@alanruddock - Physiology of Pro
Boxing

1
Alan Ruddock CSci MSc BSc (Hons.)
Chartered Scientist
BASES accredited sport & exercise scientist
Doctoral researcher
Acad...
Sport and Exercise Science

The scientific study of factors that
influence our ability to perform
exercise or physical act...
Physiology
of Sport and
Exercise

The scientific
study of how the
body responds
and adapts to
exercise...

@alanruddock - ...
...to enhance performance

@alanruddock - Physiology of Pro
Boxing

5
@alanruddock - Physiology of Pro
Boxing

6
Scientific Method
Observation

Broadcast

Conclusion

Systematic
Enquiry

Data Collection

Research question

Hypotheses
E...
Observation:
How to win a boxing match

@alanruddock - Physiology of Pro
Boxing

8
Knockout
Failing to continue with
the contest after a boxer
goes „down‟ after a
legitimate blow.
British Boxing Board of C...
Cerebellum

@alanruddock - Physiology of Pro
Boxing

10
Technical Knockout
If at any time during a Contest the Referee
decides in his complete discretion that
one contestant is o...
Potential neurological trauma
Three primary manifestations
1) Acute neurological injuries (causing knockout)
2) Persistent...
Ethical?

@alanruddock - Physiology of Pro
Boxing

13
Knowing these risks would our ethics
committee approve such activity?

I must abide by BASES code of conduct
Professional ...
Points system
For “attack” – direct clean hits with the knuckle part
of the glove of either hand to any part of the front ...
Are boxers malicious thugs who
intend to put their own and
opponents life at risk?

No…
The majority intend to display the...
Safety aspects

Positive aspects

Medical examinations
Doctors present before, during and
after contest
Referee’s experien...
@alanruddock - Physiology of Pro
Boxing

18
Performance indicators
Defence

Attack
Jab
Rear hand cross
Lead hook
Rear hook
Lead uppercut
Rear uppercut
Inverted jab
Le...
Number of punches

Punch stats
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

Round
Mean ± SD number of punche...
Offensive Punches
(n=336)
Successful
(n=94, 28%)

Unsuccessful
(n=242, 72%)

Jab
(n=51, 54%)

Jab
(n=185, 76%)

Hook
(n=18...
26 kph 40 kph
Jab

Reverse hook

0.6 s

0.2 s

Jab

Jab in combo

High intensity neuromuscular action
Sports Biomech. 2011...
PEAK IMPACT FORCE
= 2000 to 5000 N
= 2.5 to 4.5 of body mass

PEAK IMPULSE

18.3 ± 2.3 N·s-1
Reduction in
momentum of
punc...
F·t=m·v
@alanruddock - Physiology of Pro
Boxing

24
Simple approach
Energy production  Force production  Force transmission

= Mechanically effective punches
Winter D. Biom...
Force production
Punches:
•delivered at high velocity
•from action to contact >200 ms +
•require rapid rate of muscular fo...
Force transmission

Effective summation of segmental forces ~ Energy flow

Winter D. Biomechanics
and motor control of
hum...
Energy production
Activity (e.g. punch)
Result from excitation-contraction coupling

@alanruddock - Physiology of Pro
Boxi...
Sparring

@alanruddock - Physiology of Pro
Boxing

29
Footwork + precise jab + intensity = contest control

Capacities set upper
limit to performance...
120
Intensity

100
80
6...
Physiological determinants
HRmax

Capillary density

SVmax

Oxidative enzymes

Hb; %SaO2
COmax

(Ca - Cv O ) max
2

Boxing...
Additional considerations...

Front Physiol. 2012 Apr 11;3:82
@alanruddock - Physiology of Pro Boxing

32
Cardiac (central) adaptations
Maximal stroke volume is a limiter to boxing intensity
Mechanical overload of the heart caus...
Muscle capillarisation (angiogenesis)
The network of capillaries supplying blood to the exercising muscle is a
limiting fa...
Mitochondrial biogenesis and
oxidative enzyme capacity

@alanruddock - Physiology of Pro
Boxing

The number of mitochondri...
What type of training induces
appropriate physiological strain, in a time
effective manner and is specific to
boxing?

