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Grammar Roadshow Slides

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Part of a new course I am now running on grammar skills. These slides operate in conjunction with a workbook and a set of short quizzes. The aim is to dovetail a methodical treatment of core …

Part of a new course I am now running on grammar skills. These slides operate in conjunction with a workbook and a set of short quizzes. The aim is to dovetail a methodical treatment of core grammatical themes with a \'need-to-know\' conversational approach. I never run these slides in sequence from beginning to end; instead, we move around within the set as the learners\' questions dictate. The length of the roadshow varies from 90 minutes to half a day.


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  • 1. Welcome to The Grammar Roadshow Alan Barker Kairos Training Limited
  • 2. What is grammar?
    • The rules controlling the way a language works
  • 3. From grammar to glamour
  • 4. Round 1
    • A
    • light
    • sentence
  • 5. Spot the sentences
    • To set the scene.
    • Picasso was a great artist.
    • The reason being that we can’t afford it.
    • Although it is relatively early days and providers are only gradually coming to use this system, the results of this initiative have been impressive.
    • In other words, whether time could be better spent, or risks reduced, by doing other things.
  • 6. A sentence is:
    • a group of words coming between a capital letter and a full stop
    • a group of words making complete sense
    • a group of words containing a subject and a finite verb
  • 7. Subject and predicate
    • Your book is over there.
    • Dr Persaud will see you now.
    • Timescales have been an issue for years.
  • 8. Hunt for the subject
    • How well is the product promoted?
    • It’s not clear at this stage which clients will benefit.
    • There is a restaurant around the corner.
    • Sign on the dotted line.
  • 9. Three kinds of sentence
    • Simple
    • Compound
    • Complex
  • 10. Simple sentences
    • We set the standards for the industry.
    • These decisions will ensure that the client’s individual circumstances are taken care of.
    • Our portfolio of products and services is constantly evolving to reflect the dynamics of the industry and our clients’ changing needs.
  • 11. Compound sentences
    • The storm brought down all the power lines and caused havoc throughout the city.
    • The industry has adapted but customers still find many products hard to use.
    • Our new model is more efficient because it uses less fuel.
  • 12. Complex sentences
    • Because it uses less fuel, the new model is more efficient.
    • If the company fails to make a profit this year, we shall be forced to make compulsory redundancies.
    • Although providers are only gradually coming to use the system, the results of this initiative have been impressive.
  • 13. Misplaced modifiers
    • We have a parrot in a cage that talks.
    • We saw very few signposts wandering around Ireland.
    • Send us your ideas for growing roses on a postcard.
    • Last night Sue went to see Elton John in a new dress.
  • 14. Round 2
    • Can you
    • get the
    • parts…?
  • 15. Parts of speech
    • Parts of speech are classes of word, classified by how they are used.
    • Can you name any parts of speech?
  • 16. Eight parts of speech
    • ( - or maybe nine)
    noun verb adjective adverb pronoun preposition conjunction article (determiner) interjection
  • 17. What part of speech?
    • She bought us all a round of drinks.
    • He has a round face.
    • Take care when you round the corner.
    • We drove round the town looking for somewhere to park.
    • Gather round !
    • [noun]
    [adjective]
    • [verb]
    • [preposition]
    • [adverb]
  • 18. Round 3
    • Name
    • that
    • noun!
  • 19. Common nouns
    • apple
    • bread
    • candle
    • dog
    • egg
    • funnel
    • grit
  • 20. Proper nouns
    • January
    • Spain
    • George
    • Hoover
    • Sunday
    • (but spring, summer, autumn, winter)
  • 21. Abstract nouns
    • action
    • banishment
    • collaboration
    • decision
    • enlargement
    • feasibility
    • graduation
    • honesty
    initiative justice kleptomania liquidation measurement narration observation performance
  • 22. Nominalisation
    • Creating an abstract noun from a verb, adjective or adverb
  • 23. For example:
    • Our product range has expanded over the past year.
    • Over the past year, there has been an expansion in our product range.
  • 24. For example:
    • Managers have used the system a lot more since May.
