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WorkshopICT Adoption in Agriculture and        Agribusiness
AFITA 2010 International Conference, The Quality Information for Competitive Agricultural Based Production System and Comm...
AFITA 2010 International Conference, The Quality Information for Competitive Agricultural Based Production System and Comm...
AFITA 2010 International Conference, The Quality Information for Competitive Agricultural Based Production System and Comm...
AFITA 2010 International Conference, The Quality Information for Competitive Agricultural Based Production System and Comm...
AFITA 2010 International Conference, The Quality Information for Competitive Agricultural Based Production System and Comm...
AFITA 2010 International Conference, The Quality Information for Competitive Agricultural Based Production System and Comm...
AFITA 2010 International Conference, The Quality Information for Competitive Agricultural Based Production System and Comm...
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Indonesia E-Agriculture Strategic Framework: A Direction of ICT Usage as Enabler in Agriculture

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As indicated in many studies, a modern agriculture posts several problems. It tends to not environmentally friendly due to chemical usage, produced more waste, and the land is forced to produced exceeding its capacity. Beside that in the modern agricultural supply chain, farmers (producers) always in a weaker position as compare to distributors (intermediaries) and costumers. Lack of access to updated information leads to a poor judgment on what to plant, when to plant, how much to plant, and where to sale. This imbalanced of agricultural supply chain reduced the farm profitability. Furthermore, it creates a structured poverty in the farming communities due to weakened processes of farming resources ability to fulfill sufficient needs. ICTs could help small and medium farmers increase their revenues (which is related to farm profitability), improve their farming practices (which is related to environmental stewardship), and making it possible for them to access information on agricultural know-how through knowledge sharing among them (which is related to prosperous farming communities), and through research center. ICT can help to increase transparency, prevent corruption, optimal price discovery, information dissemination, usability, preservation and management of documents and content. However, it requires network and information security, interoperability, standardization of business processes and for localization and internationalization of content. All these components need to be structured in such a way into an Indonesian E-Agriculture Strategic Framework (IESF). IESF aims at deploying ICTs for sustainable development in agriculture area targeting ultimate beneficiaries (i.e. farmers) by providing direct-link among farmers, merchants, consumers, local governments with global markets, research center, banks, and so forth.

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Transcript of "Indonesia E-Agriculture Strategic Framework: A Direction of ICT Usage as Enabler in Agriculture"

  1. 1. WorkshopICT Adoption in Agriculture and Agribusiness
  2. 2. AFITA 2010 International Conference, The Quality Information for Competitive Agricultural Based Production System and Commerce Indone esian E-Ag griculture Strategic Framewoork: A Dir rection of I ICT Usage as Enabler in Agricu ulture Zainal A. Hasibuan H Albaar Rubhas A sy National I ICT Council, Republic of Ind R donesia National ICT Council, Republ of Indonesia N lic Faculty of Com mputer Science, University o Indonesia of Depar rtment of Commputer Systems, STMIK-Indo onesia Depok, Indonesia Ja akarta, Indonesia zhasibua@c cs.ui.ac.id albaar.rubhasy@gma ail.comAbstract— As inA ndicated in man studies, a modern agricultu ny ure number of workers and it ha been reco r s as orded thatposts several problems. It tends to not environmentap ally approximately 41% o the total wo of orkforce in Ind donesia arefriendly due to chemical usage produced mo waste, and tf e, ore the workin in agricultur field (agricu ng ral ulture, livestock forestry, k,la is forced to produced exce and o eeding its capac city. Beside that in t and fishhery). In spite of this, several problems still remain in lthe modern ag gricultural supp chain, farm ply mers (produce ers)always in a wa weaker position as compare to distributo e ors Indonesian agricultur sector. ral(intermediaries) and costume ) ers. Lack of access to updat ted One of the most common proble in modern agriculture e emsin nformation leads to a poor ju udgment on wh to plant, wh hat hen is conccerning the “su ustainable agric culture”. Althoough manyto plant, how much to pla ant, and wher to sale. This re people may have d different mean nings, there e exist threeim mbalanced of agricultural