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  • Binding material-cement or limeFine aggregate-sand
  • Set quickly so that
  • Explain every type
  • Provide weather resistance.White wash and colour are applied on plastered surface easily.
  • *during transportation and laying over the bed such as bricks,stone,wood etc.
  • Building materials

    1. 1. Summary
    2. 2. • Vital construction material • The Mixture of Portland cement, water, aggregates and in some cases, admixtures. • The cement and water form a paste that hardens and bonds the aggregates together.  Concrete is one of the most commonly used building materials.  Concrete is a versatile material that can easily be mixed to meet a variety of special needs and formed to virtually any shape.
    3. 3. Ingredients of concrete Method of mixing of Concrete Cement Hand mixing Sand Coarse aggregate Fine Aggregate Water Machine mixing
    4. 4. Main Ingredients of concrete
    5. 5. HAND MIXING • For small & important works mixing of concrete is done by hand. • Hand mixing of concrete should be done on hard,clean,water tight surface like a concrete floor or metal tray. • It requires about 10% more of cement than what is required in Machine mixing. MACHINE MIXING • For large scale work concrete mixers are used. • The interval of time for which the concrete should be mixed depends upon the quantity of mixer. • Time ranges from 1.5 to 3 min. • Types ofconcrete mixer:-1)Rotary mixer 2)Tilting mixer
    6. 6. Types Of Grade Mix Portion (Cement : Sand : Corse aggregate) M5 M7.5 M10 M15 M20 M25 1 : 5 :10 1:4:8 1:3:6 1:2:4 1 : 1.5 : 3 1:1:2 M refers to the Mix and the number indicates the specified compressive strength of that Mix at 28 days expressed in N/mm^2
    7. 7. Classification Of Cement According To Binding Material Cement Concrete Lime Concrete According To Design of Concrete Plain Cement Concrete(PCC) Reinforced Cement concrete(RCC)
    8. 8. • The process of keeping concrete wet to enable it to attain full strength is known as curing. • The objective of curing is to prevent loss of moisture from concrete due to evaporation or because of any other reasons. • Curing should be done for a period of three weeks but not less then 10 days.
    9. 9. • To do curing, any one of the following method can be used. i. The surface of concrete is coated with a layer of bitumen or similar other waterproofing compound which gets into the pores of concrete and prevent loss of water from concrete. ii. Concrete surface is covered with waterproof paper or with a layer of wet sand. It could also be covered with gunny bags.
    10. 10. ADVANTAGES • High compressive strength • More economical than steel • Not subjected to corrosive wreathing • Versatile material in building construction • Hard and durable • Water tightness & strength DISADVANTAGES • Poor tensile strength • Develops shrinkage stresses • Requires skill and supervision • Cracks may occur & strength of concrete may come down • Repairing is difficult • Curing time of concrete is more
    11. 11. • Sand is an important building material. IT CONSISTS OF SMALL ROUNDED OR ANGULAR GRAINS OF SILICA sio2 AND IS FORMED BY THE DECOMPOSITION OR DISINTEGRATION OF SAND STONE UNDER THE ACTION OF WEATHER SUCH AS WIND,RAINS FORST ETC. • It forms a major ingredient in concrete , lime mortar , cement mortar etc.
    12. 12. • It abundantly occurs in nature. • Sand is formed by weathering of rocks • Sand can be divided into three main class depending upon the source from it is obtained • 1)pit sand • 2)river sand • 3)sea sand
    13. 13. • It is obtained by digging pits in the soil. It is excavated from A depth of about 1.2 M from the ground level. • This soil consists of sharp angular grains, which are free from silt, clay, salts etc. • Clean pit sand forms an excellent material for mortars and concrete.
    14. 14. • This sand is widely used for all purposes, it is considered to be best sand suitable for important works • It is obtained from the banks or beds of rivers and it consists of fine rounded grains. • The river sand is available in clean conditions and is almost white in color.
    15. 15. • Sea sand is obtained from the sea shores. It is also clean having rounded particles. • Sea sand is light brown in color. Sea sand is always available in combination with certain injurious salts and hence sea sand is unsuitable for making mortar or concrete. • Sea sand increases the setting time of cement. • Hence, it is the general rule to avoid use of sea sand for engineering purposes.
    16. 16. • According to the particle size the sand can be classified as coarse sand, medium sand and fine sand • 1)coarse sand: • Sand particle passing through 3.175 mm SIEVE IS TERMED AS COARSE SAND. It is generally used for masonry work. • 2)medium sand • Sand particle passing through 2.36 mm SIEVE WILL BE CALLED MEDIUM SAND. It is used for plastering. • 3)fine sand • Sand particle passing through 1.5875 mm SIEVE WILL BE CALLED FINE SAND. It is used for plastering.
