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Wohlers report 2013 : Additive Manudacturing and 3D Printing State of the Industry

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  • 1. Wohlers Report 2013 Executive SummaryCOPYRIGHT © 2013 2 WOHLERS ASSOCIATES, INC.Trademarked company and product names are the property of their respectiveowners. The images on the front cover (from left to right) are courtesy of 1)FutureFactories, 2) 3T RPD and Within Technologies, 3) Stratasys, 4) OakRidge National Laboratory’s Manufacturing Demonstration Facility, and 5)Stratasys. Craig Van Wechel of VW Design designed the cover.The information in this report was obtained from sources that WohlersAssociates, Inc. does not control, but believes to be honest and reliable. Thecompany in no way assumes any part of the risk of the buyer or reader of thisreport; does not guarantee its completeness, timeliness, or accuracy; and shallnot be held liable for anything resulting from use of or reliance on theinformation, or from omission or negligence.Unless otherwise noted, Terry Wohlers or Tim Caffrey, both of WohlersAssociates, Inc., authored the sections of this report.COPYRIGHT © 2013 BY TERRY T. WOHLERS. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act, no part of thispublication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any meanswithout prior written permission from Wohlers Associates, Inc.ISBN 0-9754429-9-6 (297-page report)1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 15 14 13
  • 2. Wohlers Report 2013 Executive SummaryCOPYRIGHT © 2013 3 WOHLERS ASSOCIATES, INC.Introduction This executive summary provides a sampling of the informationpublished in Wohlers Report 2013, a 297-page market study. Thepublication provides a global review and analysis of the technologiesand applications of additive manufacturing (AM) and 3D printing—terms that are used interchangeably throughout the report.Additive-manufacturing technology is most commonly used formodeling, prototyping, tooling, and short-run production applications.Wohlers Report 2013 covers these and many other applications. It alsodetails the many AM processes, materials, manufacturers, and systemsavailable today.A key part of Wohlers Report 2013 is its thorough accounting of theAM industry’s growth, including revenues and machine unit sales. Italso includes forecasts for coming years. The report addresses manyelements of AM, including its history and the industries embracing thetechnology.The report provides current information on developments and trends inthe production of parts for final products. It provides updates on recentdevelopments in Africa, the Asia/Pacific region, Europe, the U.S., andother parts of the world. The report covers emerging technologies,government-sponsored research and development, collaborations andconsortia, and the activities of 103 academic and research institutesaround the world.Wohlers Report 2013 concludes with a discussion of the current trendsand future directions of additive manufacturing—what is driving theindustry today and what to expect tomorrow—to assist in strategicplanning and investing. To supplement the review and analysis, thereport includes 35 charts and graphs, 55 tables, and more than 200photographs and illustrations. A complete table of contents is found onthe final page of this executive summary.This edition marks the 18th consecutive year of the report’s publication.The report was developed with the generosity and support of 70 co-authors in 21 countries, 74 service providers, 31 system manufacturers,and many others worldwide.Industry growth The global market for additive manufacturing products and services in2012 grew 28.6% (CAGR) to $2.204 billion. This is up from $1.714billion in 2011, when it grew 29.4%. Growth was 24.1% in 2010.Unit sales of professional-grade, industrial systems were solid in 2012.Growth was an estimated 19.3% to 7,771 units, excluding sales of“personal” systems (3D printers that sell of under $5,000). Thiscompares to an estimated 6,513 units in 2011 when growth was a cool5.6%. In 2010, growth was hot at 37.4%. The following graph shows thegrowth trend of industrial AM system sales worldwide.
  • 3. Wohlers Report 2013 Executive SummaryCOPYRIGHT © 2013 4 WOHLERS ASSOCIATES, INC.01000200030004000500060007000800088 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12Source: Wohlers Associates, Inc.Professional-grade, industrial additive-manufacturing systems are thosethat sell for more than $5,000. These are the machines that have beentracked and discussed in the Wohlers Report for nearly two decades.Excluded are the low-cost personal systems, the majority of whichoriginated from the RepRap open-source 3D printer developmentproject at the University of Bath in the UK.Growth of personal 3D printers averaged 346% each year from 2008through 2011. In 2012, the increase cooled significantly to an estimated46.3%. Most of the machines are being sold to hobbyists, do-it-yourselfers, engineering students, and educational institutions.Typically, the machines in this category are not being used forprofessional/industrial applications.Metal AM systems AM systems for metal parts are increasing in popularity, as shown inthe following chart. Wohlers Associates has been tracking this marketsegment for more than 13 years, but this is the first time it haspublished metal-based AM machine unit sales by year in this report.As you can see, nearly 200 of these machines were sold in 2012.02040608010012014016018020000 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12Source: Wohlers Associates, Inc.