su upply chain reduced the far rm ions in relation to the sustai definiti ns inability: sustai inability asprofitability. Fup urthermore, it creates a struc ctured poverty in food sufficiency; sustainability as stewards ship; andthe farming c communities due to weaken ned processes of sustainaability as comm munity [1] (se Fig. 1). But in modern eefarming resourc ability to fuf ces ulfill sufficient n needs. ICTs cou uld agricultture, sustainab bility is most likely negle t ected, i.e.,help small and mh medium farmer increase their revenues (whi rs r ich overusi chemical o non-organic substance to in ing or ncrease theis related to farm profitab s bility), improv their farmi ve ing agriculttural productio By using s on. such substance there are e,practices (which is related to environmental sp h e stewardship), aand two sid effects: the land is forced to produce exceeding its demaking it posm ssible for theem to access information on capacity due to the overproductio (which pos y on ssibly willagricultural kna now-how throu ugh knowledge sharing amo e ong create e economic prob blems) and the production of waste that fthem (which is related to pro osperous farmi ing communitie es), could ppollute the wat and soil (w ter which possibly will createand through ra research cente ICT can h er. help to increa ase ecologiical problems) [2]. This kind of problems occurs in stransparency, p prevent corrupption, optimal price discove ery, most farming com mmunities, an nd positioned farmers din nformation d dissemination, usability, pr reservation a and (produccers) in a wea aker position c compared to d distributorsmanagement of documents an content. Howm f nd wever, it requir res (interm mediaries) and costumers as a result of th lack of henetworkn and information n security, interoperabiliity,standardization of business prs rocesses and for localization a r and updated information n d needed by farm mers.in nternationalizaation of content All these com t. mponents need tobeb structured in such a way in an Indonesi E-Agricultu n nto ian ureStrategic FrameS ework (IESF). IESF aims at de I eploying ICTs f forsustainable deves elopment in agrriculture area t targeting ultimatebeneficiaries (i. farmers) by providing db .e. direct-link amo ongfarmers, merchants, consumer local governmf rs, ments with glob balmarkets, researc center, bank and so forth.m ch ks, .Keywords- agricultural supply chain; E-AgricultureK c I. INT TRODUCTION Indonesia is well known by its rich n s natural resources,such as petroles eum and gas, sea products, and many mo ore,which produce a great ecow e onomic value. In past yea . ars,Indonesian Gr ross Domestic Product (G c GDP) has be een Figu 1. Scheme of su ure ustainable agricult development [ ture [3]dominated by id industrial secto According to BPS-Statist or. ticsIndonesia 1 , m manufacturing industries conntributed arouund Lack of access to updated info o ormation leads to a poor26.4% of the total GDP in 2009. Howe2 n ever, agricultu ural judgme on what to plant, when to plant, how much to ent o wsector continue to be the leading sector in terms of ts es l the plant, a where to sale. This im and mbalanced of a agricultural supply chain reduced the farm prof d fitability. Furth hermore, it creates a structured p poverty in the f farming commu unities due 1 www.bps.go.id to weakkened processe of farming r es resources abilit to fulfill ty
  3. 3. AFITA 2010 International Conference, The Quality Information for Competitive Agricultural Based Production System and Commercesufficient needs. Information Communication Technologies Some other frameworks were built upon other framework,(ICTs) could help small and medium farmers increase their for example, EAP were influenced the other frameworksrevenues (which is related to farm profitability), improve such as Zachman Framework, Federal Enterprisetheir farming practices (which is related to environmental Architecture Framework (FEAF), Treasury Informationstewardship), and making it possible for them to access Systems Architecture Framework (TISAF), and Integratedinformation on agricultural know-how through knowledge Architecture Framework (IAF). Figure 2 illustrates thesharing among them (which is related to prosperous farming evolution of EA frameworks since 1987. In these variouscommunities), and through research center. ICT can help to approach in EA, TOGAF may consider as one of the mostincrease transparency, prevent corruption, optimal price distinguished approach and widely used.discovery, information dissemination, usability, preservationand management of documents and content. However, itrequires network and information security, interoperability,standardization of business processes and for localizationand internationalization of content. All these componentsneed to be structured in such a way into an Indonesian E-Agriculture Strategic Framework (IESF). IESF aims atdeploying ICTs for