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Conceptual Business Services: An architectural approach for building a business service portfolio

Conceptual Business Services: An architectural approach for building a business service portfolio

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  • 07/11/06

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  • 1. Conceptual Business Service: An Architectural Approach for Building a Business Service Portfolio Alan Frye - the Head of Enterprise Integration Strategy, Planning and Architecture, Office of the CTO at ANZ Banking Group Ben Clohesy - Principal Consultant SystemicLogic Australian Computer Society - Service Oriented Computing - Special Interest Group 28 th October 2008 9 June 2009 Page:
  • 2. Agenda
    • The principles behind SOA and the difficulty in aligning to business concerns
    • Business and Technical Interoperability
    • The need for structured assets
    • A Conceptual Business Service (CBS)
    • A business services portfolio
    • Principles and Conceptual Business Services
    • Example specifications
    • Conclusion
    • Questions and Discussion
    • References
  • 3. How long are we going to continue just cobbling packages together? Every organisation has the systems it deserves
  • 4. Problem Space of Large Enterprises
    • Multiple business unit enterprises based on strategy or specialisation
    • Business units may mange own profit/loss
    • Different priorities and maturities along similar business themes
    • A large number of systems
    • A variety of specialized capabilities
    • Silos of behaviors and specialized, domain specific languages
    • Limited sharing of capabilities and assets across the enterprise
    • Reduced agility
    • Duplication of capabilities
    • High complexity leading to increased delivery risk
    • Potential to culminate in a paralyzed organization
  • 5. Destructive Feedback Loop
  • 6. SOA Principles and Alignment with Business
    • SOA principles provide guidance and structure
      • loose coupling
      • abstraction
      • virtualisation
    • Adherence to them may result in an apparent mis-alignment of business concerns from technology
    • There is a need for the business rather than the technologists, to take greater control
    • The business must have a better understanding of the business processes, services and assets that can be leveraged
  • 7. EAI to Achieve Technical Interoperability Enterprise Application Integration (EAI) approaches solved the technical inefficiencies of point-to-point system connectivity by providing greater levels of technical interoperability
  • 8. Promise of SOA
    • SOA is an incremental improvement upon traditional enterprise application integration (EAI) approaches
    • EAI solved connectivity issues by providing technical interoperability
    • Core problem in achieving these outcomes is not one of technology, but of understanding business concepts
    • The focus must shift from that of technical interoperability to that of achieving business interoperability .
  • 9. Technical versus Business Interoperability Even if consumer change is mitigated by consumer mediation adaptors, count how many are impacted by provider substitutions Service enabling of systems Consumer  Provider
    • Technical Interoperability
    •  Technical decoupling
    • Semantically coupled
    • High impact from change
    • - Quick time-to-market – initially
    • Business Interoperability
    • Technical decoupling
    • Semantically decoupled
    • Low impact from change
    • Longer time-to-market
    Consumer  Provider = EAI = Services Technical Bus Virtualizing Technology Business Bus Virtualizing Business Canonical business model – Service enabling business Impact Substitute Impact Substitute
  • 10. Technical Interoperability
    • The act of directly exposing functionality via a hub or bus model which virtualizes the computational systems
      • the technology transports,
      • physical locations and
      • The technical constraints of integration are abstracted away from both the consumer and provider of the functionality
      • SOA approaches to date have provided an incremental evolution of connectivity . The benefits achieved are typically limited to single business units, small service libraries or small organizations
  • 11. Business Interoperability
    • Virtualization of business models
    • The use of a mature framework, common reference language or model and skilled professionals are keys to this facilitation within a reasonable time and cost frame
    • Business-centric SOA approach must provide an evolution of not just technical approaches, but of architecture
    • The ability to manage a large library of services (and assets), across many business units within a large enterprise
    • Allows us to then leverage model driven architecture (MDA) approaches to create a powerful service system
    • Conceptual business services play a key role in this advanced architectural method
  • 12. A MODEL DRIVEN APPROACH
  • 13. Why Model?