    • There has been a significant increase in usage of the system by managers since May.
  • 25. Denominalise!
    • We shall make a decision next week.
    • We shall decide next week.
  • 26. Denominalise!
    • The implementation of the project was undertaken by a small team.
    • A small team implemented the project.
  • 27. Denominalise!
    • AEGON UK plc conducted a survey with advisers at the end of last year.
    • AEGON UK plc surveyed advisers at the end of last year.
  • 28. Mass nouns
    • - are nouns that cannot take
    • an indefinite article
    • (a , an )
    • and cannot be plural
  • 29. Mass nouns
    • music
    • bread
    • poetry
    • cement
    • luck
    • training
    • leisure
  • 30. What’s wrong?
  • 31. It gets everywhere…
  • 32. ‘ less’ and ‘fewer’
    • Less of amount;
    • fewer of number.
  • 33. ‘ less’ and ‘fewer’
    • Less music; fewer tunes
    • Less bread; fewer loaves
    • Less poetry; fewer poems
    • Less cement; fewer slabs
    • Less training; fewer courses
  • 34. ‘ less’ and ‘fewer’
    • We have customers than last year.
    fewer
  • 35. ‘ less’ and ‘fewer’
    • If you do this, you’ll make
    • mistakes.
    fewer
  • 36. ‘ less’ and ‘fewer’
    • The interview will take not than 15 minutes.
    less
  • 37. ‘ less’ and ‘fewer’
    • As a result of the scheme, we have seen
    • traffic in the centre of London.
    • Cameras have recorded vehicles entering the zone since the scheme began.
    less fewer
  • 38. Collective nouns
    • - are nouns naming collections or groups
  • 39. Collective nouns
    • audience
    • council
    • staff
    • team
    • enemy
    • collection
    • herd
    • committee
    management class family army government leadership BBC Daily Mail The UN Network Rail McDonald’s
  • 40. Single or plural?
    • The company’s management have refused to comment.
    • The company’s management has refused to comment.
  • 41. Single or plural?
    • The number of policies illegally claimed on
    • never been revealed.
    • A number of policies been claimed on illegally.
    has have
  • 42. Single or plural?
    • The FSA reports that awareness levels are rising.
    • The FSA report that awareness levels are rising.
  • 43. Single or plural?
    • We asked the FSA and told us that awareness levels were rising.
    they
  • 44. Single or plural?
    • The committee a week to announce its findings.
    • The committee a week to announce their findings.
    • The committee has a week to announce their findings.
    has have
  • 45. Singular or plural: First Great Western
    • “ The use of mobile phones in this carriage are not allowed.”
  • 46. Round 4
    • Me,
    • Myself,
    • I
    • - and other pronouns
  • 47. Spot the pronouns
    • Who is that over there?
    • Who is that over there?
    • They were the only people in the room.
    • They were the only people in the room.
    • What do you know about her?
    • What do you know about her ?
    • I would let them take it if they ask for it.
    • I would let them take it if they ask for it .
  • 48. I and me
    • Me and Tony and going to a party tonight.
    • Tony and I are going to a party tonight.
  • 49. I and me He asked Tony and to come to the party. me
  • 50. I and me
    • “ It’s goodnight from Christine and .”
    me
  • 51. Reflexive pronouns
    • myself
    • yourself
    • herself
    • himself
    • itself
    • ourselves
    • yourselves
    • themselves
  • 52. Reflexive pronouns
    • I hurt myself with the sharp knife.
    • He taught himself to type.
    • I can do it myself.
    • She selected the policy herself.
    Use when the subject acts on itself… … or for emphasis…
  • 53. Reflexive pronouns
    • The boss invited my wife and myself to dinner.
    • The boss invited my wife and me to dinner.
  • 54. Reflexive pronouns
    • “ We can certainly have the car ready for yourself to pick up by the end of the day, sir.”
  • 55. ‘ which’ and ‘that’: what’s the difference?
    • The house that is painted pink has just been sold.
    • The house, which is painted pink, has just been sold.
  • 56. He or she?