sustainable development in agriculturearea targeting ultimate beneficiaries (i.e. farmers) byproviding direct-link among farmers, merchants, consumers,local governments with global markets, research center,banks, and so forth. This paper organized in several parts: Section II reviewsthe Enterprise Architecture approach in developing E-Agriculture Framework; Section III outlines the domains ofthe framework; Section IV describes the IESF’s buildingblocks; and conclusion and recommendation are discussed inthe final section. The following section provides an overview Figure 2. Evolution of Enterprise Architecture Frameworks [6]of the approach used in developing E-AgricultureFramework. TOGAF was developed by the Open Group in 1995. This EAF was influenced by the Technical Architecture II. THE ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE APPROACH Framework for Information Management (TAFIM), Enterprise has various definitions, depending on the developed by the US Department of Defense. The latestcontext. In business context, an enterprise is the entire version, TOGAF 9 was released in February 2009. TOGAFbusiness group or corporation comprising of all local and is based on four pillars:international main and sub offices, divisions, subsidiaries, • Business Architecture – defines the business strategy,and departments. In computer industry, an enterprise is an governance, organization, and key business process of theorganization that uses computers. The Open Group provides organization.a broader definition which defines an enterprise as any • Application Architecture – provides a blueprint of thecollections that has a common set of goals. For example, an application systems, the interaction between systems, andenterprise could be a government agency, a whole their relationships to the core business process.corporation, a single division, and so on. Architecture in • Data Architecture – describes the structure of another hand is the fundamental organization of a system organization’s logical and physical data assets and theembodied in its components, their relationships to each other associated data management resources.and to the environment, and the principles guiding its design • Technology Architecture – describes the hardware,and evolution [4]. This concludes that Enterprise software, and network infrastructure needed to supportArchitecture (EA) is a structure of components (IT services, the deployment of core application.processes and infrastructure), their interrelationships, and theprinciples and guidelines governing their design and These pillars are used throughout the development process ofevolution over time to achieve a common set of goals. an EA. To develop the framework, TOGAF uses the Research shows that Enterprise Architecture (EA) is Architecture Development Method (ADM) which hascrucial for the business sustainability [5]. In order to survive iterative and cyclic process (see Fig. 3).and compete in global scale competition, many large scale Another main part of TOGAF is the enterpriseenterprises established their EA. There are several EA continuum. The Enterprise Architecture Continuum is theapproaches, for instance, the Zachman Framework, the Open taxonomy for all the architecture assets, both within theGroup Architecture Framework (TOGAF), the Enterprise enterprise and in the IT industry at large, that the enterpriseArchitecture Planning (EAP), and so forth. The earliest may consider when developing architecture. To develop theframework was initially developed by Zachman 2 in 1987. Enterprise’s Continuum, TOGAF provide two references: The TOGAF Foundation Architecture and TOGAF Resource 2 www.zachmaninternational.com Base. Because TOGAF is a generic framework, the content 12
  4. 4. AFITA 2010 International Conference, The Quality Information for Competitive Agricultural Based Production System and Commerceframework cou be adapted in manyf uld ways and in differe s ent These q questions must be answered in order to de t efine all ofkind of organk nizations, inclu uding in agric cultural indust try. the BA deliverables. First we must identify the st A takeholdersThus, we propT pose TOGAF as the geneeric approach in in the IESF to describ the business domains and fu be functions.developing Indd donesia E-Agr riculture Strategic Framewo ork(IESF). Busines Domains & Functions ss The stakeholders in IESF co e s omprises of the actors involve in agricultur supply cha events. The are two ed ral ain ere types o stakeholder involvemen in the sup of rs’ nt pply chain, direct a indirect inv and volvement. Actors who have direct involvemment in the su upply chain comprises of: • Farm mers/producers s; • Dist tributors/interm mediaries; • Foo industries; od • Mer rchants/traders; and • Con nsumers. quently, actors who are ind Subseq directly involv ved in the supply chain include: • Go overnment agen ncies; • Ag gricultural asso ociations; • Re esearch