Data Collection Quad

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  • 1. Data Collection Jacky Griffith/Anji Waring Faculty of Health and Social Work Methods of Data Collection Objectives: To describe different methods of data collection To discuss the strengths and limitations of the different methods Data Collection Existing data  Already been generated by someone else. They are not creating the data themselve New data  Creating data that are new and not there bfore Biophysiological tests
  • 2. Like  Height  Weight  BP  Ie from physiological data Self report data  What people say/tell/write.  From interviews and questaire.  Subjects have generated themselves  Telling us things Observation data  Observations of the researcher  What they see how they interprete  Researcher led.
  • 3. Data Collection Dimensions of quantitative data Needs to be Structured Quantifiable  Need to turn it into numbers. Objective  Minimize bias  No thoughts and feelings of researcher.
  • 4. Biophysiologic and physical variables In vivo – performed on or with people or living organisms In life Open up to a number of potential extraneous data that make the results skewed. In vitro (in glass) – data gathered and then subject to laboratory analysis ◦Gives absolute values ◦Tend to be accurate
  • 5. ◦As long as the tools are accurate in the first place ◦Easily standardised Tends to be used in randomised trials – what a new drug does to someone. Does it work or is it just the same as doing nothing/or using another drug Not used in surveys or qualitative work so much. Not looking for that type of material. Looking at attitudes to weight Self Report Methods
  • 6. Used in both qualitative and quantitative Unstructured – qualitative approach Structured - quantitative approach Instrument: questionnaire or interview schedule Research termilogy for the tool used. May use tool such as GHQ general health questionaire, BDI beck depression inventory which are common to a lot of studies
  • 7.   May be used in a number of situation Have been already validated. Should always be referenced May design new tool which needs validating Needs to be tested to see if it is valid  give you the results that can be applied to the area of interest.
  • 8. The research should mention if they have invented or used old tools. Need to road test an unvalidated tool. Commones way Face validity Experts say that it does what it purports to May design something specific to this study eg survey questionnaire Does not use scales Can be done by interview with interviewer coding responses,
  • 9. questionnaire given out by researcher, by post Writes down the answers in coded form. Questionnaires/Scales Tools or instruments designed to measure or explore specific issues or attitudes - not just a set of questions.
  • 10. Need to go beyond and use question that will uncover things that are very specific Types: Questions : - ◦Closed questions ◦Yes/no ◦A choice ◦Have to give an answer. ◦“forced into an answer” ◦Open questions ◦Give your own answer and allow to expand on what you really mean and give reasons. ◦Say what you like, how you like. Response Categories:- ◦Likert ◦12345
  • 11. ◦ ◦Visual analogue ◦Yum –hmm-yuck Questionnaire Design Aim: ◦To measure what intend to measure ◦Does what it says it does….. ◦Validity – does it measure what it says it does ◦External validity – generalisable to others ◦Reliability – does it actually work ◦To ensure respondent can complete the questionnaire. ◦ Consider:
  • 12. ◦Wording ◦Are the words understandable for the target sample? ◦Technical words ◦Level of language ◦Children/university graduates ◦Ambiguousness. ◦Discharge Can it be interpreted in any other way? You know what you mean, but others may not understand….. ◦information level required ◦descriptive – yes/no  gives you numbers
  • 13. ◦go beyond that with scales/subsequent questions deeper level of information ◦format of questions ◦nice and easy to get more difficult ◦hook them with something interesting ◦need to know the demographics ◦age ◦gender ◦educational level ◦job title to make sense of the data if you put that first, it can put people off.
