GLA Creative Industries 2007 Update

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Slides containing charts and other material to the 2007 Creative Industries Update

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GLA Creative Industries 2007 Update

  1. 1. 2007 Creative Industries Update Alan Freeman
  2. 2. The story so far Culture Strategy – Mayoral statutory responsibility Cultural Strategy document 2004 Requires an evidence base Creativity: London’s Core Business 2004 update 2005 local area study A reputation for robust regional research data ‘London has built one of the most rigorous evidence bases for the importance of the creative industries’ - Stuart Cunningham, report to Australia Council 2004  2006 update delayed till 2007 to double-check       
  3. 3. Definitions: cultural and creative  ‘Cultural Industries’ defines culture as ‘inherently public’ – Adorno/Horkheimer Dialectic of Enlightenment 1947 – Commodification derogatory: leads to ‘sameness’ – ‘High Art’ seen as superior  1980s reversal: market in culture seen as positive – Garnham 1983 defines GLC strategy endorsing CI – ‘Popular commercial’ culture as anti-elite – a tool for economic regeneration/development  1996 DCMS defines ‘creative industries’ – Profitability/intellectual property the defining feature – Strategically central to national economic development  2006-07 some reconsideration – Emphasis on infrastructural character of culture – Move towards ‘Cultural and Creative’
  4. 4. In Adorno and Horkheimer’s view, culture had entirely lost its capacity to act as utopian critique because it had become commodified – a thing to be bought and sold. Culture and Industry were supposed, in their view, to be opposites but in modern capitalist democracy, the two had collapsed together. Hence, Culture Industry -Hesmondhalgh, The Cultural Industries There is that general tradition…which regards culture and the market as inherently inimical. In terms of the relationship between consumers, distributors and producers of cultural goods and services, the market has much to recommend it, provided that consumers enter that market with equal endowments. It must be stressed that even within the capitalist mode of production the market has, at crucial historical junctures, acted as a liberating cultural force
  5. 5. How ‘new’ are the cultural and creative industries?  Theatre  The Book and Print  Cotton, Textiles, and the Industrial Revolution  The Jacquard Loom, Babbage  Colours, Aniline, and the modern chemical industry  The Film  The Gramophone  Modern Times
  6. 6. DCMS definition  Adopted as world standard (OECD, European LEG)  UK seen as leading and defining – Canada, Australia very active in operationalising – South-East Asia (notably HK, Singapore, China) very active – France and Germany followed on  DCMS method described as ‘Trident’ (Cunningham) – Production of cultural products by creative workers – Production of cultural products by non-creative workers – Production of non-cultural products by creative workers  EG – Musicians in the music industry – Stage technicians in the music industry – Musicians outside the music industry (eg schools)
  7. 7. Where creative jobs locate London 15% Rest of Great Britain 42% London 32% Rest of the South East 26% Rest of Great Britain 62% Rest of the South East 23%
  8. 8. Total creative jobs 700 2400 650 2100 f o o j s b 600 550 1800 500 1500 d n a s u o h T 450 400 1200 350 300 900 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 GB (right scale) London GB excluding London (right scale) Source: ABI, LFS, GLA Economics, Trends Business Research Total Creative Employment = workforce employment in the creative industries + creative occupations outside the creative industries
  9. 9. Creative and total employment in London 125 120 115 0 = 7 9 1 0 110 105 100 95 London jobs total 90 London creative employment 85 80 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
  10. 10. Private sector employment is more volatile in London
  11. 11. Public and private sector employment in London 130 0 125 ce mplo ment, 1 e y 0 = 7 9 120 115 110 105 100 f k r o W Public Private All 95 90 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
  12. 12. Private sector employment in other parts of Britain 0 115 110 lo 0 = 7 9 1 , t n e m y 105 Wo p m e c o f k r 100 95 Britain (Total) London Rest of Britain Rest Of South East 90 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
  13. 13. Creative industries are more volatile still 130 125 120 0 115 110 0 = 7 9 1 105 100 London mainly private sectors 95 London Creative Industries 90 Private Sectors containing Creative Industries 85 80 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
  14. 14. To whom do the creative industries sell their products? Other Government Busi- and non- nesses profit 15% 73% 1% 0% 11% 100% Consumer-led (All other creative) 3% 26% 0% 61% 10% 100% All Creative Industries 8% 47% 0% 34% 11% 100% These creative Sell their Investindustry groups product to: ment Business-led (Advertising, Software and Households Exports Total Demand Architecture) Source: Office for National Statistics input-output tables 2004
  15. 15. Business-led creative industries make 42% of creative output Sales by broad creative industry groups 42% 58% Business-Led Consumer-led
  16. 16. How have individual sectors fared? 90 60 14 50 12 70 60 10 40 50 8 30 40 10 20 Advertising Music 10 Publishing Film and Video 2 Radio and TV 0 0 4 0 Architecture Arts and Antiques Fashion 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 20 Leisure Software 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 30 6 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Thousands of workforce jobs 80
  17. 17. Gender Arts and Antiques Radio and TV Publishing Fashion Total workforce Advertising Music Creative Industries Film and Video Architecture Leisure Software 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% Female employment as percentage of workforce employment in London 60%
  18. 18. Ethnicity Arts and Antiques Fashion Total workforce Leisure S oftware Film and Video Creative Industries Publishing Radio and TV Architecture Advertising Music 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% Black and Minority Ethnic as percentage of workforce employment in London 40%
  19. 19. Further Research  DCMS Creative Economy Programme  (web reference)  LDA Cultural and creative research – – – – – Cultural Audit of London Music venues Fashion Industries Film? New Media?
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