and devvelopment instiitutes; • No Government Organizatio (NGOs); an on tal ons nd • Un nited Nations OOrganizations (W WHO, WTO, U UNDP). These stakeholders c collaborate to achieve the a agricultural sustainaability (soci ial, environm ment, and economic sustainaability). IESF aims at deploy ying ICTs for sustainable Figure 3. TO OGAF architecture development meth (ADM) [4] hod developpment in agric culture area. In national scal the key n le, III. IN NDONESIAN E-AGRICULTURE STRATEGIC A decision maker is the Government A n Agencies (i.e. M Ministry of Agricul lture). The mi inistry covers all of the organization’s FRAMEWO (IESF) ORK function through t ns the Directorat Generals b setting te by There are fo architectur domains tha are common four re at nly agriculttural policies a standards. But they are lacking in andaccepted as sua ubsets of an overall enterpr o rise architectu ure: agriculttural data. The are limited resources tha could be ere d atBusiness, ApplB lication, Data, and Technolo Architectu ogy ure. used to make strategic and day to day decision m o making. InThese four domT mains make up the initial arc p chitecture for t the the futu ture, IESF mu have the a ust ability to provi all the ideIESF and must be aligned wit each domain th n. informa ation needed by the minist so that th decision try he makers could answer even the sim s r mplest question, such asA.A Business Ar rchitecture “How i the rice prod is duction quantit for this mon ty nth?”. This Business A Architecture (BA) defines the busine s ess problem could be solved by provid m ding the neede updated eddomains, busid iness functionns, business processes, a and agriculttural information. To identify the needed in y nformation,governance, pog olicy, and resou urces of the orgganization. Theere first w must break down the bu we usiness processses in thearea few represe entative questions that could be addressed in d agriculttural supply ch hain.BA:B• Who are the key decision makers, what a their roles a e m are and $ $ $ behaviors innsofar as decisi making is c ion concerned? 1 2b 4• What are th essential qu he uestions that a users must be as Farmers/Produ ucers Distributor/Intermediaries Merchants Consumer able to ans swer for strateegic and day to day decisi ion making? 2a• What core business proce esses are neceessary to support decision ma aking? 3• What policie and laws are necessary to s es e support the init tial developmen and impleme nt entation of the I IESF?• Who will b responsible for the main be ntenance and t the Manufacturer M integrity of t IESF? the Figure 4. Agricultural su e upply chain 13
  5. 5. AFITA 2010 International Conference, The Quality Information for Competitive Agricultural Based Production System and CommerceBusiness ProcessesB distribuutors and merc chants which hhave similar rol buying les: Fig.4 illustr rates the agriccultural supply chain. Farme y ers and sel lling agricultu ural products. To improve d distributionhold the key role in the agricultural suppl chain since inh ly process distributors n s, need informatio like “What, when, and onview of the fac that they ar the producer of agricultuv ct re rs ural where to buy”; .and “Where to sa ale?”. The man nufacturersproducts. The main charactep eristic of the p producers is thhey also n need the info ormation to improve the productionreliance on the weather conditr tions. Good haarvest comes on nly efficienncy which comprises of th hree business processes:with a great ww weather that meets the crop requiremen m ps’ nts. buying, processing, a selling pr , and roducts. The in nformationDistributors as the other stakeholder thD s hen collect a and needed by manufact d turers covers ffrom “What, w when, anddistribute the pd products. Thei profit depen on the pri ir nds ice where to buy?”; “Ho much to pr ow rocess?”; and “Where tomargin between producers an food industrm n nd ries/merchants. In sale?”. The last busi iness domain is the consum mers. As amany cases, farm rmers always in a weaker po i osition and forc ced buyer, their role is to buy agricultu products an the only o ure ndto sell their pro o oducts to distributors at any pprice because tthe informa ation they need is concerning what and wh d g here to buy.la ack of the n needed inform mation that le eads to lack of This co oncludes all of the IESF information needs. Next step fju udgment. This condition adv vantages the inttermediaries w who is to ide entify the goveernance, policy and resources needed to y, ssells the product to food indu ts ustries or mercchants. Both foood develop IESF. pin ndustries and m merchants deppend on distribu utors to run th heirbusiness though they hav different purposes. Fob ve ood Govern nance, Policy & Resourcesin ndustries proce the agricul ess ltural products as raw materials The governance o the IESF ha to be aligne with the e of as edbefore they disb stribute the en products to their food cha nd