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Thomson, Schlenker & Schulenkorf - SMAANZ 2009 Event Legacies
Thomson, Schlenker & Schulenkorf - SMAANZ 2009 Event Legacies
Thomson, Schlenker & Schulenkorf - SMAANZ 2009 Event Legacies
Thomson, Schlenker & Schulenkorf - SMAANZ 2009 Event Legacies
Thomson, Schlenker & Schulenkorf - SMAANZ 2009 Event Legacies
Thomson, Schlenker & Schulenkorf - SMAANZ 2009 Event Legacies
Thomson, Schlenker & Schulenkorf - SMAANZ 2009 Event Legacies
Thomson, Schlenker & Schulenkorf - SMAANZ 2009 Event Legacies
Thomson, Schlenker & Schulenkorf - SMAANZ 2009 Event Legacies
Thomson, Schlenker & Schulenkorf - SMAANZ 2009 Event Legacies
Thomson, Schlenker & Schulenkorf - SMAANZ 2009 Event Legacies
Thomson, Schlenker & Schulenkorf - SMAANZ 2009 Event Legacies
Thomson, Schlenker & Schulenkorf - SMAANZ 2009 Event Legacies
Thomson, Schlenker & Schulenkorf - SMAANZ 2009 Event Legacies
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Thomson, Schlenker & Schulenkorf - SMAANZ 2009 Event Legacies

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event management, event legacy, legacies, long term outcomes, strategic management, legacy planning, major sport event, Australia, empirical testing, qualitative research, document analysis, economic …

event management, event legacy, legacies, long term outcomes, strategic management, legacy planning, major sport event, Australia, empirical testing, qualitative research, document analysis, economic impact, triple bottom line, post games report, public policy,

