • Adopted gunpowder, cannons
    • C. Conquest: The Mongol Empire under Chinggis Khan
    • 1207, expedition
    • China
    • Xi-Xia, Tangut king defeated
    • D. First Assault on the Islamic World: Conquest in China
    • Kara Khitai defeated
    • Mongolian
    • Khwarazm, Muhammad Shah II defeated
    • Return to China
    • Xi-Xia kingdom and Qin Empire destroyed
    • 1227, death of Chinggis Khan
    • Empire from Persia to North China Sea
  • 7.
    • I. The Mongol Empire of Chinggis Khan
    • E. Life Under the Mongol Imperium
    • Harsh, tolerant
    • Chinggis Khan
    • Capital at karakorum
    • Shamanistic
    • Tolerated other religions
    • New administration
    • Commerce thrives
  • 8.
    • I. The Mongol Empire of Chinggis Khan
    • F. The Death of Chinggis Khan and the Division of the Empire
    • 1227, division of empire
    • Three sons, one grandson
    • Ogedei, third son
    • Elected great khan
    The Four Khanates of the Divided Monghol Empire
  • 9.
    • II. The Mongol Drive to the West
    • Golden Horde
    • Khan's tent
    • Russia in the 1200s
    • Many kingdoms
    • Mongols (Tartars) invade
    • Batu, grandson of Chinggis Khan
    • 1236, begins conquest of Russia
    • 1240, Kiev taken and sacked
    • Novgorod spared
    • A. Russia in Bondage
    • Russians in vassalage to Golden Horde
    • Commerce benefits
    • Moscow thrives
    • Metropolitan head of Orthodox church
    • Leads Russian resistance to Mongol
    • Kulikova, 1380
    • Golden Horde defeated
  • 10.
    • II. The Mongol Drive to the West
    • B. Mongol Incursions and the Retreat from Europe
    • Hungary, 1240
    • Death of Ogedei
    • Batu retreats
    • C. The Mongol Assault on the Islamic Heartlands
    • Hulegu
    • Grandson of Chinggis Khan
    • Ilkhan
    • West to Mesopotamia, north Africa
    • 1258, Baghdad sacked
    • 1260, stopped by Baibars
    • Egyptian Mamluks
  • 11.
    • III. The Mongol Interlude in Chinese History
    • Ogedei renews attack on China
    • Kubilai Khan
    • Grandson of Chinggis Khan
    • Attacks Song
    • 1271, transformation to Yuan dynasty
    • Capital at Tatu (Beijing)
    • A. Gender Roles and the Convergence of Mongol and Chinese Culture
    • Mongol women retain liberties
    • Chabi, wife of Kubilai, influential B. Mongol Tolerance and Foreign Cultural Influence
    • Mongol patronage
    • Attracts scholars, artists
    • Religious toleration
    • Buddhists, Nestorians, Latin Christians, Daoists, Muslims
    • Marco Polo
    • Visits court
  • 12.
    • III. The Mongol Interlude in Chinese History
    • C. Social Policies and Scholar-Gentry Resistance
    • Ethnic Chinese resist
    • Especially scholar-gentry
    • Kubilai
    • Protects peasant lands
    • Famine relief
    • Tax, labor burden lessened
    • D. The Fall of the House of Yuan
    • Death of Kubilai
    • Dynasty already weakened
    • Song revolt
    • 1274, 1280, Japan attacked
    • Failure
    • By 1350s, territory lost
    • Ju Yanzhang
    • Founds Ming dynasty
  • 13.
    • III. The Mongol Interlude in Chinese History
    • E. Aftershock: The Brief Ride of Timur
    • Timur-i Lang (Tamerlane)
    • Turkish
    • Base at Samarkand
    • 1360s, conquests
    • Persia, Fertile Crescent, India, Russia
    • 1405, death
    • Empire dissolves
    • End of steppe nomad conquests

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