River Basin Management Part 1

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An examination of global fresh water resources and an introduction to river basin management.

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  • Author's note: Water, water everywhere? Well not quite everywhere. Water is a finite resource. There are about 1360 billion cubic kilometres of water on our planet. You will need the notes on the download, I'm afraid, to hang on to the thread later on. (A box for notes from authors would be a good idea?)<br /><br/>
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River Basin Management Part 1

  1. 1. INIERACTIUN
  2. 2. Water, water everywhere? vi/ -naueh-water-have—weegetall-Iteg‘
  3. 3. 97.5% of the water in our planet is in our oceans. Too salty for use by humans. The rest is fresh water though. I j All 37 million -_: =“’i, .%r-. —‘ "= _, cubic kilometres of it! ‘ , / I-'«'5.i. ; El - , , r ’ ‘s ’ "7 ' ‘ .3‘ ‘ifs 3' _v. ,.— _‘ : -_g r I / ' 4_? 'r. _ J : ~; ,1 ‘ “ ax‘. ~‘. - ’-i‘.4. . 'x ‘ - ,4 ' . .-{» ' . '$. ?§_-35' . , ‘, _ , E» 14:‘. $- : . So, no problem then? I Well.
  4. 4. I I . ._, .|_ock_e, o.I up in ‘icecaps )7 _ (x. V I y ' ' . I I. I . l " , ._, - ~- H. - ‘ , r . - I 1*. . e. -
  5. 5. A Worlil of Sail Total Global Sell. *la‘. e' and Freshwater Estimates L. Ii». ~.. II . A '. ‘.'. ~ It. l‘. rr ind‘ '1?-" l1rl ‘fin. - : a.; I Il‘. I‘>Il. I. :-‘Vfa "Ir . -.. i»I: n'i- 'I'-rr~~1l‘rI, ‘s~ LIl‘2l ‘-. 11d : I’rn'. -n: rIi It If. M C. -C ‘K53! T5‘? 1 355 o; Joi~J kmé I1 2-1-cu go‘ -I . h l-mt’-‘v _-‘re : _-: ”.>i-: -;1-: al ns: '.. n-. - : _;-I II J l -. -:-. ~r. <:r. rI; ,I are Or '-. -1 its‘-ans . :l. icI‘ : -1.’-1 ‘; I.‘I'. “i"I. ‘ cc rarrrn Finn‘ arIiI~n(lI'~. ‘. ‘: ;‘- l’. n'= . 1.v-<4
  6. 6. The Hydrological Cycle A globe model III C’ 'r"': "" ‘I -'. ‘-'-' “V : Jllr ii_IlI I». From ll/ lacLean and Thomson CORE HIGHER GEOGRAPHY
  7. 7. '_. , . ,1‘-_I'If_'-‘. r", . ' r_aniqum- 725 mm pe
  8. 8. RIVER REGIMES River regimes from River Basin llrlanageament Doherly & McDonald
  9. 9. .31 l~. :5a"ga1 n - ul 1?: .. a'u1 Ly -; I.q '~ 5| ‘ ‘ Ir‘: ‘m. ‘. I’ diff tn‘ par: Of If! ‘ ‘N3’-1 5 r‘ ml‘: nJ| ..dl-: )E'd: L- a all ' LIL. lg II ' RIVER REGIMES
  10. 10. An Alluvial Fan in the Karakorum , . . , fl ,
  11. 11. M. ’-1". Ir . . _ I . ‘ V ‘N ‘V4; . .s. ' ‘L ‘V5. _
  12. 12. Drilling for water in Ye_m’éfi’_ ’
  13. 13. Total Irunoff? About 40,000 cubic kilometres
  14. 14. River Runofi through the 20th Century Average Annual ‘~’: |urr: =:s b, Continent. 1921-1985 in ; 9. run 3;: SI lruu flulx x-11;. -3-H. I lllllo ". '.‘l S‘ l'o-- Lu. .n-J . ' Iozilt ; r. I'L. ;. Ju Z4-nil _‘*Jl'«'. l‘: .J ll. Dan . : . ry J. ‘ I", '.I«. ') ‘I I’ vf.
  15. 15. Availability of Freshwater in 2000 Averag-; - Finer Flows and Grc; ir. :;‘. '.'a: e' Recharge Cnurtnn: with M r- Iv: -ant ‘rs : h~. rm-r mt cures. nil‘ hum — 2*: I | .nu~‘. i'r: ' Fir IAIN. - M « Courtrlss'. vl'. i1 the noel I‘<. VIlV. '.'m. ‘l r: —:~ouc. ~c ‘ - _ I75 ))C- iw» nu: ‘ am. ’ 1 on mm’ mi-mm m‘pevc: pila; :evyesr I‘ ll Ill‘ .1l. r . . av‘: ~. ¢.‘v/ A . -H F« ‘. r.-. '«. *x‘i'x. ‘«. r;= .~v l"~. -.‘r; y- .1 i‘. -: : .1!’ -a . J.J‘4“‘ R 4'. J“~li I‘§Il‘, '. («W . ‘. ‘r. '. -1‘ Y. :1 F! ’ cu;
  16. 16. Bet: ‘iso_: l’<_-fa River; fvialiiaiagfa-§‘y! ’Re tilolic : .t . ._: s‘_‘“l fix. ‘ ' d , 1 r / . ’;'s ‘ ‘ ‘ .3" A " u_ . “ q _ * *3 ; . l _I<_ . '. - . a - . «- *- ’~ . .- '- . ,'n' ‘eg: . if! ‘ n -. ‘ A‘ . - I '-, -:r . - :5 . —. 4'-. 3 x‘ J ~‘ . ‘ - . . . < $“' ‘ . —" . .. 4. ', .x‘. ‘ . ,_r , ; ' . .U’ . ' . — ' ~_ ' g ~ _' . _’. ‘_- . . ‘ . , . .’v _ «, .;'-*- -"". "W . . I , — _ V. . V . .u, r _ a . ._ _, V. _: ‘1 ’ _ I I - I, ‘ . _' »_‘. .-‘ . , u . ;', .' . x. C . RlEl: li§l3flSlI. E runoff? Abotit 10,000 éubici‘ kilometres a_. . ' r _ ‘ , ;‘J . . " ' I’