ain nationa ICT governa al ance policy. Th herefore, IESF m adopt must(supermarkets, restaurants, etc.). On the other hand, t e the the Nat tional ICT Gov vernance Mode which endor el rsed by themerchants resel the products straight the en consumer in am ll nd n Nationa ICT Counci Republic of Indonesia3 (see Fig. 5). al il, fspecific place (i.e. the marks ket). Consume who buy t ers the The mo odel is focused on the manag d gement of ICT processes Tproducts are th last stakehop he older in the aggricultural suppply through policy and m h monitoring & evaluation mechanisms.chain. Howeve the consumc er, mers are the d driver the overrall There a two main co are omponents in t model: thisagricultural proa oducts demand. The next step is to identify t . p the • Stru ucture and role – describes t structure an roles in e the ndkeyk process bu usiness in each business dom h main exist in t the mannaging ICT pro ocesses;agricultural supa pply chain. • Processes – des scribes the pr rocesses to e ensure the govvernance’s mai goal could be achieved, especially in Table 1. Key business process in agricult e p ture area whiich related w with organizat tion goal achhievement,Business Domain n Business Pr rocesses Infformation Needs reso ources managem ment, and risk management.ProducersP • Seeding • Wh to plant? hat • Planting • Wh to plant? hen • Fertilizing • Wh to buy the seed here d, • Harvestingg fert tilizer, and other • Selling farm ming materials? • How much to plant? w • Wh to sale? hereDistributorsD • Buying prooducts • Wh to buy? hat • Selling pro oducts • Wh to buy? hen • Wh to buy? here • Wh to sale? hereManufacturersM • Buying prooducts • Wh to buy? hat • Processingg • Wh to buy? hen • Selling pro oducts • Wh to buy? here • How much to process w s? • Wh to sale? hereMerchantsM • Buying prooducts • Wh to buy? hat • Selling pro oducts • Wh to buy? hen • Wh to buy? here • Wh to sale? hereConsumersC • Buying pro oducts • Wh to buy? hat • Wh to buy? here Figure 5. Na ational ICT Gover rnance Model [7] Table 1 sho the key bu ows usiness process in agricultu ses urearea which catea egorized by bu usiness domain There are fi n. five In the p process componnent, there are five processes: :keyk business p processes in the producers/ t /farmers doma ain: • Syst tems planning –identifies the organization needs and eseeding, plantis ing, fertilizing harvesting, and selling. To g, form mulates ICT ini itiatives in orde to fulfill them er m;im mprove the f farming proce ess, producers needs vario s ous • Inve estment managgement – manag ging the ICT in nvestment;in nformation, su as, “What and when to plant?”; “Ho uch t o owmuch to plant?” “Where to buy the farming resources?” am ”; b g and“Where to sa“ ale?”. The next business domain is t the 3 www.detiknas s.org 14
  6. 6. AFITA 2010 International Conference, The Quality Information for Competitive Agricultural Based Production System and Commerce• Systems realization – deals with selection and aquisition • AgricultureDB – a database in agriculture area of ICT systems and the project management; containing information about company list, agriculture• Systems operation – handles ICT operation which ensure product price list, etc.; the service level and security of the system; • Farming Website – a website contains important• Systems maintenance – maintain ICT assets to support agricultural knowledge; optimal systems operation. • Simulator – simulation tools to forecast farming productivity.There are two process mechanisms to ensure the alignmentbetween the processes and organization needs: Table 2. Key business process in agriculture area• Policy – to give limitation to ICT processes; Business Information Key Applications• Monitoring and evaluation – to ensure the feedback of Domain Needs ICT management represented with certain performance Producers • What to plant? • E-MarketPlace (KO) indicators. • When to plant? • E-Consultation (KO) • Where to buy • AgricultureDB (KO) the seed, • Farming Website (KO)Using the National ICT Governance Model could ensure the fertilizer, and • Simulator (S)governance, policy, and resource management of the IESF. other farmingThe National ICT Council has made E-Agriculture as one of materials?the Strategic Programs. However, in order to develop the • How much toIESF, policies and regulations related to IESF establishment plant? • Where to sale?must be formulated and public-private partnerships must be Distributors • What to buy? • E-MarketPlace (KO)built. This concludes the IESF’s Business Architecture. Next • When to buy? • AgricultureDB (KO)section describes the Application Architecture. • Where to buy? • Where to sale? Manufacturers • What to buy? • E-MarketPlace (KO)B. Application Architecture • When to buy? • AgricultureDB (KO) Application Architecture (AA) provides a blueprint of the • Where to buy? • How much toapplication systems (software applications), the interaction process?between systems (interfaces between applications), and the • Where to sale?user interfaces. There are few representative questions that Merchants • What to buy? • E-MarketPlace (KO)could be addressed in AA: • When to buy?