    17. 17. • Good sand should possess the follwing characterisitics • It should be chemically inert • It should have sharp angular grains • The size of grains should be between 4mm and 6mm • It should be strong and durable • It should be not conain salts wich attract moisture from the atmosphere
    18. 18. • • • • • • Following are the various uses of sand It is used for making lime mortar It is used for making cement mortar It is used for making cement mortar It is used for making cement concrete It is used for masonry work , plastering and pointing works
    19. 19. • Aggregate: – Granular material of mineral composition such as sand, gravel, shale, slag or crushed stone. • Coarse Aggregate: – Predominantly retained on the 4.75mm (#4) sieve Fine Aggregate:  Completely passing through the 9.5mm (3/8”) sieve
    20. 20. • Bedrock – Igneous (solidification of molten material – Sedimentary (consolidated transported material) – Metamorphic (preexisting rock changed by temperature or pressure over time) • Mantle – Material that covers the bedrock which may be cm or km in thickness – Boulders, cobbles, gravel, sand, silt, clay
    21. 21. • Group I –Glassy • • • • • • • Crystal Structure Optical Properties • Hardness Color React with Acids • Luster (dull, glassy) Fracture – Quartz, Obsidian Group II – Dull, Fine Grain – Scratch with a knife • Shale, limestone – Hard - Chert, Basalt Group III - Granular – Scratch with a knife • Limestone, dolomite – Hard • Granite, Gabbro
    22. 22. Field Tests Hardness Mohs Hardness Talc - 1 fingernail Gypsum - 2 penny HCl Reactivity 0.1N HCl Planer Fracture Conchoidal Fracture Calcite - 3 Dolomite - 4 Apatite - 5 knife Single Plane Mica, etc. Concave Surface quartz, chert glass Orthoclase - 6 file Quartz, Chert - 7 Double Plane Feldspars Topaz - 8 Corundum - 9 Diamond - 10 Carbonates Calcite Powdered Dolomite Non-Carbonates Cleavage
    23. 23. • Voids (internal, external, interparticle)
    24. 24. Oven Dry Surface Saturated Dry Wet Moisture Content
    25. 25. • Normal-weight (ASTM C33) – Gravel, – Crushed stone – Natural sand – Manufactured sand – Bulk Specific Gravity = 2.40 - 2.90
    26. 26. • Lightweight (ASTM C330) – Pumice, – Expanded shale and Clay – 3M microspheres, cenospheres... – Uses: filler or low modulus applications • Geo Fills, Structural Slabs
    27. 27. Good adhesion with brick,stones etc. Resist penetration of rain water. Should be cheap, durable and workable. Should be set quickly Joints formed by mortar should not develop cracks Maintain their appearance for long period
    28. 28. •As per binding material:•Cement Mortar •Lime Mortar •Gauged Mortar •Gypsum Mortar •Surkhi Mortar •As per Nature of application:•As per Density of the Mortar •Special mortar
    29. 29. Uses of MORTAR • Bind bricks or stone • Used in plaster work as finishing material. • Joints covered by plaster work.
    30. 30. • Bituminous binders used in pavement construction works includes both bitumen and tar. • The bitumen is a binding material which is present in asphalt. It is also sometimes called the mineral tar. • Bitumen is a petroleum product obtained by the distillation of petroleum crude whereas road tar is obtained by the destructure distillation of coal or wood. • It is chemically hydrocarbon. • The bitumen is black in colour and it is obtain in solid or semisolid state. • Bituminous material are used for various engineering purposes such as dam roof courses,water proff layer for tanks etc. • they are very commonly used in highway constructions n pavements
    31. 31. • Bitumen is available in variaties of types n grates. Thus bitumen material is classified as bellow: ASPHALT: TAR: • It is defined as a natural or artificial mixture in which bitumen is associated with inert mineral matter • it is black or brownish black in color. • it is also one off the most important bituminous material which is produced by destructive distillation of organic material such as coal, oil, peat, and wood. • It is black to dark brown in color.
    32. 32. CUT BLACK: EMULSION: • For cold application as in case of repairing cracks in roofs, floors etc. asphalt mixed with the liquid solvent and then it is called cut black asphalt. • It is obtained by fluxing asphatic bitumen in presence of some suitable liquid distillates of cold tar or petroleum. • For cold application asphalt is available in the form of emulsion. • it is the liquid product containing bitumen to a great extend in an aqueous medium.
    33. 33. • The bituminous material are also called binders which are used in combination with mineral aggregate in road construction. Their functions are as follows: 1. BINDING EFFECTS: the bitumen binds the surface particles together. 2. CUSHION: it acts as a cushioning material on the surface absorbs impact friction etc due to movements of vehicles on road.
    34. 34. 3. SEALING OF SURFACE: When used with the dense graded and angular material. It seals the surface of the road against ingress of water. 4. RESISTANCE TO WEATHERING AGENTS: If the bituminous material is selected properly and is used in road construction can resists effectively the actions of weathering agents like the wind and the sun.
    35. 35. 1. the viscosity of the bitumen at the time of mixing and compaction should be adequate. 2. It should posses sufficient adhesion with the aggregate in the mix in presence of water. 3. The presence of water the bitumen should not strip off from the aggregate. 4. The bituminous material should not be highly temperature susceptible.
    36. 36. • Book:– Elements of CIVIL Engineering • Google:– • Wikipedia:– –