Distance Education in Aotearoa/New Zealand: Challenges and Opportunities

795
-1

Published on

The Australian Keynote presentation by Associate Professor Mark Brown, Director, Teaching, Learning & Distance Education for the DEHub/ODLAA 2011 to 2021- Global challenges and perspectives of blended and distance learning the (14 to 18 February 2011).

Published in: Education
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
795
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
9
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Thank you for that introduction. And also thank you to my colleagues who have already described a number of the challenges and opportunities currently confronting distance education.
  • Most of this talk is going to be about challenges as in NZ there is a fairly hostile environment towards DE
  • Indeed the current funding model for HE is working against traditional distance learners as this recent newspaper clipping illustrates. There are currently serious questions being asked about the value and return on investment of distance education.
  • In the backdrop of his challenging environment, I want to explore these five questions:
  • Struggled to know what to present Resisted temptation of simply giving a demonstration of Stream May be limited time for questions but here over lunch
  • These days, with a name like Brown, I feel rather ‘hip’ with a middle name beginning with ‘e’. You could say putting the ‘e’ in learning comes naturally. On a more serious note, my reflections on e-learning are grounded in the saying that the light comes through the cracks .
  • Education, Earnings, and Tax Payments The median earnings of bachelor’s degree recipients working full-time year-round in 2008 were $55,700, $21,900 more than the median earnings of high school graduates. About $5,900 of the additional $21,900 in earnings of four-year college graduates went to federal, state, and local governments in the form of higher tax payments. Median after-tax earnings were $16,000 higher for those with a bachelor’s degree than for those with only a high school diploma. Individuals with some college but no degree earned 17% more than high school graduates working full-time year-round. Their median after-tax earnings were 16% higher. The median total tax payments of full-time workers with a professional degree in 2008 were over three and a half times as high as the median tax payments of high school graduates working full-time. After-tax earnings were almost three times as high. Individuals with higher levels of education are more likely to have earnings and more likely to work full-time year-round. Including all adults or all working adults in this figure would increase the income differences associated with higher levels of education. Eighty percent of college graduates ages 25 or older had earnings in 2008 and 60% worked full-time year-round. Sixty-three percent of high school graduates ages 25 or older had earnings, and 44% worked full-time year-round.
  • Employment The number employed fell at all levels of education between the beginning of 2008 and the beginning of 2009, but began to recover by early 2010 for four-year college graduates only. In the first quarter of 2010, 82% of male and 73% of female four-year college graduates were in the labor force. Among those with some college or an associate degree, 75% of males and 63% of females were either employed or actively looking for work, compared to 72% of male and 53% of female high school graduates. The labor force includes all individuals who are either employed or actively seeking employment. The percentage of adults who participate in the labor force increases with the level of education.
  • Unemployment In 2009, with an average annual unemployment rate of 7.9% for individuals ages 25 and older, unemployment had risen sharply for all levels of educational attainment. The 4.6% unemployment rate for those with at least a four-year college degree was 5.1 percentage points lower than the 9.7% unemployment rate for high school graduates. In 1999 and 2000, with low overall unemployment rates of 4.0% and 4.2%, respectively, the gap between the unemployment rates for college graduates and high school graduates was 1.7 percentage points. From 1992 through 2009, the annual unemployment rate for individuals with some college but less than a four-year degree was between 0.7 and 1.7 percentage points lower than the unemployment rate for high school graduates.
  • Smoking Smoking rates in the United States increased in the 1940s, leveled off at about 45% in the 1950s, and began a steady decline in the late 1960s. College graduates were at least as likely as others to smoke before the medical consensus on the dangers of smoking became clear. By 1970, when information was widespread and clear public warnings were mandatory, the smoking rate among college graduates had declined to 37%, while 44% of high school graduates smoked. Over the decade from 1998 to 2008, the smoking rate continued to decline rapidly for adults with at least some college experience, but more slowly for others. The percentage of four-year college graduates who smoked declined from 14% to 9%, while the rate for high school graduates declined from 29% to 27%. In 2008, only 6% of adults with advanced degrees smoked, and half of them reported trying to stop smoking in 2008. Among smokers with some college, an associate degree, or a bachelor’s degree, 46% to 48% of smokers tried to stop. Forty-one percent of high school graduates and 44% of adults with less than a high school diploma reported making this effort.
  • Obesity While the frequency of obesity is lower among adults with some college education than among high school graduates, for each age group the gap is largest between those with a bachelor’s degree and those with some college or an associate degree. Differences in obesity rates by education level persist through middle age but narrow considerably at older ages. For example, among 35- to 44-year-olds, 23% of four-year college graduates and 37% of high school graduates were obese in 2008. Among those 65 or older, 24% of four-year college graduates and 28% of high school graduates were obese. Within each household education level, obesity rates are higher for children ages 6 to 11 than for children ages 2 to 5. The frequency of obesity among the children from high school graduate households increases from 14% between the ages of 2 and 5 to 22% between the ages of 6 and 11. The frequency of obesity among the children from four-year college graduate households increases from 6% between the ages of 2 and 5 to 14% between the ages of 6 and 11. Within each education level, obesity rates are either about the same or slightly lower for children ages 12 to 19 than for children ages 6 to 11.
  • Voting In the 2008 presidential election, the gap between the voting rates of individuals with at least a bachelor’s degree and those with a high school education was smallest among older voters. Among individuals ages 75 and older, there was an 11 percentage point gap between the voting rates of four-year college graduates and high school graduates. Among individuals ages 65 to 74, there was a 15 percentage point gap. In the 2008 presidential election, the gap between the voting rates of individuals with at least a bachelor’s degree and those with a high school education was largest among younger voters. Among individuals ages 25 to 44, there was a 32 percentage point gap between the voting rates of four-year college graduates and high school graduates. The voting rate gap for individuals ages 18 to 24 was 30 percentage points. The gap between the voting rates of individuals with some college or an associate degree and those with a high school education ranged from a 10 percentage point difference for those age 75 and over to a 19 percentage point gap for those ages 25 to 44, among whom 64% of those with some college or an associate degree and 45% of high school graduates voted.
  • Example of Choice Tool in Stream
  • Distance Education in Aotearoa/New Zealand: Challenges and Opportunities

