Mapping London’s
Creative Industries
Alan Freeman
A new source of data about the
creative industries
 Evidence is central to LDA creative strategy
 Until now our data was...
Micro-data
 Inter-Departmental Business Register
(IDBR)
 Commercial company databases
– Additional information
– Statist...
The creative and sector data project
 We have now completed a pilot
– commissioned from Trends Business Research
Economic...
Questions, questions
 Questions we can answer now
– Where are the Creative Industries? Are they
found where other industr...
Do Creative Firms Cluster?
Some cluster more than others
100%
90%

Total Creative

70%
Radio and Television

60%
50%
40%

Total All Industries 2003
(...
Some cluster in a similar way
100%
90%

Publishing

70%
Advertising

60%
50%
40%

Architecture

30%
20%

Total All Industr...
Some less than others
100%
90%

Music, Performing Arts

70%

Leisure Software

60%
50%

Art and Antiques

40%
30%
20%

Tot...
Where do Creative
Industries Locate?
Workforce jobs, all industries

Fill
Creative Jobs

Source: Trends Business Research, GLAE
Creative Businesses

Source: Trends Business Research, GLAE
Where Creative Jobs dominate
Where Creative Firms dominate
Employees per business
Employees per business
Employees per business
A Historical Memory?
A creative value chain?
Total Creative Industries

Source: TBR and GLAE
Specialising in Creation

Source: TBR and GLAE
DCMS Evidence Toolkit (DET) ‘Creation’
function

Source: TBR and GLAE
Concerns, solutions, and
extensions
Some unexpected benefits
 SIC 5-digit codes
–
–
–
–

IDBR contains 5-digit codes, ABI and LFS do not
TBR economics extrac...
Consistency
 We asked for consistency in the overall total
and for four DET ‘domains’
 This is new: DCMS and others incl...
Time
 No Creative Industry before 1992
– The SIC codes which allow the industry to be defined did
not exist

 Micro-data...
The credits

 The idea: DCMS
 The work: Trends Business Research
 The groundwork: Kingston University, Leeds
University...
Appendix: the DET sectors
Number of workforce jobs in London
Audio-visual
Books & Press
Performance
Visual Arts
All Domain...
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Location of London Creative Industries

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Second of two slidesets prepared using the GLA's local area creative industry datasets. With an interesting slide on London's historical memory

Published in: Education, Technology, Business
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  • Since the 1990s the Department of Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS) has sought to coordinate an evidence-based strategy for the creative industries.
    GLAE uses DCMS methodology
    1999 DCMS mapping framework. 11 sectors, using Standard Industrial Codes (SIC) and Standard Occupational Codes (SOC) to identify creative businesses and creative workers.
    2004 ‘DCMS Evidence Toolkit (DET) – a new framework for classifying Creative Industries, distinguishing four ‘domains’ (Audio-Visual, Performance, Books and Press, Visual and Performing Arts) and four ‘stages in the value chain’ (Creation, Making, Dissemination, Exhibition and Performance)
  • Official data is based on surveys
    The Annual Business Survey (ABI) for firms and the Labour Force Survey (LFS) for employees
    The LFS for London is based on a survey of only 22,900 people
    The ABI nationwide is based on a survey of about 330,000 firms
    The IDBR covers all tax-registered companies and is protected by disclosure regulations.
    a smaller version covering VAT-registered companies only is available to the GLA
    a larger version covering additional Inland Revenue-registered companies was used for this study
    Company databases such as that provided by TBR economics for this study are:
    more commonly used for credit checking, market research, etc.
    based on Companies House, telephone, and other records
    include sole traders, partnerships
    provide additional information such as company self-description, financial records, etc
  • LDA and GLAE pilot study started November 2004 to obtain micro-data for the Creative Industries
    constrained to be consistent with official sources, in particular ABI
    at the ‘gross’ level (the DET sectors)
    Complete consistency is not possible, because these are two different data sources
  • Data is based on ‘Standard Output Areas’ which are designed so that they do not change over time (unlike wards and boroughs). These vary in size but contain broadly comparable populations.
  • In some Standard Output Areas (15), there are more creative businesses than the industry total.
    This is a consequence of our choice to gross the creative industry data to make it consistent with ABI data on creative industries.
    In consequence, a firm which is shown in the base TBR microdata as having, say, 20 employees, may be ‘grossed’ (adjusted) up or down for consistency with the ABI. In a small number of cases, therefore, the total creative firms in a small area will be larger than the (unadjusted) total in the same small area
  • Writers who have suggested a relation between firm location and waterways:
    Eli Heckscher
    Ferdinand Braudel
    Whiteman Fox
  • Examples: architecture, software
    The micro-data is cross-checked against the ABI
    Hence we can test ideas such as:
    the discrepancies might be worse for firms of a particular size such as small firms
    the discrepancies might be worse for particular sectors such as agencies
  • DET domains are: Audio-Visual, Visual Arts, Books and Press, Performance
    DET functions are: Creation, Making, Dissemination, and Exhibition/Performance
    DCMS Mapping sectors are: Advertising, Architecture, Arts and Antiques, Fashion, Leisure Software, Music and the Visual and Performing Arts, Publishing, Radio and Television,Video
    There are two additional sectors which are only defined for occupations: Crafts, Design
  • Location of London Creative Industries