  • 4. Wohlers Report 2013 Executive SummaryCOPYRIGHT © 2013 5 WOHLERS ASSOCIATES, INC.Sales of laser- and electron beam-based metals equipment are growingrapidly, especially in the U.S. GE Aviation acquired MorrisTechnologies and its sister company, Rapid Quality Manufacturing, anevent that suggests how the metal-based technologies are gainingacceptance. Demand for metal AM systems rose as other companiesattempted to fill the void created when Morris Technologies exited theservice provider market place.Direct part production The use of AM for the production of parts for final products continuesto grow, as shown in the following graph. In ten years, it has gone fromalmost nothing to 28.3% of the total product and service revenues fromadditive manufacturing worldwide.28.33.919.617.21411.79.68.36.6240510152025302003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012Source: Wohlers Associates, Inc.A global industry The following chart shows the percentage of cumulative industrial AMsystems installed by country from 1988 through the end of 2012. TheU.S. continues to lead by a large margin. Japan, Germany, and Chinahave the second, third, and fourth largest installed bases, respectively.The “Other” segment includes countries into which a relatively smallnumber of AM systems have been sold.U.S.38.0%Other12.0%Turkey1.4%Canada1.9%Germany9.4%France3.2%Sweden1.2%UK4.2%Italy3.8%Spain1.3%Japan9.7%Korea2.3%China8.7%Taiwan1.5%Russia1.4%Source: Wohlers Associates, Inc.
  • 5. Wohlers Report 2013 Executive SummaryCOPYRIGHT © 2013 6 WOHLERS ASSOCIATES, INC.As of May 2013, 16 companies in Europe, seven in China, five in theU.S., and two in Japan were manufacturing and selling AM systems.This is a dramatic change from a decade ago when the mix consisted of10 in the U.S., seven in Europe, seven in Japan, and three in China.What’s more, all of the metal powder bed fusion systems aremanufactured outside the U.S. Seven manufacturers of these systems arein Europe and two are in China.UnprecedentedattentionThe industry has experienced dramatic change over the past 12–18months—change that has not been seen in the entire history of AM.Interest and excitement on the subject of AM have skyrocketed toalmost unbelievable heights. For example, about 16,000 articles on AMand 3D printing were published in 2012, compared with about 1,600articles in 2011.The market trends for the publicly traded AM companies have beenvery good since the beginning of 2012, reflecting a significant increasein the growth of the industry. AM has enjoyed consistent attention in theinternational media, financial magazines, the general public, and even ina State of the Union address by the President of the United States. Theconstant exposure continues to drive interest among investors and manyothers. The attention has also been evident at crowd-funding sites suchas Kickstarter, with the 3D printer development by Formlabs receivingnearly $3 million in support.Stratasys and Objet completed their merger in December 2013, and 3DSystems continued its acquisitions of service providers, online contentproviders, and 3D-scanning and design software companies. It isinteresting to note that despite all the consolidation that has taken place,new startups continue to emerge and significant investments in new AMtechnologies, applications, and businesses are common.The National Additive Manufacturing Innovation Institute (NAMII) wasawarded to a team led by the National Center for DefenseManufacturing and Machining. NAMII is the first of the NationalNetwork for Manufacturing Innovation (NNMI) institutes. Thisdevelopment is an important step for the U.S., and it has played a role inmotivating the governments of China, countries in Europe, andSingapore to invest heavily in AM.Where to learn more The