  • 14. By the time you have gone through all the interesting stuff, then people are more likely to fill the boring stuff as they finish Leading questions They are let into something rather than lead ◦response categories ◦yes/no ◦choose from multiple choice ◦more than one choice ◦dichotomous choices ◦fixed choices
  • 15. how are the responsing going to be managed mix up positive and negative. People re-write the questions ◦length of questionnaire ◦people in pain… ◦time constraints ◦method of administration ◦take away ◦face to face ◦sent ◦over the phone (almost like an interview) Strengths & Limitations
  • 16. Strengths less costly just print a lot don’t have to be there. But if you post it, it can be dear Reach a lot of people  access large sample distance allows a larger sample size anonymity might be more willing to say what they feel with regard to what they want to say. less threatening
  • 17. no power balance discrepensies. data easy to analyse Limitations response rate can be quite low…. Need to put out more to get suffient back Coverage Can go back and ask “why”s No way of finding out where attitudes originated. ability to complete then these are excluded social desirability
  • 18. people don’t want to admit, even if they are anonomous, that is not acceptable to the population as a whole. Is saying what you think social acceptable Is what they are saying ileagal? So they don’t want to even admit even if it is anonymous. IInterviews Types: structured
  • 19. semi-structured done in a very open way. Not in the same orede Can go backwards and forward Boundries Cue questions “now can I ask you about…” Unstructured In grounded theory
  • 20. Don’t know much about what you are studying. Don’t have a schedule or cue questions. “tell me about…..” No stearing at all Could last one second or one millennium Method face to face
  • 21. telephone focus group a group interview conformity issues Practical Considerations Design of interview schedule What are the key areas that need to be covered? Training of interviewers
  • 22. If quantitive  all be done in the same way if qualitative:- beware of cultural difference and interpretive difference. Place of interview Your teratory Their teratory They have more power… Timing of interview After the event … too soon, too far after. 20 mins to 90mins
  • 23. Recording the information collected ◦Manually ◦audiotape ◦videotape Strengths & Limitations Strengths quick results clarification response rate additional information less superficial Limitations practicalities expensive
  • 24. analysis bias social desirability Observation What we see Actually observed rather than what people say When aim to describe what happening in setting need overview of activity/behaviour establish main issues as prelude to further work.
  • 25. Overview Leader on to something else What are the main issues Then look at something in more detail Qualitative or quantitateive Target Areas individual characteristics non-verbal communication type of verbal communication behaviour conformity
  • 26. Types Gold 1958 Covert Overt Complete Participant as participation observer Complete Participant as observer participant Unethical Hawthorn effect Used with babies and young children (but parents But if you are there long enough, people’s need to know behaviour reverts Practical considerations Planning
  • 27. ◦Structured (tick box) /unstructured (written down long hand) ◦Field note can support other forms of data. ◦what to sample ◦when to sample ◦how to record ◦tool use (validated/unvalidated) ◦recorded electronic ◦time available Strengths and Limitations Strengths first hand recording you can see what is happening.
  • 28. No self report bias control over data collected Limitations difficult to arrange observer bias  only see what you want to see or expect to see. time Hawthorne effect Training Inter-rater reliability  all interviews/observes are singing from the same song book. Pilot Studies
  • 29. For new tools  or doing something new with an old tool Try it out first Small scale version of the main study. To smooth out future hiccups. Try it out on similar types of group. Some of the sample will do the pilot study. Time & cost built into the proposal
  • 30. May have to go back to basics and redesign the whole thing but it is better to find out now than after you have spent lots of money on the real thing. Carried out prior to main study to: ◦test new methods ◦check feasibility of design ◦ensure appropriateness of sample ◦identify potential pitfalls DOES IT ACTUALLY WORK!!!!!!!!????!!!! Modify aspects of main study according to results from pilot  Look to see how if there has been a pilot and does it work  Did they need to change and how Triangulation
  • 31. Use of more than one method for collecting or interpreting data Ie inteveiw as well as observation From surveying From more than one set of data Hoping that one will support the other
  • 32. May show that there is a gap and may show if one or other is unreliable. Types: Methodological Theoretical Data Quantititve vs qualitative  Investigator 2 people looking to see if they find the same thing…. To validate.