    • If a customer asks for a refund, you should offer
    • only the exact price paid.
    • If customers ask for a refund, you should offer them only the price they paid.
    them they
  • 57. ‘ they’ for ‘he or she’
    • “ There’s a caller with a musical question on
    • Line 1. They realise they may have to wait.’’
    • A: There’s someone at the door!
    • B: Can you go and find out what they want?
  • 58. ‘ they’ for ‘he or she’
    • She kept her head and kicked her shoes off, as everybody ought to do who falls into deep water in their clothes.
    • [C S Lewis, Voyage of the “Dawn Treader”, Chapter I]
  • 59. ‘ they’ for ‘he or she’
    • And how easy the way a man or woman would come in here, glance around, find smiles and pleasant looks waiting for them, then wave and sit down by themselves.
    • [Doris Lessing]
  • 60. ‘ they’ for ‘he or she’
    • God send every one their heart's desire!
    • [Shakespeare, Much Ado About Nothing , Act III Scene 4]
  • 61. Round 5
    • What’s doing?
    • - the world of verbs
  • 62. Spot the verbs
    • We cooked a Chinese meal last night.
    • We cooked a Chinese meal last night.
    • Will you come to the office at two o’clock?
    • Will you come to the office at two o’clock?
  • 63. Spot the verb
    • Why did you decide on that policy?
    • Why did you decide on that policy?
    • I’m tearing my hair out!
    • I [ am ] tearing my hair out!
  • 64. Voice: active and passive
    • The favourite won the race.
    • The favourite won the race.
    • The race was won by the favourite.
  • 65. Active or passive?
    • Lillian wrote the report.
    • Lillian wrote the report.
    • The report was written by Lillian.
  • 66. Active or passive?
    • We shall hold interviews with twenty customers.
    • We shall hold interviews with twenty customers.
    • Interviews will be held [by us] with twenty customers.
    • Opportunities to sell new products are being missed by sales staff.
    • Opportunities to sell new products are being missed by sales staff.
    • Sales staff are missing opportunities to sell new products.
  • 67. ‘ will’ and ‘shall’
    • I complete the report tomorrow.
    • She join us later.
    shall will
  • 68. ‘ will’ and ‘shall’
    • “ You go the ball.”
    shall
  • 69. ‘ will’ and ‘shall’
    • I live my own life! I !
    will will
  • 70. ‘ will’ and ‘shall’
    • “ I will be drowned; no-one shall save me!”
  • 71. ‘ may’ and ‘might’
  • 72. ‘ may’ and ‘might’
    • That snake might attack someone.
    • It may be under the floorboards.
    • It might eat the cat.
  • 73. ‘ may have’ and ‘might have’
    • Do you have any idea where it may have gone?
    • It might have fallen asleep somewhere.
  • 74. ‘ may have’ and ‘might have’
    • He told me he may have left the lid off the tank.
    • He told me might have left the lid off the tank.
  • 75. ‘ may’ and ‘might’ Neighbours dreads finding missing snake Feb 16 2008 by Dan Warburton, The Journal A police spokesman said: “While the snake is a family pet and has been brought up around children, the owner is concerned that she might look intimidating.”
  • 76. ‘ may have’ and ‘might have’
  • 77. ‘ may have’ and ‘might have’
    • If the RSPCA hadn’t helped us, we may never have found Monty.
    • If the RSPCA hadn’t helped us, we might not have found Monty.
  • 78. dangling participles
    • Coming round the corner, a church came into view.
    • As we came round the corner, a church came into view.
  • 79. dangling participles
    • As a valued customer, we are sending a new prospectus for your perusal.
    • As you are a valued customer, we are sending you a new prospectus for your perusal.
  • 80. dangling participles
    • The exhibition features work by photographers executed between 1940 and 1965.
  • 81. The split infinitive
    • To boldly go….
  • 82. The origins of the controversy
    • “ But surely, this is a practice entirely unknown to English speakers and writers. It seems to me that we ever regard the to of the infinitive as inseparable from its verb. ”
    • [Henry Alford, Plea for the Queen’s English , 1864]
  • 83. H W Fowler on the split infinitive
    • “… literary pretensions can make us deaf to the normal rhythm of English sentences."