Hig...
High energy
demand &
calcium
release

High blood
flow

@alanruddock - Physiology of Pro
Boxing

Cardiac strain

37
HIIT Meta analysis

38
Bacon AP, Carter RE, Ogle EA, Joyner MJ (2013) VO2max Trainability and High Intensity Interval Trai...
"There is more than one way to skin the cat"

Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2010 Oct;20 Suppl 2:1-10
Sports Med. 2013 May;43(5):...
Skin it this way?
Sports Med. 2013 May;43(5):313-38

@alanruddock - Physiology of Pro

40
Skin it this way?
Sports Med. 2013 May;43(5):313-38

@alanruddock - Physiology of Pro
Boxing

41
Even longer?

Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2013 Feb;23(1):74-83

@alanruddock - Physiology of Pro
Boxing

42
Even longer...?

Eur J Appl Physiol. 2013 Feb;113(2):385-94
@alanruddock - Physiology of Pro
Boxing

43
Sports Med. 2013 May;43(5):313-38

@alanruddock - Physiology of Pro
Boxing

44
Train hard. Fight easy.

@alanruddock - Physiology of Pro
Boxing

45
Typical 10 week training plan
FIGHT
0 – 6 weeks

6 – 9 weeks

Development of physical
capacities

Technical training
& spa...
Coaching
opinion &
perspectives

Regular trend
analysis of
collated data

Habitual objective
& subjective
monitoring

Trai...
Acknowledgements
Many thanks to
Dave Hembrough @dwhembro
Centre for Sport and Exercise Science, Sheffield Hallam Universit...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Physiological support for professional boxing

5,801 views

Published on

The Centre for Sport and Exercise Science, Sheffield Hallam University's approach to sport science support to professional boxers including the world famous Ingle gym.

0 Comments
5 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
5,801
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1,673
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
56
Comments
0
Likes
5
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Scientific support for boxing #bxar
  • Sport and exercise science is… #bxar @kidgalahad90
  • The physiologist: researcher, inventor, physician, educator and visionary #bxar
  • Clear focus on enhancing performance #bxar
  • Sport scientists use attempt to solve problems through systematic enquiry #bxar
  • First & critical step: Understand your sport #bxar
  • Knockout defined by BBBofC
  • The KO usually results from a direct blow to the face resulting in an acceleration orrotational force which is transmitted to the brain, affecting the cerebellum and brain stem, thereby causing imbalanceand unsteadiness making the boxer unable to remain standingKO caused by torque to head, cerebellum & brain stem #bxar
  • TKO defined by BBBofC #bxar
  • Potential brain injury – just one injury risk #bxar
  • Based on these risks alone – is it ethical to support boxers? #bxar
  • Ethics approval? I must abide by @basesuk code of conduct
  • Boxers awarded points per round – loosely defined by BBBofC #bxar
  • Intentional, serious, llegitimate injury? NO. #bxar
  • Must consider safety, positive aspects & make informed decisions #bxar
  • Not 1 punch KO. Pro boxing like game of chess #bxar
  • Many pieces to play with #bxar@EThomson_Boxing
  • Punches used many times #bxar@spa_shu
  • Punches used in many different ways #bxar@spa_shu
  • Single & combo punches are high speed actions #bxar
  • Punches need cause large impulse (not powerful) #bxar
  • Ft/m = v – important at takeoff. F t = m v – impulse momentum relationship #bxar
  • @podium_perf simple approach to boxing scientific support
  • Boxers need to be proportionally strong #bxar
  • From foot to fist #bxar
  • Boxers need effective metabolic machinery #bxar
  • What does sparring look like to a physiologist? #bxar
  • Contest control is linked to physical capacities #bxar
  • What physiological characteristics determine boxing intensity? #bxar
  • http://www.frontiersin.org/Striated_Muscle_Physiology/10.3389/fphys.2012.00082/fullDon't loose your head... #bxar @proftimnoakes
  • Boxers need a lot of heart #bxar
  • Boxers need a good network #bxar
  • Boxers need metabolic 'power stations' #bxar @musclescience
  • What type of conditioning should boxers do? #bxar
  • Physiological responses to HIIT #bxar
  • 6 - 12 weeks of HIIT improves VO2max #bxar
  • Skinning the cat by @mart1buch & @paulblaursen #bxar
  • Shorter intervals? #bxar
  • Choosing a session that optimises time at 90% VO2max. Longer intervals? #bxar
  • Even longer intervals?
  • Physiological support for professional boxing