    1. 1. Distance Education in Aotearoa / New Zealand: Challenges and Opportunities Mark Brown Director, Teaching, Learning & Distance Education Feb, 2011
    2. 2. Distance Education in Aotearoa / New Zealand “ A real education takes place on campus!”
    3. 3. Distance Education in Aotearoa / New Zealand “ A real education takes place on campus!”
    4. 4. Distance Education in Aotearoa / New Zealand <ul><li>What is the state of distance education? </li></ul><ul><li>Why are distance providers under threat? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the benefits of distance education? </li></ul><ul><li>What are some of the underlying tensions? </li></ul><ul><li>What does the future look like? </li></ul>Five questions:
    5. 5. 1. What is the State of Distance Education?
    6. 6. 1. What is the State of Distance Education? In 2009… • 26.5% of all tertiary students studied by distance • distance students account for 14% of total tertiary EFTS
    7. 7. 1. What is the State of Distance Education? In 2009… • the university sector enrolled 25% of distance students (EFTS) • the ITP sector (mainly polytechnics) accounted for around 35% (EFTS)
    8. 8. 1. What is the State of Distance Education? In 2009… • 15% of undergraduate degrees were being studied by distance students • 18% of postgraduate students (excluding doctorates) study by distance
    9. 9. 1. What is the State of Distance Education? In 2009… • almost 80% of all distance students are over 25 years of age
    10. 10. 1. What is the State of Distance Education? In 2009… • approximately two-thirds of distance students are female
    11. 11. 1. What is the State of Distance Education? In 2009… • approximately 35% of Maori students study by distance
    12. 12. 1. What is the State of Distance Education? In 2009… • The Open Polytechnic - 32,500 distance students - 5277 EFTS • Massey University - 17,500 distance students (18,000 internal students) - 6525 EFTS
    13. 13. 2. Why are Distance Providers Under Threat?
    14. 14. <ul><li>In 2010… </li></ul><ul><li>Publication of league tables: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>attrition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>completion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>progression </li></ul></ul>http://www.tec.govt.nz/ 2. Why are Distance Providers Under Threat?
    15. 15. 2. Why are Distance Providers Under Threat?
    16. 16. 2. Why are Distance Providers Under Threat? Dear Steven, As a representative of over 17,000 distance students studying at Massey University, I am asking you to reconsider your position on funding distance study. I believe the Tertiary Education Strategy (TES) ignores the societal benefits that distance study provides.
    17. 17. Dear Steven, As a representative of over 17,000 distance students studying at Massey University, I am asking you to reconsider your position on funding distance study. I believe the Tertiary Education Strategy (TES) ignores the societal benefits that distance study provides. I agree that completion figures must improve but the manner in which the TES priorities override a common sense solution, distance study, is frustrating for those attempting to capitalize on the opportunities distance study represents. I am one of many that share this opinion. Ralph Springett (18 th Jan, 2011). President’s Blog, EXMSS. http://exmss.org/presidentsblog/ 2. Why are Distance Providers Under Threat?
    18. 18. 3. What are the Benefits of Distance Education?
    19. 19. 3. What are the Benefits of Distance Education? “ Distance Education – it has made me the person I am today, a productive working woman in her late forties contributing to society. I was in my early to middle thirties when I found distance education and… it was a godsend to enable me to make my life and my son’s life a much better one in the long term. I wanted to better myself by studying while on a benefit and not being able to afford childcare, distance education was the best way of making my life better.
    20. 20. “ Distance Education – it has made me the person I am today, a productive working woman in her late forties contributing to society. I was in my early to middle thirties when I found distance education and… it was a godsend to enable me to make my life and my son’s life a much better one in the long term. I wanted to better myself by studying while on a benefit and not being able to afford childcare, distance education was the best way of making my life better. I am now employed by a government department in a role helping victims in the community. I am now in a position that I am not reliant on a benefit and not likely to need one in the future. Where would I be if distance education was not available to me? Still in the same place as I was 12 years ago, stuck on a benefit with no future to speak of. Now I am… proof that it’s possible to change your life for the better by utilizing distance education” Sharon (18 th Jan, 2011) http://exmss.org/presidentsblog/2011/01/18/treat-distance-students-with-respect 3. What are the Benefits of Distance Education?