  • 84. Raymond Chandler on the split infinitive
    • “ I write in a sort of broken-down patois which is something like the way a Swiss-waiter talks, and that when I split an infinitive, God damn it, I split it so it will remain split.”
  • 85. The split infinitive
    • “ We have to not just deal with this outbreak now but prepare perhaps for a second phase further down the line.”
  • 86. Round 6
    • Describe and qualify
    • - adjectives and adverbs
  • 87. Adjective or adverb?
    • He’s a bright boy who talks quickly.
    • He’s a bright boy who talks quickly .
  • 88. Adjective or adverb?
    • It’s the large white house there.
    • It’s the large white house there .
  • 89. Adjective or adverb?
    • Of the smaller companies in the group, this company is the only one that operates profitably.
    • Of the smaller companies in the group, this company is the only one that operates profitably .
  • 90. The shifting adverb
    • Alan only trains managers.
    • Only Alan trains managers.
    • Alan trains only managers.
  • 91. Round 7
    • Grammatical glue
    • - articles, conjucntions and prepositions
  • 92. The three articles
    • a
    • an
    • the
  • 93. Co-ordinating conjunctions
    • and
    • but
    • for
    • nor
    • or
    • yet
    • so
  • 94. Sub-ordinating conjunctions
    • after
    • although
    • as
    • as if
    • as long as
    • as soon as
    because before how if since so that unless until while whilst whether whereas
  • 95. Sub-ordinating conjunctions
    • I went to work with an umbrella because it was raining.
    • Because it was raining, I went to work with an umbrella.
  • 96. Starting with ‘but’
    • It was a good scheme; but on driving to the door they heard that neither master nor mistress was at home.
    • But when satisfied on all these points, he contrived to find an opportunity of introducing his mother-in-law.
    • [Jane Austen]
  • 97. Starting with ‘and’
    • And is it true? And is it true, This most tremendous tale of all…
    • [John Betjeman]
  • 98. Starting with ‘and’
    • And so to bed.
    • [Samuel Pepys]
  • 99. Starting with ‘and’ and ‘but’
    • But if the result was indecisive, then the soccer was anything but. And when all the medals have been engraved…
  • 100. ‘ however’ as a ‘conjunction’
    • The tap water is quite safe to drink, however, we recommend using bottled water for drinking.
    • The tap water is quite safe to drink. However, we recommend using bottled water for drinking.
    • The tap water is quite safe to drink; however, we recommend using bottled water for drinking.
  • 101. Prepositions
    • above
    • between
    • over
    • into
    • near
    • beside
    • along
    after at before during since until past as for in to but by with without instead of other than in front of up to due to owing to
  • 102. Verbose conjunctions
    • subsequent to
    • in the course of
    • prior to
    • in the event of
    • for the reason that
    • in the neighbourhood of
    • with a view to
    after during before if because about to
  • 103. Preposition at the end of a sentence
    • Who are you talking about?
    • [About whom are you talking?]
    • That’s the restaurant we ate in.
    • […in which we ate.]
    • If you get married, make sure it’s someone you can hold a discussion with.
    • [… with whom you can hold a discussion.]
  • 104. Prepositional verbs
    • Who are you going out with?
    • Even the tea bags were paid for.
    • I don’t know what to believe in.
  • 105. ‘ put’ + prepositions
    • I shall need to put my lipstick on.
    • What sort of voice are you putting on?
    • I shan’t tell you how much weight you’ve put on.
    • What kind of rumours have you been putting about?
    • Do you have any ideas to put forward.
    • I feel really put out.
    • Put upon, actually.
  • 106. ‘ put’ + prepositions
    • I can’t put it off.
    • Can you put me up?
    • What kind of behaviour can you not put up with?
    • Don’t put him down.
    • We had to put the dog down.
    • Is she someone you can put up with?
    • Please put it away.
  • 107. How many prepositions can you end a sentence with…?
