Ethical Issues In Research
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Ethical Issues In Research

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Ethical Issues In Research Ethical Issues In Research Document Transcript

  • Ethical Issues in Research AnjiWaring Faculty of Health & Social Work University of Plymouth Examples of Unethical Research World War II Nazi Medical studies of 1930’s & 1940’s Tuskegee Syphilis Studies 1932 – 1972 Research in syphilis. What would be the results. Withheld care on men Willowbrook hepatitis study 1950s - 70’s Children with “mentally handicapped”  Instutionalised  Spread of hepatitis in this group  What was going on.
  • Children were admitted that there was Hep C in the hope they would catch it Aidstrials in Uganda 1990’s Placebo on pregnant women Milgram How ethical was it to mislead people Humphry Watch queen Took the number plates  police friend  name and addresses Found Bi-married with children. Rights of Individuals
  • Not to be harmed Shouldn’t come to harm – physical/pyscholgical. To self determination Privacy Confidentiality Self-respect & Dignity Not belittled Not to be refused services Or believe so. You get the same level of care as if you had said yes to the research. (Source: Couchman & Dawson. Nursing & Health Care Research Scutari Press 1995 p142) Ethical Principles in Research Non maleficence Beneficence
  • Respect for autonomy Justice (Source: Royal College of Nursing. Research Ethics RCN London 1998) Vulnerable Groups Do they come under a particular influence…. Children Mentally or emotionally disabled people “Doctor knows best” Suicide attempters. May want someone to talk to Bring up feelings Physically disabled people May not be able to leave Older Adults
  • Confused Demented Institutionalized Terminally ill people Unreasonable hope…. Clinging to any hope…. The very poor who may be dependent on certain services If you don’t take part, may feel that quality of service may reduce. Research Ethics Committees Any research carried in the UK out needs to go in front of a research ethics committee. Accountable to Health Authority Used to be one in each health county. Now one in, eg, SW Membership usually 8 -12
  • Knowledgable Independent ethicists. Advise on all matters relating to ethics of research which involves human suffering Provides a mechanism for monitoring ongoing research Research Ethics Committees To maintain ethical standards of practice in research To protect participants from harm To preserve participants’ rights To provide reassurance to the public that ethical standards are being met. Human cells that were kept. The public didn’t know Needs to meet certain ethical standards.
  • Research Governance Proposal  ethic committee + governance committee (to see if it is of high enough significance, value for money, will it be of value… Aims to improve research quality & safeguard the public by: ◦Enhancing ethical & scientific quality ◦Promoting good practice ◦Reducing adverse incidents & learning from them ◦Preventing poor performance & misconduct Is for all those who: ◦Participate in, host, fund, manage or undertake research Ethics of the Research Process
  • Asking the question. Does the question need to know the answer? Do we know the answer? Is it going to be value for money? Literature Search Where is the literature from? Is it rigourous? Justifyable? Sources valid? False claims? Has the answer been found? Pretend you haven’t found it? Found something nasty? Choosing the design Inappropriate design – RCT Withhold a treatment…!!!!
  • Placebo  pain relief. Ie post surgery. Shouldn’t put people at risk After they have been told they are dying (eg) (after deciding the method) Picking the sample Vunerable Feel that they have to do it. Excluding anyone who you know will skew things. Hand picking? Informed consent…. Have they given consent and receive enough information to make it…. If you tell everyone everything… May skew things
  • People react as they think they should. Need to know What it means What happens Who is going to have access to results No evience of compultion. Committee look for evidence Consent forms Get out clauses. No emotional blackmail. “gifts”  expences , ? ok “rewards”…..!!!!! Collectingthe data Non-partisipant observation.
  • Were they leading questions No debriefing. No support. May cause uncomfortable stuff and just leave them dangling.. Who are you getting your data from? Need to presume basic honesty Analyzing the data Do they reported on all that they say that they were going to..? What have they done with their data? Have they done it all? Presenting the findings All? Biased
  • Skewed? Sponsership Have they presented EVERYTHING or just what looks good. All research need money Drug company sponsorship. But they may not want to know if the research shows that their product comes out worse. Disseminating the findings
  • May not want you want to see? No result  still got to publish it… Sitting on research Don’t meet the requirements not meeting the needs to the sponsor, (eg – the Black report) Have they maintained confidentiality? Should say if they are using pseudonyms. But be careful! You can breach without.
  • If you say that you did it in your own place of work and you have said what you do and where….!!!! Look at ethics…. EVERY stage , have ethical principles been upheld Need to say that ethical committee approval.