• What are the initial key applications a minimal IESF • Where to buy? • Where to sale? must be able to deliver? Consumers • What to buy? • E-MarketPlace (KO)• How will applications that have a requirement to be • Where to buy? linked be able to do so?• How should the user interface work? The context diagram of the system is illustrated in Fig. 6 below.These questions must be answered in order to define all ofthe AA deliverables. First we define the key applications thatmust be deliver to support decision making in the IESF.Software Applications The initial key applications in the IESF could becategorized as the “Key Operational” in McFarlan StrategicGrid [8]. Key operational applications aim to sustain theexisting business operations and play important role forsurvival in the industry. In agriculture context, the keysoftware application deals with the transactional data. But inorder to sustain the future business strategy, “Strategic”applications are mandatory. Table 2 describes several keyapplications related with the corresponding informationneeds. There are four web-based key applications that could beused by the stakeholders:• E-MarketPlace –an agribusiness portal to buy and sell Figure 6. IESF context diagram products;• E-Consultation – an application to discuss with experts The external entities represent all of the stakeholders in about farming techniques; agriculture area. All of them could share common information, which is product information. Some of them share selling information, like Producers, Distributors, 15
  7. 7. AFITA 2010 International Conference, The Quality Information for Competitive Agricultural Based Production System and CommerceMerchants, and Manufacturer. To improve farmer’s position, hasknowledge about the product and farming techniques areprovided by the R&D institutes and Government Agencies. N 1Rest of the entities (NGOs, Associations, and UN PRODUCT LOCATION PRODUCER CATEGORIESOrganizations) only capable to view and monitor the product N M 1information. Next part describes how to link between the have produceapplications. 1 N 1 AGRICULTURAL 1 1 PRODUCT located in haveInterfaces between Applications PRODUCTS INFO 1 Since all of the application developed in web-based, the USERSinterface that could be used is web application programming browse ACTIVITIES CATEGORIESinterface (API). An API is typically a defined set of 1 1 NHypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) request messages, along have 1 USERS havewith a definition of the structure of response messages,which is usually in an Extensible Markup Language (XML) Figure 7. IESF logical data modelas an open architecture to ensure the interoperability betweenapplications. API could be used to share content such as, Data Sourcesphotos, embedded content (i.e. pdf), video, and so forth. The only official data sources are provided by Government Agencies either the BPS-Statistics or theUser Interfaces Ministry of Agriculture. Nevertheless, NGOs and User interface is the system which users interacts with the agricultural associations may provide the additionalapplications. Type of user interface used in the IESF is web- information to enrich the Indonesian agricultural profile. Allbased user interfaces (WUI). The interfaces accept input and of the data should be standardized in order to ensure theprovide output generating web pages which transmitted via accuracy and interoperability between applications. This datathe internet and viewed by users using web browser should be an accurate reference for all stakeholders,program, for example, Internet Explorer, Mozilla, etc. This especially for international organizations like UN.concludes the IESF’s Application Architectre. Next sectiondescribes the Data Architecture. Link with Global ProgrammeC. Data Architecture The data used in the IESF could be linked with other global programme, for instance the Millennium Data Architecture (DA) describes the structure of an Development Goals (MDGs). Several MDGs target isorganization’s logical and physical data assets and the improve the sustainability of environment, which is one ofassociated data management resources. There are few sustainable agriculture components. Many other MDGsrepresentative questions that could be addressed in DA: indicators may also be referred to IESF data bank to provide• What are the essential core and common data necessary an accurate profile about Indonesia. This concludes the to support information and evidence for decision makers? IESF’s Data Architectre. Next section describes the• What data sources contain these data and what can be Technology Architecture. linked for use form existing operational systems?