    21. 21. 3. What are the Benefits of Distance Education? What are the social, cultural, health and economic benefits of distance education to the nation?
    22. 22. http://www.educationcounts.govt.nz/publications/tertiary_education/78889 3. What are the Benefits of Distance Education? Scott, 2010…
    23. 23. • Higher income (strongly) and rates of employment (moderately) • Higher economic standard of living (moderately) • How healthy you think you are, and not being a smoker (both strongly) • Higher tolerance of immigrants, different values, ways of living, and ethnic diversity (moderately to strongly) • Volunteering (moderately) • Whether you voted (moderately for NZ-born only) • Whether you lived in a household that recycles (moderately) • Overall satisfaction with life (weakly to moderately) Education level positively associated with: 3. What are the Benefits of Distance Education?
    24. 24. http://trends.collegeboard.org/education_pays 3. What are the Benefits of Distance Education? In the US…
    25. 25. Median Earnings and Tax Payments of Full-Time Year-Round Workers Ages 25 and Older, by Education Level, 2008 <ul><li>Source: The College Board, Education Pays 2010 </li></ul>3. What are the Benefits of Distance Education?
    26. 26. Labor Force Participation Rates Among Individuals Ages 25 and Older, by Gender and Education Level, First Quarter 2010 3. What are the Benefits of Distance Education?
    27. 27. Unemployment Rates Among Individuals Ages 25 and Older, by Education Level, 1992–2009 3. What are the Benefits of Distance Education?
    28. 28. Smoking Rates Among Individuals Ages 25 and Older, by Education Level, 1940–2008 3. What are the Benefits of Distance Education?
    29. 29. Obesity Rates Among Adults Ages 25 and Older, by Age and Education Level, 2008 3. What are the Benefits of Distance Education?
    30. 30. Volunteering Rates Among U.S. Citizens, by Age and Education Level, 2008 3. What are the Benefits of Distance Education?
    31. 31. 3. What are the Benefits of Distance Education? “ The evidence is overwhelming that higher education improves people’s lives, makes our economy more efficient, and contributes to a more equitable society. The existing gaps in participation and success are detrimental not only to individual lives, but also to society as a whole.
    32. 32. “ The evidence is overwhelming that higher education improves people’s lives, makes our economy more efficient, and contributes to a more equitable society. The existing gaps in participation and success are detrimental not only to individual lives, but also to society as a whole. Different paths are appropriate for different individuals, and our challenge is to make the most promising paths readily available to students from all backgrounds. We will all be better off if we continue to make progress in this direction” (Education Pays, 2010, p.9). 3. What are the Benefits of Distance Education?
    33. 33. 4. What are Some of the Underlying Tensions?
    34. 34. Personal Development Active Citizenship Public Funded Standalone Local Development Personalization Quality Assurance Protected Resources Distance Education Economic Development Knowledge Worker For Profit Alliances Global Development Standardization Quality Enhancement Open Resources Online Learning 4. What are Some of the Underlying Tensions?
    35. 35. 5. What does the Future look like?
    36. 36. 5. What does the Future look like? • Growth of demand for higher education • Competition from for-profit providers • Collaborative competitive advantage • Taking development global • Blending with purpose
    37. 37. Conclusion Education for change rather than education in change!
    38. 38. Conclusion All education springs from images of the future and all education creates images of the future. Thus all education, whether so intended or not, is a preparation for the future. Unless we understand the future for which we are preparing we may do tragic damage to those we teach. (Toffler, 1974). Education for change rather than education in change!
    1. A particular slide catching your eye?

      Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

    ×