    1. 1. @alanruddock - Physiology of Pro Boxing 1
    2. 2. Alan Ruddock CSci MSc BSc (Hons.) Chartered Scientist BASES accredited sport & exercise scientist Doctoral researcher Academy of Sport and Physical Activity Sheffield Hallam University | Faculty of Health and Wellbeing A016 Collegiate Hall, Collegiate Crescent, Sheffield S10 2BP email: a.ruddock@shu.ac.uk | Telephone: +44 (0) 114 225 4439 @alanruddock #bxar @alanruddock - Physiology of Pro Boxing 2
    3. 3. Sport and Exercise Science The scientific study of factors that influence our ability to perform exercise or physical activity @alanruddock - Physiology of Pro Boxing 3
    4. 4. Physiology of Sport and Exercise The scientific study of how the body responds and adapts to exercise... @alanruddock - Physiology of Pro Boxing 4
    5. 5. ...to enhance performance @alanruddock - Physiology of Pro Boxing 5
    6. 6. @alanruddock - Physiology of Pro Boxing 6
    7. 7. Scientific Method Observation Broadcast Conclusion Systematic Enquiry Data Collection Research question Hypotheses Experimental method @alanruddock - Physiology of Pro Boxing 7
    8. 8. Observation: How to win a boxing match @alanruddock - Physiology of Pro Boxing 8
    9. 9. Knockout Failing to continue with the contest after a boxer goes „down‟ after a legitimate blow. British Boxing Board of Control rules 3.32 & 3.33 @alanruddock - Physiology of Pro Boxing 9
    10. 10. Cerebellum @alanruddock - Physiology of Pro Boxing 10
    11. 11. Technical Knockout If at any time during a Contest the Referee decides in his complete discretion that one contestant is outclassed or is unable to continue as a result of injury, or is not in a position to continue boxing or, at the conclusion of any round, is ten points or more behind his opponent, he shall stop the Contest and declare the opponent the winner. British Boxing Board of Control rule 3.34 @alanruddock - Physiology of Pro Boxing 11
    12. 12. Potential neurological trauma Three primary manifestations 1) Acute neurological injuries (causing knockout) 2) Persistent groggy states and post-concussion syndrome 3) Chronic traumatic encephalopathy, “punch drunk syndrome” or “dementia pugilistica” The American Medical Association, Australian Medical Association, and World Medical Association have provided position statements opposing boxing and recommending that boxing be banned @alanruddock - Physiology of Pro 12
    13. 13. Ethical? @alanruddock - Physiology of Pro Boxing 13
    14. 14. Knowing these risks would our ethics committee approve such activity? I must abide by BASES code of conduct Professional and personal code of conduct 7 a) Members paramount concern is the well-being of their clients 7 g) Members must ensure, where appropriate, the highest standards of safety and working practices and research both in respect of work undertaken by members themselves or by others under their supervision. @alanruddock - Physiology of Pro Boxing 14
    15. 15. Points system For “attack” – direct clean hits with the knuckle part of the glove of either hand to any part of the front or side of the head or body above the belt. For “defence” – guarding, slipping, ducking or getting away from an attack. Where contestants are otherwise equal the majority of points will be given to the one who does most leading off or displays the better style British Board of Boxing Control rule 3.31 @alanruddock - Physiology of Pro Boxing 15
    16. 16. Are boxers malicious thugs who intend to put their own and opponents life at risk? No… The majority intend to display their physical, technical and tactical skills within the rules of the sport. “I’m not in this sport to get hit.” - Kid Galahad @alanruddock - Physiology of Pro Boxing 16