wohlersassociates.com website offers access to hundreds of pagesof content related to additive manufacturing and rapid productdevelopment. The site hosts and includes links to an estimated 400articles, technical papers, reports, and other documents. All of themare available to read online, free of charge.The core business of Wohlers Associates is to provide technical andstrategic consulting on the new developments and trends in rapidproduct development and additive manufacturing. Much of thisguidance has dealt with what works and what does not, cutting throughthe hype, hidden costs, industry trends, and future growth opportunities.The companys past work has involved more than 200 clientorganizations in 24 countries around the world.Whatever the future holds, Wohlers Associates intends to be there,collecting and processing ideas and data from around the world. We will
  • 6. Wohlers Report 2013 Executive SummaryCOPYRIGHT © 2013 7 WOHLERS ASSOCIATES, INC.continue to leverage more than 40 years of combined experience tocollaborate with the global community, share unique insights, presentour findings, and ultimately, help propel additive manufacturing and 3Dprinting to the next level.Terry WohlersPrincipal Consultant and PresidentTim CaffreyAssociate ConsultantAcknowledgments Wohlers Associates appreciates the many individuals andorganizations that contributed to this report. A sincere thank you goesto the 31 system manufacturers and 74 service providers thatgenerously provided input. Also, Wohlers Associates thanks thefollowing 70 authors and contributors for their work and helpfulsupport.Nadra Angerman Angerman Communications Group U.S.Mukesh Agarwala 3D Product Development IndiaPaulo Jorge Bártolo Institute Polytechnic of Leiria PortugalJoseph Beaman, Jr. University of Texas at Austin U.S.Josh Berman William Blair & Company U.S.Alain Bernard Ecole Centrale de Nantes FranceCraig Blue Oak Ridge National Laboratory U.S.Milan Brandt RMIT University AustraliaCraig Brice NASA Langley Research Center U.S.David Bourell University of Texas at Austin U.S.Ian Campbell Loughborough University EnglandWilliam Cass Cantor Colburn U.S.Andy Christensen Medical Modeling U.S.Shane Collins Oxford Performance Materials U.S.Mel Cossette Edmonds Community College U.S.Frank Cox Edmonds Community College U.S.Deon de Beer Vaal University of Technology South AfricaCarl Dekker Met-L-Flo U.S.Olaf Diegel Massey University New ZealandBrian Drab William Blair & Company U.S.Igor Drstvenšek University of Maribor SloveniaSara Ebright Direct Dimensions U.S.Pablo Elenter Robtec BrazilClaus Emmelmann Laser Zentrum Nord GermanyIsmail Fidan Tennessee Tech University U.S.Tim Gornet University of Louisville U.S.Joan Guasch Ascamm SpainOla Harrysson North Carolina State University U.S.Seiji Hayano Aspect JapanEd Herderick EWI U.S.Dirk Herzog LZN Laser Zentrum Nord GermanyForrest Higgs Brosis Innovations U.S.Neil Hopkinson University of Sheffield EnglandLuca Iuliano Politecnico di Torino ItalyJason Jones De Montfort University EnglandVolker Junior Junior & Tacke GermanyKarolien Kempen Katholieke Universiteit Leuven BelgiumEric Klemp Direct Manufacturing Research Center GermanyJannis Kranz LZN Laser Zentrum Nord GermanyJanet Krech Wohlers Associates U.S.Jean-Pierre Kruth Katholieke Universiteit Leuven BelgiumTom Kurfess Georgia Institute of Technology U.S.Feng Lin Tsinghua University ChinaUlf Lindhe netfabb GermanyBlake Marshall U.S. Department of Energy U.S.Wilhelm Meiners Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology GermanyJorge Mireles University of Texas at El Paso U.S.Ed Morris National Additive Manufacturing Innovation Institute U.S.Greg Morris GE Aviation U.S.Tim Mulrooney William Blair & Company U.S.Erkut Neğiş TurkCADCAM TurkeyRandall Newton Jon Peddie Research U.S.