    • Capture the relationships between people and work they do
    • Capture the dependencies between elements
    • Understand how the many parts of a business relate to each other
    • Avoid the ‘telephone book’ of documentation
    • Uncover hidden relationships between elements
    • Provides ‘structured assets’
    • Documents just don’t cut it anymore
  • 14. Structured Assets
    • A formal and organised view of an item of value
    • The intellectual property of an organisation including
      • the code/applications
      • specifications for the functionality provided
    • May be viewed in the context of the total lifecycle of the organisation’s systems when represented by rich metadata and formal diagrams
    • Typically part of a business reference model, for instance using some framework and UML
    • Important to hold structured assets or otherwise there is a likelihood of fragmented and incomplete system IP
  • 15. Types of frameworks
    • There are many different frameworks
    • Some examples include:
      • Zachman
      • FEAF
      • TOGAF
      • OMG MDA
    • The Business Reference Model is part of a framework and contains structured assets
  • 16. A Business Reference Model
    • Many different types of models with different structures
    • The following views may be present:
      • Business View - a functional view of the organisation including process models
      • Information View - the information subject areas of interest to the organisation
      • Dynamic View - states for events and reference information
      • Technology View - a system oriented view of the organisation including applications portfolios and architectural views
      • Business Service View - the business service portfolio
  • 17. Canonical Information Model
    • The information view contains the Canonical Information Model
    • The Canonical Information Model provides a single vocabulary and thus the common language for the organisation
      • (e.g. concepts such as account are not consistently used or understood. An account may be seen as one of: a customer or party, a set of transactions with balances, a product type)
    • The services which represent abstract business functions are termed a Conceptual Business Service (CBS) in our approach
    • The common concepts are the basis of the information required for use across the enterprise
  • 18. CONCEPTUAL BUSINESS SERVICES
  • 19. What is a Conceptual Business Service?
    • Provides a package of functionality related to achievement of a business process or step
    • Reflects business concepts and events and is associated with execution of business functions
    • Resembles real world tasks and things
    • Recognisable to non-technical process performers.
    • Provides a bridge between technical domain and non-technical domain – common point of communication
    • Avoids technical descriptions, however structured and tied to technical concepts
    • Not directly implemented as code
    • Technical (or software) services are implementations of CBSs
    • Used as a point of organisation and management
  • 20. Conventional Strategic Alignment
    • Traditional business strategy to technology is done in a point-to-point manner
    • Strategy is developed  a project is set up  something is built
    • Creates alignment at a single point
    • Fine for an organisation that has only a single line of business in one location
  • 21. Strategic Alignment via Conceptual Abstraction
    • Business determines overall strategy
    • Moves through layers of business architecture (incl. operational areas, marketing, process etc.) until a project is created to deliver against strategy
    • Service portfolio is consulted to determine the CBS’s that are available or planned
    • Requirements of the project are lifted to a more abstract level and expressed as responsibilities
    • Specification of CBS to meet project needs is created and used as central point for technology build (or acquisition)
    • Service then moves through the layers and policies determined by the organisation for their SOA
    • Helps ensure alignment to strategy not just project objectives
  • 22. A Business Services Portfolio
    • Used to manage the organisations conceptual business services
    • Series of Business Service Domains
    • Within the service domains are a number of service portfolios
    • Utilised to move towards federation or other approaches depending on the organisation’s strategy, structure and maturity
    • The structure and some examples are shown on the following two slides
  • 23. Portfolio relationships
    • Service Domains contain Service Portfolios which contain Conceptual Business Services
    • Portfolios and Services have an Owner
    • Structure is used as the basis for managing demand and development
    • The Service Portfolio becomes a Structured Asset
  • 24. Examples of Domains and Portfolios
    • Domains and portfolios are used to organise and manage services
    • Forms part of ‘scoring’ for a roadmap
  • 25. Principles and Conceptual Business Services
    • Coarse-grained
    • Business aligned
    • Well-defined Contract
    • Loosely Coupled
    • Discoverable
    • Durable
    • Composable
    • Reusable
    • Complete
    • Non-duplicated
  • 26. Helps realise SOA principles These principles as per Sprott [3]
  • 27. AN APPROACH TO SPECIFYING A CBS
  • 28. Specifying Conceptual Business Services
    • This approach to specifying a CBS uses a meta-model and UML
    • The meta-model provides an overarching view of the elements that make up a service
    • It provides the connection through to the business reference model and alignment to strategy
  • 29. CBS meta-model
    • Meta-model provides overview of elements and relationships
    • Each of these elements is part of the specification
  • 30. Potential CBS and Service Relationship
    • Can build on other concepts (e.g. from CBDI Forum Service Architecture & Engineering meta-model for SOA)
    • Extension points:
      • SERVICE PACKAGE::Service (notional)
      • SERVICE PACKAGE::Software Service
      • SERVICE PACKAGE:: Non-Software Service
    • Relationship would usually conform to that expressed in the diagram
  • 31. CBS Item and corresponding UML artefact A sample of UML artefacts and CBS items CBS Item UML Artefact Conceptual Business Service Class Stereotyped as «CBS» Operation Operation in a Class Domain Package Portfolio Package Responsibility Requirement Service Information Model Class Diagram Message Information Model Class Diagram
  • 32. Anatomy of a Conceptual Business Service
  • 33. Example CBS specification
  • 34. Example of operation detail
  • 35. Business Context
    • The business context package displays those contexts that the CBS may be used within. This is a combination of
      • Brand
      • Channel
      • Region
      • Organisational unit
      • Process
      • Role
    • Allows application of project requirements in many varieties
    • Defines the point of variation and captures the commonalities
  • 36. Example Sequence Diagram Using CBS's
  • 37. Example Service Information Model for a CBS
  • 38. Example request message information model
  • 39. Conclusion
    • More emphasis needs to be placed on business interoperability now that technical interoperability is better understood
    • To achieve business interoperability an approach is required that defines function and corresponding services at a high enough level of abstraction to allow strategic alignment
    • When defining a CBS reliance is placed on the existence of a business reference model which includes a canonical information model
    • The CBS is a basis for a portfolio of business services
    • The portfolio is navigable and allows recognition of services that fulfill needs across the organisation.