    17. 17. Safety aspects Positive aspects Medical examinations Doctors present before, during and after contest Referee’s experience Trainers duty of care Health benefits Cultural traditions Economic opportunities Informed decisions Trainers Boxing commissions Promoters Medics Scientists Boxers @alanruddock - Physiology of Pro Boxing 17
    18. 18. @alanruddock - Physiology of Pro Boxing 18
    19. 19. Performance indicators Defence Attack Jab Rear hand cross Lead hook Rear hook Lead uppercut Rear uppercut Inverted jab Lead hand feint Rear hand feint Head/body feint Foot feint Block both arms Block rear arm Block lead arm Clinch Duck Foot defence Lean back Push Slip left Slip right Roll clockwise Roll anti-clockwise Footwork + precise jab + intensity = contest control J Sports Sci. 2013;31(5):516-28 @alanruddock - Physiology of Pro Boxing 19
    20. 20. Number of punches Punch stats 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Round Mean ± SD number of punches per round 34 ± 3 Mean ± SD time between punches 5 ± 0.5 s Often attacks are sustained clusters. Particularly before TKO @alanruddock - Physiology of Pro Boxing 20
    21. 21. Offensive Punches (n=336) Successful (n=94, 28%) Unsuccessful (n=242, 72%) Jab (n=51, 54%) Jab (n=185, 76%) Hook (n=18, 19%) Hook (n=30, 12%) Uppercut (n=11, 12%) Uppercut (n=7, 3%) Combination (n=12, 13%) Combination (n=15, 6%) Cross (n=2, 2%) Cross (n=5, 2%) @alanruddock - Physiology of Pro Boxing 70% punches = jab 21
    22. 22. 26 kph 40 kph Jab Reverse hook 0.6 s 0.2 s Jab Jab in combo High intensity neuromuscular action Sports Biomech. 2011 Mar;10(1):1-11 @alanruddock - Physiology of Pro Boxing 22
    23. 23. PEAK IMPACT FORCE = 2000 to 5000 N = 2.5 to 4.5 of body mass PEAK IMPULSE 18.3 ± 2.3 N·s-1 Reduction in momentum of punching arm explained 95% of variance of the J Sports Sci. 2014 Jan 10. [Epub ahead of print] @alanruddock - Physiology of Pro Boxing impulse of impact force 23
    24. 24. F·t=m·v @alanruddock - Physiology of Pro Boxing 24
    25. 25. Simple approach Energy production  Force production  Force transmission = Mechanically effective punches Winter D. Biomechanics and motor control of human movement @alanruddock - Physiology of Pro Boxing 25
    26. 26. Force production Punches: •delivered at high velocity •from action to contact >200 ms + •require rapid rate of muscular force development •must be impulsive • Increase strength = Increase rate of force development Eur J Appl Physiol. 2006 Jan;96(1):46-52. @alanruddock - Physiology of Pro Boxing 26
    27. 27. Force transmission Effective summation of segmental forces ~ Energy flow Winter D. Biomechanics and motor control of human movement @alanruddock - Physiology of Pro Boxing 27
    28. 28. Energy production Activity (e.g. punch) Result from excitation-contraction coupling @alanruddock - Physiology of Pro Boxing 28
    29. 29. Sparring @alanruddock - Physiology of Pro Boxing 29
    30. 30. Footwork + precise jab + intensity = contest control Capacities set upper limit to performance... 120 Intensity 100 80 60 Cumulative fatigue 40 20 0 A @alanruddock - Physiology of Pro Boxing B 30
    31. 31. Physiological determinants HRmax Capillary density SVmax Oxidative enzymes Hb; %SaO2 COmax (Ca - Cv O ) max 2 Boxing intensity @alanruddock - Physiology of Pro Boxing 31
    32. 32. Additional considerations... Front Physiol. 2012 Apr 11;3:82 @alanruddock - Physiology of Pro Boxing 32
    33. 33. Cardiac (central) adaptations Maximal stroke volume is a limiter to boxing intensity Mechanical overload of the heart caused by reaching and maintaining an elevated cardiac filling is the main stimulus for myocardial adaptations associated with the enhancement of maximal stroke volume (and cardiac output). Intensity of exercise = Cardiac output (heart rate x stroke volume) Sports Med. 2007;37(10):857-80 @alanruddock - Physiology of Pro Boxing 33