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  • 1. Event Legacies: An Empirical Testing of the Legacy Concept Alana Thomson, Dr. Katie Schlenker & Dr. Nico Schulenkorf* University of Technology, Sydney *Auckland University of Technology SMAANZ Conference, Bond University, Gold Coast 26 th – 28 th November 2009
  • 2. Research Background & Aim <ul><li>Legacy as a justification for government involvement in special events </li></ul><ul><li>Long-term outcomes for a host city from staging an event (Hiller, 2003; Preuss, 2007) </li></ul><ul><li>Need to maximise positive outcomes and limit negatives (Chalip; 2004; Preuss, 2007; Gratton & Preuss, 2008) </li></ul><ul><li>Inconsistent conceptualisation of legacy within strategic applications </li></ul><ul><li>Contribute to clarification of legacy understanding in the sport event context </li></ul>
  • 3. Research Design <ul><li>Qualitative and Interpretive </li></ul><ul><li>Coding Frame </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5 key considerations (Thomson, Schlenker & Schulenkorf, 2009) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Document Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluation of event evaluation documents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7 events </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>World Police and Fire Games (1995), Sydney Olympics (2000), Sydney Paralympics (2000), World Masters Games (2002), Rugby World Cup (2003), Commonwealth Games (2006), FINA World Championships (2007) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nvivo 8 software for data coding, including descriptive, interpretive and pattern coding (Miles & Huberman, 1994) </li></ul><ul><li>Coder Checking (Miles & Huberman, 1994) </li></ul>
  • 4. Frame for Analysis Consideration Explanation Terminology Use of ‘legacy’ as opposed to another term Legacy as bestowed or planned <ul><ul><li>Legacy as automatically bestowed or needing to be planned </li></ul></ul>Temporal nature of legacy Permanent or long-term Permanent typically infrastructure-based Legacy as positive or negative <ul><ul><li>Legacy as positive and/or negative, same legacy, different perspectives </li></ul></ul>Legacy as local and global Contextual and dynamic nature of sport events Stakeholder objectives and perspectives Challenge to balance
  • 5. Findings World Police & Fire Games 1995 Sydney Olympics 2000 Paralympics 2000 World Masters Games 2002 Commonwealth Games 2006 Rugby World Cup 2003 FINA Swimming Champs 2007 Economic Impact Study     Triple Bottom Line Report  Post Games Report    Word Count 4662 363037 196693 5414 23060 36088 7188 Legacy - Words coded 0 2303 344 271 216 102 252 % of Document Coded 0.0% 0.6% 0.2% 5.0% 0.9% 0.3% 3.5%
  • 6. Findings – 1. Terminology <ul><li>Most reports referred to ‘legacy’ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>legacy outcomes; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>legacy assets; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>legacy contributions; and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>legacy obligations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Benefits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>long-term; and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lasting </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Legacy description </li></ul>
  • 7. Findings Legacy Type Description of Legacy Facilities/Facility development/Facility upgrades/Social Housing <ul><li>Permanent sporting legacy </li></ul><ul><li>Permanent Olympic legacy </li></ul><ul><li>Permanent legacy </li></ul><ul><li>Enduring legacy </li></ul><ul><li>Important legacy </li></ul><ul><li>Valuable legacy </li></ul><ul><li>Substantial legacy </li></ul><ul><li>Wonderful legacy </li></ul>Economy/Financial/Budgetary outcomes/Investments <ul><li>Lasting legacy </li></ul><ul><li>Long-term legacy </li></ul><ul><li>Most enduring legacy </li></ul><ul><li>Lasting, beneficial legacy </li></ul>International awareness/Recognition/ Awareness of environment <ul><li>Most enduring legacy </li></ul><ul><li>Substantial legacy  </li></ul>Quality of life/Lifelong friendship/Contacts/Skills <ul><li>Enduring legacy </li></ul><ul><li>Most enduring legacy </li></ul><ul><li>Positive legacy </li></ul>Community/Healthy Communities/Social impacts <ul><li>Fantastic legacy </li></ul><ul><li>Numerous legacies </li></ul><ul><li>Lasting legacy </li></ul>
  • 8. Findings – 2. Legacy as planned or bestowed <ul><li>Legislation </li></ul><ul><li>Legacy Agencies </li></ul>Pre-/During Event Post Event Planned “ As part of the legacy… M2007 developed a Sport Development program in conjunction with VICSWIM” (FINA World Champs, 2007) Create Develop Invest Design Provide Contribute Upgrade Generate Establish Maximise Maintain Monitor Bestowed “ it is hoped that many will continue to be involved in volunteering” (Sydney Olympics 2000) Anticipate Hope Opportunity Ensure Encourage Enhance Inject Leave
  • 9. Findings – 3. Temporal nature of legacy <ul><li>Legacies exist in time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>long-term, permanent, enduring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>looking back and looking forward </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Long-term does not always mean permanent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>legacies evolve from Games time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ reconfigured to ensure its long-term usage” (Sydney Olympics 2000) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reflect community interests and needs </li></ul></ul>
  • 10. Findings – 4. Legacy as positive and negative <ul><li>Legacy largely positive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ a number of benefits, which they believe will create a lasting legacy” (World Masters Games 2002) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Legacy only negative when previous events are discussed for legacy comparison </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Several previous Olympic Games have left host cities and underwriters with an unwelcome legacy in the form of large public debt. NSW Government legislators sought to avoid this outcome” (Sydney Olympics 2000) </li></ul></ul>
  • 11. Findings – 5. Legacy as local and global <ul><li>Legacies are available to everyone, everywhere </li></ul><ul><li>Vague accountability frameworks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ a fantastic legacy for Melbourne and all Victorians” (FINA World Championships 2007) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ benefits for small to medium size venues…in hosting international large-scale events” (World Masters Games 2002) </li></ul></ul>
  • 12. How has legacy been conceptualised, planned and evaluated in sport events in Australia? Consideration Discussion Terminology Time dimension emphasised, as opposed to planning Legacy as bestowed or planned Tension consistent with literature - transparency Role of legislation and legacy organisations Temporal nature of legacy Long-term/permanent Evolving nature – community needs and interests – viability?? Legacy as positive or negative Transparency and accountability Legacy as local and global Responsibilities, procedures and accountability
  • 13. Conclusions & Implications <ul><li>Clear conceptualisations for accountability and transparency: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>clarification of terminology; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identification of stakeholders; and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identification of strategies and outcomes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Transparency & Accountability = meaningful outcomes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>demonstrating event value </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>learning forward to maximise future event value </li></ul></ul>
  • 14. References <ul><li>Chalip, L. (2004). Beyond Impact: A General Model for Sport Event Leverage. In B. Ritchie & D. Adair (Eds.), Sport Tourism: Interrelationships, Impacts and Issues (pp. 226-252). on-line e-book: Channelview Publications. </li></ul><ul><li>Gratton, C., & Preuss, H. (2008). Maximizing Olympic Impacts by Building up Legacies. The International Journal of the History of Sport, 25(14), 1922-1938. </li></ul><ul><li>Hiller, H. (2003). Toward a Science of Olympic Outcomes: The Urban Legacy. Paper presented at the Legacy of the Olympic Games 1984-2000, International Symposium. </li></ul><ul><li>Miles, M., & Huberman, A. (1994). Qualitative data analysis: an expanded sourcebook. California: Sage Publications. </li></ul><ul><li>Preuss, H. (2007). The Conceptualisation and Measurement of Mega Sport Tourism. Journal of Sport & Tourism, 12(3-4), 207-227. </li></ul><ul><li>Thomson, A., Schlenker, K., & Schulenkorf, N. (2009, 6-8 July). The Legacy-Factor: Towards conceptual clarification in the sport event context. Paper presented at the International Event Management Research Symposium, Gold Coast, Australia. </li></ul>

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