• What is the link between essential minimum data sets and D. Technology Architecture global programme? Technology Architecture (TA) describes the hardware, software, and network infrastructure needed to support theThese questions must be answered in order to define all of deployment of core application. There are few representativethe DA deliverables. First we define the core and common questions that could be addressed in TA:data in the IESF. • What are the requirements for information to be captured, data entered, tagged, communicated, managed, andCore and Common Data disseminated? Below is the core and common data that the IESF have: • What is the minimum ICT capacity needed across the• Agricultural products; country to support access to the applications and• Product categories; disseminations of information?• Producers; • How will new classes of electronic devices,• Location; communication networks, and related ICT be leveraged• Users; over the next 5 to 7 years?• Product info;• User categories; and These questions must be answered in order to define all of• Activities. the TA deliverables. In this section, we define the technological component (hardware, software, and networkThe logical data model is illustrated in Fig. 7. Next, we infrastructure) to support the IESF.describe the data sources for the IESF. 16
  8. 8. AFITA 2010 International Conference, The Quality Information for Competitive Agricultural Based Production System and CommerceHardware, Software, and Network Infrastructure systems (interfaces between applications), and the user The technological solutions that are used to implement interfaces. DA describes the structure of an organization’sthe IESF must have the capability to link with other logical and physical data assets and the associated dataapplications (web-based). Therefore, these following management resources. Finally, TA describes the hardware,principles are mandatory in IESF technological software, and network infrastructure needed to support theimplementation: deployment of core application. This IESF provide• Using open standards (hardware, software, and network) guidelines for deploying ICTs for sustainable development in• Standardize common data (i.e. formats) agriculture area.• Ensure interoperability There are several important points to be noted before implementing the IESF technological architecture:Moreover, the solution must be leveraged over the next 5 to • Formulate ICT governance, policy, and resources for7 years. Thus, the data should be accessed with other IESF sustainability;electronic devices other than PCs or laptops (e-Agriculture). • Ensure the interoperability between applications throughIn the future, the data should be accessed with mobile phones the usage of standardized data, open standard(m-Agriculture) and any other electronic devices (u- technologies, etc.;Agriculture). The architecture of u-Agriculture is illustrated • Formulate Certificate of Authorities (CA) and Public Keyin Fig. 8 below. Infrastructure (PKI) to manage data accessibility; • Collaboration with Research and Development (R&D)  institutes in IESF is essential for agricultural sustainability. REFERENCES [1] R. Lowrance, et al., "A hierarchical approach to sustainable agriculture," American Journal of Alternative Agriculture, vol. 1, pp. 169-173, 2009. [2] C. Edwards, "The concept of integrated systems in lower input/sustainable agriculture," American Journal of Alternative Agriculture, vol. 2, pp. 148-152, 2009. [3] W. Adams, "The Future of Sustainability: Rethinking environment and development in the 21st century," 2006. [4] TheOpenGroup. (2009). TOGAF Version 9. Available: http://www.opengroup.org/architecture/togaf9-doc/arch/ [5] TheOpenGroup. (2004). Business Executives Guide to IT Architecture. Available: http://www.opengroup.org/bookstore/catalog/w043.htm [6] J. Schekkerman, How to Survive in the Jungle of Enterprise Architecture Frameworks: Creating or Choosing an Enterprise Architecture Framework: Trafford Publishing, 2003. [7] DewanTIKNasional, Panduan Umum Tata Kelola Teknologi Figure 8. u-Agriculture architecture Informasi dan Komunikasi Nasional. Jakarta, 2007. [8] F. W. McFarlan, "Information Technology Changes the WayThis concludes the IESF’s Technology Architectre. Next we You Compete. Harvard Business Review," vol. 62, pp. 98-conclude our discussion about IESF. 103, 1984. IV. CONCLUSION AND RECOMENDATION In this paper, we present the Indonesian E-AgricultureStrategic Framework (IESF) using TOGAF EnterpriseArchitecture approach. There are four domains in theframework: Business (BA), Application (AA), Data (DA),and Technology Architecture (TA). BA defines the businessdomains, business functions, business processes, andgovernance, policy, and resources of the organization inagriculture area. AA provides a blueprint of the applicationsystems (software applications), the interaction between 17

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