  17. 17. IGlobal Water surplus and deficiency (mm per year: Iv. 1:-Jr‘; e . ::. r<-lac. -: . _ . . . - ‘u! 4. in . n. I: ~,ri.1vm : ‘I r1-: "1‘Ir‘l cu . A. |._. y from River Basin Management (Doherty and McDonald)
  18. 18. WATER USE BY CONTINENT (KM3 PER YEAR) 1950 mo 1970 1eeo 1990 zooo Africa 56 86 116 168 232 317 N. America 286 411 556 663 796 S. America 59 63 85 111 216 Europe 94 185 294 435 Oceania 10 17 23 29 TOTAL 1360 1962 2594 3316 Source: Global Freshwater Quality (UNEP & WHO).
  19. 19. GLOBAL WATER USE BY SECTOR PER YEAR Domestic 100 Cubic Kilometres Industrial 200 Cubic Kilometres Cooling 225 Cubic Kilometres Livestock 40 Cubic Kilometres Irrigation 3,300 Cubic Kilometres TOTAL 3,865 Cubic Kilometres (40% of Total Reliable Run-ofi)
  20. 20. DOMESTIC: 100 cubic kilometres 2 A 0_Jitres for n. b.’we', bra_lyneecl10to ‘ *1 I_bra's; io. h‘ealth‘standadr$tis- ‘ -31-- Image: New lntemationaiist
  21. 21. INDUSTRIAL: 200 cubic kilometres g . .t. .,.1,.1:. .. . ».. irum 0. . ..3 . 1.2.: . , . lv. . l r
  22. 22. “*~ , COOL| NG: .45 cublicfkilofijetres 6 . - -4 . .
  23. 23. LIVESTOCK: 40 cubic kilometres
  24. 24. IRRIGATION: 3,300 cubic kilometres Pinar Pingaw Village, Lonji Province, China
  25. 25. GLOBAL WATER USE BY SECTOR PER YEAR Domestic 100 Cubic Kilometres Industrial 200 Cubic Kilometres Cooling 225 Cubic Kilometres Livestock 40 Cubic Kilometres Irrigation 3,300 Cubic Kilometres TOTAL 3,865 Cubic Kilometres (40% of Total Reliable Run-ofi)
  26. 26. MAJOR IRRIGATION SYSTEMS 5:» i . -.? ~.1‘-, L ll‘ ‘ In :3 mfg? 3 ’ '23‘ from G. Tyler Miller: Sustaining the Earth. (Thomson)
  27. 27. VMajor Irrigation Systems 0 Gravity Flow Irrigation (Efficiency 60% to 80%)
  28. 28. J V___ '; w,~: ’ " 7:? g. - / -. Drip lrriga'tion (efficiency 90% -95%)
  29. 29. Central Pivot Irrigation (efficiency 80% to 95%)
  30. 30. “WATER SlCAI{CitTY Malin Falkenmark. from the Stockholm Natural Science Research Council, distinguishes four different causes of water scarcity aridity, a permanent shortage of water caused by a dry climate: drought, an irregular phenomenon occurring in exceptionally dry years desiccation, a drying up ol the landscape, particularly soil resulting from activities such as deforestation & over grazing: and water stress, due to increasing numbers of people relying on fixed levels of run-ofi
  31. 31. itiaior River Basins oi the World Hurlh Arrieriia Euop-1 Asia and Australia I '1 -. .Il }‘i I‘. . Lin: 1: I 1:‘: 'L- l. '._av_<1;. ; 5 I. -.111 Amca and 'lNl4I il. .1.1 II I. ’ zmagl -'1 l~i; ='I ‘: l 112': 1. 11.; L . ' I an P1111 l'. l Qugu Sent Nrr-110:1 ll lr ‘ 9' gwmq I)‘ Zmtrtzi 7 l'~. -:1» ’ 9-; CWETJF: 24 C. :;: |i11':1.1r'-. TI, 5 : u 1; U1 :1 N. ‘I. .l:1l' 1. .1 _" 4 . ~1 1111' . . 1_l: -: l-’i v‘. ';ll‘. }.1u1/C1111 ‘/ ‘L1’ ' " " " ""1 W111 I-'. .‘: iJ. . . cityv '. 'Ill_ Arr"-rnn 47): ? ‘il1ZYi': ‘$h-’ 1:11-m: rrr’r'. 01 : ‘.1rr117r A‘«F. »-. ”. «: . , « .1 . . F, '. .‘, 'l"‘. |"l' 3’-
  32. 32. RESOURCES AND FURTHER READING Vital Water Graphics from UNEP at httpzl/ www. unep. org/ dewa/ assessments/ ecosystems/ water/ vitalwaterlfre World Water Vision from the World Water Council at http: //www. worldwatercouncil. org/ index. php? id=961 Sustaining the Earth, G. Tyler Mi| ler, Jr. , (2004), Thomson Learning Changemakers Library - Tools for Social Change - Water at http: //proxied. changemakers. net/ library/ fieldlink. cfm-fie| d=Water www. ge 0juice.0rg
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