    1. 1. Mapping London’s Creative Industries Alan Freeman
    2. 2. A new source of data about the creative industries  Evidence is central to LDA creative strategy  Until now our data was from official sources only – Very little information about local areas – Information about individual sectors quite unreliable  Microdata provides better information – about local areas – about individual industries – about firm size  But is inconsistent with official data
    3. 3. Micro-data  Inter-Departmental Business Register (IDBR)  Commercial company databases – Additional information – Statistically more reliable (100 times more records)  Raw data is not consistent with official data  Has to be transformed to make it comparable  Costly to use – very labour-intensive
    4. 4. The creative and sector data project  We have now completed a pilot – commissioned from Trends Business Research Economics (TBR economics)  Data from this phase will be analysed  Next phase starts 2006 – will inform creative strategy – will monitor and evaluate impacts – will be extended to other LDA sectors  What do you want to know?
    5. 5. Questions, questions  Questions we can answer now – Where are the Creative Industries? Are they found where other industries are not? – Do they cluster (do businesses of the same type like to be close to each other)? – Do they co-locate (do businesses of different types like to be close to each other)?  Questions we would like to answer later – How do they grow? Do they grow differently from other industries? – What is the structure of specific subsectors, eg Music?
    6. 6. Do Creative Firms Cluster?
    7. 7. Some cluster more than others 100% 90% Total Creative 70% Radio and Television 60% 50% 40% Total All Industries 2003 (SOAs) 30% 20% Film and Video 10% 0% 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% 50% 55% 60% 65% 70% 75% 80% 85% 90% 95% 100 Percent of employees 80% Percent of London's Standard Output Areas
    8. 8. Some cluster in a similar way 100% 90% Publishing 70% Advertising 60% 50% 40% Architecture 30% 20% Total All Industries 2003 (SOAs) 10% 0% 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% 50% 55% 60% 65% 70% 75% 80% 85% 90% 95% 100 Percent of employees 80% Percent of London's Standard Output Areas
    9. 9. Some less than others 100% 90% Music, Performing Arts 70% Leisure Software 60% 50% Art and Antiques 40% 30% 20% Total All Industries 2003 (SOAs) 10% 0% 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% 50% 55% 60% 65% 70% 75% 80% 85% 90% 95% 100 Percent of employees 80% Percent of London's Standard Output Areas
    10. 10. Where do Creative Industries Locate?
    11. 11. Workforce jobs, all industries Fill
    12. 12. Creative Jobs Source: Trends Business Research, GLAE
    13. 13. Creative Businesses Source: Trends Business Research, GLAE
    14. 14. Where Creative Jobs dominate
    15. 15. Where Creative Firms dominate
    16. 16. Employees per business
    17. 17. Employees per business
    18. 18. Employees per business
    19. 19. A Historical Memory?
    20. 20. A creative value chain?
    21. 21. Total Creative Industries Source: TBR and GLAE
    22. 22. Specialising in Creation Source: TBR and GLAE
    23. 23. DCMS Evidence Toolkit (DET) ‘Creation’ function Source: TBR and GLAE
    24. 24. Concerns, solutions, and extensions
    25. 25. Some unexpected benefits  SIC 5-digit codes – – – – IDBR contains 5-digit codes, ABI and LFS do not TBR economics extract 5-digit ‘multipliers’ from the IDBR we can apply these to ABI and LFS data this should work for other sectors such as retailing or construction  More accurate treatment of self-employed – partners, sole traders, professionals  A possible cross-check on the ABI itself – we know there are discrepancies between the LFS and the ABI – the data may help us find out why
    26. 26. Consistency  We asked for consistency in the overall total and for four DET ‘domains’  This is new: DCMS and others including GLA still use the ‘DCMS Mapping’ framework  For individual SIC codes and sectors complete consistency cannot be guaranteed – ABI Architecture = 20,000 – TBR Architecture = 10,000  This can be improved on but not perfected
    27. 27. Time  No Creative Industry before 1992 – The SIC codes which allow the industry to be defined did not exist  Micro-data itself does not go back very far  Reliability of time-series data – the size and scope of the database may change  Micro-data is costly – To repeat for ten years would reach a 6-figure sum – Does the marginal cost justify the marginal benefit?  A compromise – We could do the analysis for one or two years (1994 and 1999) and estimate intervening years using the ABI and/or the LFS
    28. 28. The credits  The idea: DCMS  The work: Trends Business Research  The groundwork: Kingston University, Leeds University, NIERC, Comedia  The researchers: Rupika Madhura, Rajesh Gami
    29. 29. Appendix: the DET sectors Number of workforce jobs in London Audio-visual Books & Press Performance Visual Arts All Domains Creation Dissemination Exhibition 158,902 32,090 1,995 11,958 11,893 63,079 3,585 3,090 221,981 47,633 16,978 Number of firms in London Creation Audio-visual Books & Press Performance Visual Arts All Domains Making 14,979 107,748 18,108 140,835 All Functions 207,967 119,706 30,001 69,753 427,427 Dissemination Exhibition Making All Functions 54,233 45,679 4,445 112 3,998 19,095 3,233 15,861 12,593 5,558 7,034 34,213 32,639 1,347 227 78,317 9,025 5,898 26,893 120,133
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