  • 7. Wohlers Report 2013 Executive SummaryCOPYRIGHT © 2013 8 WOHLERS ASSOCIATES, INC.John Obielodan University of Wisconsin–Platteville U.S.Joris Peels Voxelfab NetherlandsStephen Rouse Medical Applications of Additive Manufacturing U.S.Jeff Rowe Cairowest Group U.S.Kevin Scanlan Anubis Manufacturing Consultants Corp. CanadaJoel Segal University of Nottingham EnglandMichael Siemer Innovative Medical Device Solutions U.S.Chris Spadaccini Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory U.S.Jürgen Stampfl Vienna University of Technology AustriaIan Stewart Wilson Elser Moskowitz Edelman & Dicker U.S.Brent Stucker University of Louisville U.S.Jukka Tuomi Aalto University FinlandBart van de Vorst TNO NetherlandsJuan Vargas University of Texas at El Paso U.S.Marius Vermeulen Aerosud South AfricaAndreas Wegner University of Duisburg–Essen GermanyRyan Wicker University of Texas at El Paso U.S.David Wimpenny Manufacturing Technology Centre EnglandGerd Witt University of Duisburg–Essen GermanyThe authors thank the Society of Manufacturing Engineers (SME) for itssupport and sponsorship of this publication. The Rapid Technologiesand Additive Manufacturing Community (RTAM) of SME is theworld’s largest individual technical membership organization on thesubject. RTAM technical groups focus on niche technology intereststhat include materials and process standards, medical applications, 3Dimaging and reverse engineering, nanomanufacturing, and partproduction applications of additive manufacturing. RTAM and itstechnical groups provide members with opportunities to learn about thelatest advances and share best practices with others who have similarinterests. For more information on RTAM, visit sme.org/rtam or callSME at 800-733-4763.About theprincipal authorsIndustry consultant and analyst Terry Wohlers is president of WohlersAssociates, Inc., an independent consulting firm he founded nearly 27years ago. Through this company, he has provided consultingassistance to more than 200 organizations in 24 countries.Wohlers has been cited in countless domestic and foreign publicationsincluding Businessweek, CNBC Business, CNNMoney, Computerworld,Discovery News from the Discovery Channel, The Economist, FinancialTimes, Forbes, Fortune, Inc., Scientific American, USA Today, and TheWall Street Journal, and WIRED. He has been featured in broadcasts byCBS Radio News, CNNMoney, MSNBC, National Public Radio (NPR),Sky News (Sydney, Australia), the Business News Network (BNN) inCanada, and Bloomberg.In 2007, more than 1,000 industry professionals fromaround the world selected Wohlers as the #1 mostinfluential person in rapid product development andadditive manufacturing by the UK’s TCT magazine aspart of its Top 25 Influential People survey.Wohlers has authored nearly 400 books, articles, andtechnical papers on rapid product development andmanufacturing. He has given 100 keynote presentations on fivecontinents in cities ranging from London and Cape Town to Sydney andBeijing.His appetite for adventure has motivated him to climb the Great Wall ofChina, hike the rain forests of New Zealand, dive among sharks inBelize, and bathe in the Dead Sea. He has ridden elephants in Thailand,
  • 8. Wohlers Report 2013 Executive SummaryCOPYRIGHT © 2013 9 WOHLERS ASSOCIATES, INC.encountered lions in Africa, explored the ancient pyramids of Egypt,and traveled the crocodile-infested rivers of Malaysian Borneo.Wohlers received an Honorary Doctoral Degree of MechanicalEngineering from Central University of Technology in Bloemfontein,South Africa in 2004. In 2005, he became a Fellow of the Society ofManufacturing Engineers, a distinction granted to less than 1% of themembership, making it one of the most prestigious honors presented bythe Society.Associate consultant Tim Caffrey earned a bachelor’sdegree in mechanical engineering at the University ofNew Mexico. Caffrey was employed by The BoeingCompany for 10 years, including four years directingthe operation of the company’s in-house additive-manufacturing (AM) services. Caffrey served as plantmanager of Plynetics Express—which was, at the time,the world’s largest AM service provider. His 18 yearsof writing experience includes aircraft engine maintenance and pre-fighttest procedures for Boeing, engine case repair procedures for Pratt &Whitney, technical content for the web, and advertising copywriting atWalmart’s corporate headquarters.Caffrey has worked closely with Wohlers Associates since 2000 on thisannual industry study and many other projects. Caffrey’s role at thecompany expanded in 2011 and has since been working on a wide rangeof consulting projects. He also speaks and represents WohlersAssociates at national and international events.How to orderthe reportGo to wohlersassociates.com to order the report online. The report,available as a color PDF, is US$495 worldwide. Credit card paymentis preferred.