    • “ What did you bring me that book to be read to out of up for ?”
  • 108. How many prepositions can you end a sentence with…?
    • "What did you bring that book that I don't want to be read to out of about 'Down Under‘ up for ?"
  • 109. How many prepositions can you end a sentence with…?
    • "What did you say that the sentence with the most prepositions at the end was 'What did you bring that book that I don't want to be read to out of about "Down Under" up for?' for?”
  • 110. Round 8
    • What’s the point?
    • - punctuation marks
  • 111. What’s the point of punctuation?
    • What is this thing called, Love?
    • In short knickers are practical garments.
    • Suzy won’t be here; Her parents disapprove.
  • 112. The power of punctuation
    • A woman without her man is nothing.
    • A woman: without her, man is nothing.
  • 113. The ‘umble comma
    • Please place all towels costumes clothing and valuables in the lockers provided.
    • Please place all towels , costumes , clothing and valuables in the lockers provided.
  • 114. The Oxford comma
    • I went to Lloyds Bank, Marks and Spencer, and HMV.
    • These items are available in black and white, red and yellow, and blue and green.
  • 115. Commas and subordinate clauses
    • Although he was tired, Jeff continued to work.
    • If you cannot open the lid, use a wrench.
  • 116. - and other uses of the comma
    • The good news is that, with your advice, the winners will be you and your clients.
    • However, there is another very important aspect to this.
    • Joyce, the Catering Manager, was annoyed at the quality of the sausages.
  • 117. The colon: lists
    • Marlowe looked at the evidence the rumpled bed the half-smoked cigarettes the bottle of Bourbon open on the bedside table…
  • 118. The colon: lists
    • Marlowe looked at the evidence : the rumpled bed , the half-smoked cigarettes , the bottle of Bourbon open on the bedside table…
  • 119. Lists: colons and semi-colons
    • The benefits include full health insurance a company car and membership of the local gym.
    • The benefits include:
    • full health insurance;
    • a company car; and
    • membership of the local gym.
  • 120. Semi-colons: contrast
    • I enjoy swimming my wife hates it.
    • I enjoy swimming ; my wife hates it.
  • 121. Semi-colons: contrast
    • On average women tend to live until 80 men are only expected to live until 74.
    • On average women tend to live until 80 ; men are only expected to live until 74.
    ,
  • 122. What’s the apostrophe for?
  • 123. Apostrophes to indicate missing letters
    • We’re not getting anywhere.
    • You can’t say that.
    • I wouldn’t say it if I didn’t mean it.
  • 124. The possessive apostrophe
    • The managers office was empty.
    • The manager’s office was empty.
    • The managers’ office was empty.
  • 125. Possessive plurals: careful!
    • She made a mistake and went into the mens room.
    • She made a mistake and went into the men ’ s room.
  • 126. Place the apostrophes
    • Mines a Guinness. Whats yours?
    • Mine ’ s a Guinness. What ’ s yours?
    • Jackie said the jacket was hers.
    • Seasons greetings!
    • Season ’ s greetings!
  • 127. Spot the mistake
  • 128. It’s…
    • Its not obvious.
    • It ’ s not obvious. [ It is ]
    • Its started raining.
    • It ’ s started raining. [ It has ]
  • 129. … and ‘its’
    • A leopard can’t change its spots.
  • 130. Whats missing?
  • 131. Place the apostrophes
    • I wish theyd tell us if theyre planning on one hours delay or two hours delay.
    • I wish they ’ d tell us if they ’ re planning on one hour ’ s delay or two hours ’ delay.
  • 132. Try this one…
    • Its the countries largest supermarket.
    • It ’ s the country ’ s largest supermarket.
  • 133. Names ending in ‘-s’
  • 134. Names ending in ‘-s’
  • 135. The grocers apostrophe’s
  • 136. Wandering apostrophe’s
  • 137. Who’s pizza’s?
  • 138. Serial apostrophe abus’e
  • 139. Right or wrong?
  • 140. Round 9
    • A or B?
  • 141. Kairos Training Limited
    • www.kairostraining.co.uk