    34. 34. Muscle capillarisation (angiogenesis) The network of capillaries supplying blood to the exercising muscle is a limiting factor to boxing intensity Possible stimuli causing skeletal muscle angiogenesis • • • • • Exercise induced increases in blood flow Shear stress Muscle 'stretching' - structural disruptions Lowered oxygen tension (PaO2) Metabolic alterations (caused by oxygen demand) Intensity of exercise = Blood flow, shear stress, structural disruption, changes in PaO2 and oxygen demand Biochem Soc Trans. 2011 Dec;39(6):1628-32 @alanruddock - Physiology of Pro Boxing 34
    35. 35. Mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative enzyme capacity @alanruddock - Physiology of Pro Boxing The number of mitochondria and associated oxidative enzymes is a limiter to boxing intensity Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) and its binding partners are responsible for many training adaptations and in particular mitochondrial biogenesis. Intensity of exercise = Mechanical stretch & tension Increase in reactive oxygen species Increase in muscle calcium concentration Altered energy status (ADP, AMP) = PGC-1α , number and size of mitochondria and aerobic capacity Sports Science Exchange (2013) Vol. 26, No. 115, 1-5 35
    36. 36. What type of training induces appropriate physiological strain, in a time effective manner and is specific to boxing? High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) @alanruddock - Physiology of Pro Boxing 36
    37. 37. High energy demand & calcium release High blood flow @alanruddock - Physiology of Pro Boxing Cardiac strain 37
    38. 38. HIIT Meta analysis 38 Bacon AP, Carter RE, Ogle EA, Joyner MJ (2013) VO2max Trainability and High Intensity Interval Training in Humans: A MetaAnalysis. PLoS ONE 8(9): e73182. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0073182 http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0073182 @alanruddock - Physiology of Pro Boxing
    39. 39. "There is more than one way to skin the cat" Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2010 Oct;20 Suppl 2:1-10 Sports Med. 2013 May;43(5):313-38 @alanruddock - Physiology of Pro Boxing 39
    40. 40. Skin it this way? Sports Med. 2013 May;43(5):313-38 @alanruddock - Physiology of Pro 40
    41. 41. Skin it this way? Sports Med. 2013 May;43(5):313-38 @alanruddock - Physiology of Pro Boxing 41
    42. 42. Even longer? Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2013 Feb;23(1):74-83 @alanruddock - Physiology of Pro Boxing 42
    43. 43. Even longer...? Eur J Appl Physiol. 2013 Feb;113(2):385-94 @alanruddock - Physiology of Pro Boxing 43
    44. 44. Sports Med. 2013 May;43(5):313-38 @alanruddock - Physiology of Pro Boxing 44
    45. 45. Train hard. Fight easy. @alanruddock - Physiology of Pro Boxing 45
    46. 46. Typical 10 week training plan FIGHT 0 – 6 weeks 6 – 9 weeks Development of physical capacities Technical training & sparring 9 - 10 weeks 9.9 weeks Taper & cut Make weight, rehydrate & refuel 9.99 weeks Optimised warm-up strategy @alanruddock - Physiology of Pro Boxing 46
    47. 47. Coaching opinion & perspectives Regular trend analysis of collated data Habitual objective & subjective monitoring Training direction & decision- making Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2012 Sep;7(3):242-50. @alanruddock - Physiology of Pro Boxing 47
    48. 48. Acknowledgements Many thanks to Dave Hembrough @dwhembro Centre for Sport and Exercise Science, Sheffield Hallam University Dominic Ingle, Ian Grant - Ingle gym @dominicingle @grant_i @inglegym www.inglegym.com Dave Stache @totalbd - Nourish restaurant Edward Winter - Professor of the physiology of exercise @winteredward @alanruddock - Physiology of Pro Boxing 48

    ×