  • 9. ACKNOWLEDGMENTSABOUT THE PRINCIPAL AUTHORSPART 1: BACKGROUNDFOCUS OF THIS REPORTINTRODUCTION TO ADDITIVEMANUFACTURING AND 3D PRINTINGHISTORY OF ADDITIVE MANUFACTURINGMay 2012 through October 2012November 2012 to May 2013INDUSTRIES AND REGIONS BENEFITINGFROM AMHow companies are applying AMprocessesInstallations by countryPART 2: APPLICATIONSPROTOTYPINGVisual aids and presentation modelsFit, function, and assemblyTOOLINGMETAL CASTINGARCHITECTURALMEDICALAnatomical and surgical modelsCustom prosthetic designVirtual surgical planning and personal-ized surgical instrumentsCustom and off-the-shelf AM-fabricated implantsBiocompatibility of AM materialsRegulatory clearances of AM productsDENTALDIRECT PART PRODUCTIONAerospaceAutomotive and motorsportsMedicalAvatars and figurinesFurniture, home, and office accessoriesApplications in musicConsumer-created productsArt and jewelryGifts, trophies, and memorialsMarketing and advertisingMuseum displaysFashion and high-performance productsPART 3: PROCESSES ANDMATERIALSPROCESSESMaterial extrusionMaterial jettingBinder jettingSheet laminationVat photopolymerizationPowder bed fusionDirected energy depositionMATERIALSPlasticsNew plasticsMetalsNew metalsComposites and hybrid materialsMaterials for metal casting processesCeramics and other materialsMaterials testing and internationalstandardsPROCESS/MATERIAL MATRIXPART 4: SYSTEM MANUFAC-TURERSARCAMASIGABEIJING TIERTIMEBLUEPRINTERCARIMACONCEPT LASERDWSENVISIONTECEOSPrecious M 080Other businessEXONEINNOVATION MEDITECHLITHOZMCOROPTOMECPHENIX SYSTEMSRAPID SHAPEREALIZERRENISHAWSLM SOLUTIONSSOLIDSCAPESTRATASYS LTD.Stratasys and Objet mergerNew systemsOther developmentsTRUMPF3D SYSTEMSAcquisitionsNew productsPersonal, professional, and production3D printersOther businessVOXELJETOTHER COMPANIES IN ASIAAspectBeijing Long YuanCMETD-MECFochif MechatronicsHunan FarsoonInssTekKeyenceMatsuuraMicrojet TechnologyShaanxi HengtongShanghai Union-techTrump Precision MachineryWuhan BinhuOTHER COMPANIES IN EUROPE ANDTHE U.S.BeAMEssential DynamicsDM3D TechnologyFabrisonicSciakyEMERGING TECHNOLOGIESAeroswiftHigh speed sinteringDigital MetalIon fusion formationLaser consolidationPrintoptical technologySelective laser printingSelective mask sinteringPERSONAL 3D PRINTERSRepRap projectAliBabaKickstarter and IndiegogoMaterial recyclingSoftwareAleph ObjectsFabbsterFormlabsMakerBot IndustriesRoBo 3DPrintrbotSolidoodleUltimakingOther 3D printersComparing personal 3D printersPART 5: INDUSTRY GROWTHREVENUE FROM AM WORLDWIDEProducts and servicesGrowth percentagesAverage selling priceMATERIAL SALESPhotopolymersLaser-sintered polymersMetalsSERVICE PROVIDERSSecondary marketMARKET OPPORTUNITY AND FORECASTINDUSTRIAL SYSTEM UNIT SALESUnit sales growth percentagesMarket sharesSystems sold by regionMarket shares by manufacturerMetal AM systemsUnit sales by manufacturer and yearForecastPERSONAL 3D PRINTERSINVESTOR UPDATENew public companiesRevenues and earningsOutlookSERVICE PROVIDERSIndustry surveySteady growth3D content and on-demand servicesShapewaysPART 6: GLOBAL REPORTSAFRICASouth AfricaOther countriesASIAChinaIndiaJapanSingaporeAUSTRALASIAAustraliaNew