  • 40. Questions!
  • 41. References
    • [1] Alonso G., Casati F., Kuno H. and Machiraju V.; Web Services : Concepts, Architectures and Applications ; Springer-Verlag 2004
    • [2] Erl T. SOA Principles of Service Design Prentice Hall PTR 2007
    • [3] Sprott D. Service Architecture and Engineerin g CBDI Journal 2006 July/August Best Practice Report
    • http://www.cbdiforum.com/secure/interact/2006-07/serv_archi_eng.php 2006
    • [4] Lewis, Grace A.; Morris, Edwin; Simanta, Soumya; Wrage, Lutz; Common Misconceptions about Service-Oriented Architecture Sixth International IEEE Conference on Commercial-off-the-Shelf (COTS)-Based Software Systems (ICCBSS'07) 2007
    • [5] Anderson W. What COTS and Software Reuse Teach Us about SOA Sixth International IEEE Conference on Commercial-off-the-Shelf (COTS)-Based Software Systems (ICCBSS'07) 2007
    • [6] Wei Tan; Zhong Tian; Fangyan Rao; Li Wang; Ru Fang; Process Guided Service Composition in Building SOA Solutions: A Data Driven Approach Web Services, 2006. ICWS '06. International Conference on Page(s):558 - 568 Sept. 2006
    • [7] Kotonya, Gerald; Hutchinson, John A Service-Oriented Approach for Specifying Component-Based Systems Sixth International IEEE Conference on Commercial-off-the-Shelf (COTS)-Based Software Systems, 2007 (ICCBSS '07) pp.150 – 162 Feb. 26 2007-March 2 2007
    • [8] Zdun U. Carsten Hentrich C. and Dustdar S. Modeling Process-Driven and Service-Oriented Architectures Using Patterns and Pattern Primitives ACM Transactions on the Web, Vol. 1, No. 3, Article 14, Publication date: September 2007
    • [9] Zdun U. Avgeriou P. Hentrich C.and Dustdar S. Architecting as Decision Making with Patterns and Primitives SHARK’08, May 13, 2008, Leipzig, Germany 2008
    • [10] Pfadenhauer, K. Dustdar, S. Kittl, B. Challenges and Solutions for Model Driven Web Service Composition , Proceedings of the 14th IEEE International Workshops on Enabling Technologies: Infrastructure for Collaborative Enterprise (WETICE’05)
    • [11] Feenstra R., Janssen M. Service Portfolios for Managing Modular Networks May 2008: Proceedings of the 2008 international conference on Digital government research (DGO'08) 2008
    • [12] Aoyama M. A Business-Driven Web Service Creation Methodology Proceedings of the 2002 Symposium on Applications and the Internet (SAINT.02w) IEEE 2002
    • [13] Zachman J.A. A Framework for Information
    • Systems Architecture IBM Systems Journal 26, 3
    • (1987), pp 276-292
    • [14] Federal Enterprise Architecture Framework (FEAF) USA EGov http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/egov/a-2-EAModelsNEW2.html accessed 1 September 2008
    • [15] TOGAF, The Open Group Architecture Framework,
    • http://www.opengroup.org/togaf/ accessed 1 September 2008
    • [16] CBDI Forum Service Architecture & Engineering meta model for SOA
    • http://www.cbdiforum.com/public/meta_model_v2.php accessed 1 September 2008