7 Forms of Waste Types of Waste CORRECTION WAITING PROCESSING MOTION INVENTORY CONVEYANCE OVERPRODUCTION Repair or Rework Any wasted motion to pick up parts or stack parts. Also wasted walking Wasted effort to transport materials, parts, or finished goods into or out of storage, or between processes. Producing more than is needed before it is needed Maintaining excess inventory of raw mat’ls, parts in process, or finished goods. Doing more work than is necessary Any non-work time waiting for tools, supplies, parts, etc..
Who wants what... Customer Low Cost High Quality Availability Your Company Profit Repeat Business Growth Cash !! $ Value !!
Price Increase Some Profit Bigger Profit Price to Sell Cost to Produce Cost + Profit = Price 1 2 3 1 2 3
Cost Reduction Some Profit Bigger Profit Price to Sell Cost to Produce Price - Cost = Profit 1 2 3 1 2 3
Just in Time Manufacturing
Produce according to customer demands:
What is needed
When it is needed
In the quantity it is needed
Utilize - Continuous flow processing
- Pull system
JIT Element - Continuous Flow Processing Batch Processing 10 minutes 10 minutes 10 minutes Total Batch A processing time : 30 minutes Continuous Flow Processing Total Batch A processing time : 12 minutes Only 3 minutes for 1st part
Product requires three processes that take one minute each
Processing first batch in batches of 10 requires 30 minutes
Processing first “batch” one-at-a-time requires only 12 minutes
JIT Element - Pull System
Following processes withdraw what they need when they need it.
Preceding processes replenish what is taken away.
Upstream Processes Downstream Processes New Product Needed Product Pull Withdrawal Kanban Production Kanban Store A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q
Production Scheduling Assumptions
Production Schedules will always change
Production will never go according to schedule.
Takt Time Takt Time Volume (Daily production requirement) Time (Available seconds per working day) = Cycle Time = Actual time required for a worker to complete one cycle of his process Sets pace of production to match pace of sales.
Takt Time TAKT Time = Net Available Time to Work ÷ Customer Demand
Net available time is the amount of time available for work to be done. This excludes break times and any expected stoppage time (for example scheduled maintenance, Team Briefings etc).
As an example, if you have a total of 8 hours in a shift (gross time) less 30 minutes lunch, 30 minutes breaks (2 x 15 mins), 10 minutes Team Brief and 10 minutes for basic Operator Maintenance checks, then;
Net Available Time to Work = (8 hours x 60 minutes) - 30 - 30 - 10 - 10 = 400 minutes.
If Customer Demand was, say, 400 units a day and you were running one shift, then your line would need to make one part per minute to be able to keep up with Customer Demand. In reality, people can never maintain 100% efficiency and there may also be stoppages for other reasons, so allowances will need to be made for these instances and thus you will set up your line to run at a proportionally faster rate to account for this.
Very Frequent Change-overs 8 hours change over Right Hand change over Left Hand change over Right Hand change over Left Hand Left Hand change over Right Hand change over Left Hand change over Right Hand change over Left Hand change over Right Hand change over Left Hand change over Right Hand change over
Building in Quality
Machines intelligence to be self-operating and self-stopping
People served by machines, not vice versa
Quality built-in, not inspected-in
Efficiency human work separated from machine work, people freed to do value-added work
Quality Processes Yield Quality Results Consistent Process Desired Results Inconsistent Process Inconsistent Results Traditional = People doing whatever they can to get results Lean = People using standard process to get results
Henry Ford - Standards “ To standardize a method is to choose out of the many methods the best one, and use it. Standardization means nothing unless it means standardizing upward. Today’s standardization, instead of being a barricade against improvement, is the necessary foundation on which tomorrow’s improvement will be based. If you think of “standardization” as the best that you know today, but which is to be improved tomorrow - you get somewhere. But if you think of standards as confining, then progress stops.” Henry Ford, 1926 Today & Tomorrow
Captures best practices
Posted at the work station
Developed with operators
Basis for Continuous Improvement
Continuous Improvement A D E C B 1 min. Takt Time (1 min.) Operators A D E C B 1 min. Takt Time (1 min.) Operators Cycle Time
Total Productive Maintenance
“ Ability to understand the status of a production area in 5 minutes or less by simple observation without use of computers or speaking to anyone.”
1S Sift and Sort (Organize)
2S Stabilize (Orderliness)
3S Shine (Cleanliness)
4S Standardize (Adherence)
5S Sustain (Self-discipline)
Preventing accidental errors in the manufacturing process
A way to achieve zero defects.
Quick Change Over
QCO is used to:
Reduce time needed to change over from one set-up to another.
Improve first time capability.
Improve repeatability of change over operations
TPM is a structured approach to maintaining equipment and insuring stable manufacturing processes.