ZealandEUROPEAustriaBelgiumFinlandFranceGermanyItalyNetherlandsPortugalRussiaSloveniaSpainSwedenUnited KingdomOTHER REGIONSBrazilCanadaTurkeyPART 7: DIRECT PARTPRODUCTIONCHANGING THE WAY YOUMANUFACTUREWHY USE AM FOR PRODUCTION?Customer satisfactionReduction of toolingPart consolidationIndustry standardsDESIGN FOR ADDITIVEMANUFACTURINGA new way of thinkingConsumer designCOST ANALYSIS AND ECONOMICSENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONSUse of raw materialSustainability implicationsDistribution and logisticsProduction by consumersEnvironmental assessment toolsENERGY USE IN AMINTELLECTUAL PROPERTYIMPLICATIONSPRODUCT LIABILITY IMPLICATIONSREQUIRED RESEARCH ANDDEVELOPMENTProcessesMaterials and related considerationsOrganization, management, and supplychain issuesPART 8: FRONT AND BACK-END CONSIDERATIONSCAD SOLID MODELINGMCAD on the cloudPLM on the cloudAutodesk moves simulation to thecloudCAD/PLM leaders show anemicrevenue growthSeat count estimatesTOOLS FOR ARCHITECTURALMODELING3D SCANNING AND SCAN PROCESSINGPrimary usesCurrent state of 3D measurementPost-processing 3D dataConsumer 3D scanningWhat’s next?MEDICAL IMAGING AND PROCESSINGSOFTWARECO-DESIGN/CO-CREATIONAM SOFTWARE TOOLSSTL/AMF file review and repairLattice structuresTopology optimizationKARMAPOST-PROCESSINGRemoving materialAdding materialOptions that work for AMPOST-PROCESSING OF METAL AMPARTSPre-build planningPost-build cleanup and preparationThermal processingSupport removal and post-machiningSurface finishingInspection and non-destructive testingPART 9: RESEARCH ANDDEVELOPMENTTRENDS IN R&DPATENTSCONSORTIA AND COLLABORATIONSNational Network for ManufacturingInnovationNational Additive ManufacturingInnovation InstituteU.S. government interagency groupAdditive Manufacturing ConsortiumDirect Manufacturing Research CenterASTM International Committee F42Project TEAMU.S. GOVERNMENT-SPONSORED R&DNational Science FoundationMeso, micro, and nano scaletechnologyBasic research on existing AMtechnologyNational Institutes of HealthDepartment of DefenseU.S. NATIONAL LABORATORIESOak Ridge National LaboratoryLawrence Livermore NationalLaboratoryACADEMIC ACTIVITIES ANDCAPABILITIESAM educational activitiesResearch innovationsAcademic institutions with AMcapabilitiesResearch institutes with AMcapabilitiesFuture trends and contributionsPART 10: THE NEXTFRONTIERFIRST 25 YEARSWHAT’S AHEAD?New businessesThe depths of possibilitiesHOLY GRAILNEXT STEPSAPPENDICESAPPENDIX A: GLOSSARY OF TERMSAPPENDIX B: SYSTEM AND MATERIALSSUPPLIERSAustriaCanadaChinaDenmarkFranceGermanyIrelandIsraelItalyJapanKoreaSaudi ArabiaSwedenTaiwanUnited KingdomUnited StatesAPPENDIX C: SYSTEM SPECIFICATIONSAPPENDIX D: PERSONAL 3D PRINTERSAPPENDIX E: MATERIAL PROPERTIESAPPENDIX F: DIRECT METAL AMCOMPARISON MATRIXAPPENDIX G: 3D-SCANNING SYSTEMSAPPENDIX H: 3D SCAN-PROCESSINGSOFTWAREWohlers Report 2013 Table of ContentsWohlersExSum TOC 2013_Layout 1 5/23/13 3:48 PM Page 1
  • 10. Wohlers Associates, Inc. • OakRidge Business Park • 1511 River Oak DriveFort Collins, Colorado 80525 USA • 970-225-0086 • Fax: 970-225-2027 • wohlersassociates.com