Towards a better understanding of Social Machines

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My talk for RPI Cognitive Department, March 31st, 2010

My talk for RPI Cognitive Department, March 31st, 2010

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  • 1. Towards a better understanding of Social Machines Alvaro Graves
  • 2. Outline
    • Part 1: Cognitive processes involve (sometimes) the use of the Web
    • Part 2: The Web can (sometimes) be enhanced by the human mind
    • Part 3: Our current initiatives to study this interaction
  • 3. <part1> <!-- The Web in Cognition -->
  • 4. Cognition is not only in the mind
    • The Extended Mind (Clark & Chalmers, 1998)
      • “ ... beliefs can be constituted partly by features of the environment”
      • Otto's notebook
    • Organism-Centered Cognition (Clark, 2007)
      • Cognitive process extended to the environment
      • However, centered in the organism
  • 5. Cognition and the Web
    • Cognitive Extension and the Web. ( Smart et al., 2009)
        • Otto's Web-based notebook?
    • “ Wikipedia is down, I'm ignorant again ”
    • A. Cadiz, 2010
  • 6. Conditions for Cognition
    • If Web is part of Cognition, several conditions must be fulfilled:
    • Availability (reliable and invoked frequently)
    • Trust (information as trustworthy as bio-memory)
    • Accessibility (can obtain information efficiently)
    • Conscious endorsement (information endorsed in the past)
  • 7. Availability criterion
    • More and more people take action after consulting the Web
    • Increased ubiquity of the Web
      • Laptops
      • Cellphones
      • Game consoles
      • TV
      • Refrigerators
  • 8. Trust criterion
    • Google Maps?
      • Grocery shops in Troy, NY.
      • GMaps shows me how to get there
    • Medical information from PubMed?
  • 9. Accessibility criterion
    • “ Wristwatch example ” (Clark, 2003)
      • Do you know what time is it?
    • Information doesn't need to be consciously known
    • However is important to being able to (efficiently) access it.
    • Access Wikipedia?
  • 10. Conscious endorsement
    • A weak criterion (Clark, 2008)
      • What about implicit knowledge?
    • User-provided content
      • Revisiting articles
      • My Weblog
  • 11. Conclusions part 1
    • Can be part of cognitive processes
      • Not all the Web
      • Not all the time
    • However it seems this is becoming more and more part of it.
  • 12. </part1>
  • 13. <part2> <!-- Cognition in the Web -->
  • 14. Motivation
    • Lots of human computational power
    • 9 billion human-hours of solitaire were played in 2003
      • Empire state building, 7 million human-hours (6.8 hours of Solitare)
      • Panama canal, 20 million human-hours (less than a day of Solitare)
  • 15. Social Machines
    • Social Machines are mechanisms where:
      • Humans do the creative work
      • Machines do the administrative work
  • 16. What are we good at? Humans Computers Discover patterns Good Bad Creative thinking Good Bad Information Management Bad Good Data communication Bad Good
  • 17. Types of Social Machines
    • There is a range of mechanisms available, but we can classify them in two groups (Haythornthwaite, 2009)
      • Heavyweight
      • Lightweight
  • 18. Heavyweight
    • Smaller audience, long-term commitment, democratic/meritocratic
    • Examples:
      • Wikipedia
      • F/OSS projects
      • W3C Working groups
      • Fansub groups
  • 19. Lightweight
    • Bigger audience, short-term commitment, non-democratic
    • Examples:
      • Fold.it (http://fold.it)
      • ReCaptcha (http://recaptcha.net/)
      • GalaxyZoo (http://www.galaxyzoo.org/)
  • 20. Conclusions part 2
    • Different types of Social Machines
      • Heavyweight
      • Lightweight
    • Human cognition is key in these Social Machines
  • 21. </part2>
  • 22. <part3> <!-- How to study SM -->
  • 23. How to study this phenomenon?
    • Limitations
      • Access to information (logs, database)
      • Privacy concerns
    • Solution
      • Create framework for Social Machines
      • Incentives are important
  • 24. Motivation 1: Public Safety
    • Interest for individuals, policy makers, law-enforcers
    • Provide “official” information (TroyPD, RPI public safety)
    • Also allow users to include relevant information
    • Enable establishing trust relations between users and belief on data
  • 25. PublicSafetyMap.org
  • 26. Next steps
    • Annotation on events
    • Ability to put ANYTHING with geolocation
    • Connect with well-known social networks (Facebook, MySpace, etc...)
  • 27. Motivation 2: Geoannotation
    • User can mark areas (polygons) in a map (Sage bldg., my office, home, etc...)
    • Allow users to operate and search over these polygons
    • “ Give me all chinese restaurant that delivers to my place”
  • 28. Conclusions part 3
    • Don't compete with Google
    • Opening data so others can use it for their own applications
    • But most important: A Framework where we can study Social Machines
  • 29. </part3>
  • 30. <conclusions>
  • 31. Conclusions
    • Cognition is (sometimes) related to the Web
    • Web2.0 has made available incipient Social Machines
    • What can we do with Web3.0 technologies?
    • How to improve trust, collaboration, privacy, efficiency in this and new SM's?
  • 32. </conclusions> <questions/>
  • 33. <references/>
    • Clark and Chalmers. The extended mind. Analysis (1998) vol. 58 (1) pp. 7-19
    • Clark. Curing cognitive hiccups: A defense of the extended mind . (2007)
    • Smart et al. Cognitive Extension and the Web . (2009)
    • Clark. Natural-born cyborgs: Minds, technologies, and the future of human intelligence . (2003)
    • Clark. Supersizing the mind: embodiment, action, and cognitive extension , 2008
    • Hendler and Berners-Lee. From the Semantic Web to social machines: A research challenge for AI on the World Wide Web . Artificial Intelligence (2010) vol. 174 (2) pp. 156-161