Unicef Cbdp Final Report 2008 09Document Transcript
Community Based Disaster
Indranarayanpur Nazrul Smriti Sangha (INSS)
Vill.-Indranarayanpur, PO- Ramnagar Abad, PS- Pathar Pratima, Dist.- South 24 Paraganas, Pin 743349,
Mob.: 9830185170, Email: email@example.com , firstname.lastname@example.org
1. Executive Summary
‘Community Based Disaster Preparedness (CBDP) is based on the belief that people have the potential
to take timely and appropriate actions to reduce the impact of natural disaster through a process of
behaverioul change, if sufficient capacity building initiatives are taken up at community level and family level.
The goal of the programme was to build their capacity to reduce the loss of life and property and provide
support to strengthen their coping mechanisms and also use of appropriate local technologies.
The programme methodology involved community and family at all levels, of its planning and
implementation. The ‘CBDP’ Programme started with the activity of community mobilization/family
interventions and establishing linkages with other stakeholders of the community such as Panchayati Raj
Institutions (PRI) personnel and local Govt. officials. Activities such as Participatory Learning and Action
(PLA) in true sense as methodology not merely an activity conducted to involve community members in
collecting and analyzing data related to their own vulnerability and existing resources in the context of
The ‘Community Based Disaster Preparedness (CBDP) Project addressed to build up the capacity of the
vulnerable community to cope up with the disaster. The capacity building initiatives in the project ensured
the sustainability and ownership through participation. It is understood that community has its own potentials
to face the disaster but may not be in organized way to do it. INSS in addressing the issue facilitated the
process to strengthen the capacity of the community.
Disaster and Life Perspective
‘Community Based Disaster Preparedness (CBDP) is
a process-oriented approach to ensure participation Disaster
of all stakeholders to reduce loss and damages
through capacity building initiatives. Well-off Community Prepared Community
The above mentioned diagram ‘A’ shows the community of life Community
situation and their standard of living during disaster. It Un Prepared
shows during the disaster well - off community come
back to their normal life easily because of their Disaster Period
organized life and bondage with each other. The other
section of the community called unprepared community
Disaster and an ideal Preparedness Perspective
disaster, takes few years to come back to their normal
life but most of time they remain in the same situation.
The diagram B shows if the community is prepared to
face disaster systematically they can come back to
normal life easily with effective manner. The disaster
becomes the part and parcel of the lifestyle of
Community Based Disaster Preparedness community. The more preparedness - the more
strength and confidence, through a difficult
Time process of changing mindsets among all
Both the diagram shows the changes in knowledge, skills and mindsets. The project in turn of changing
knowledge, skills and mindsets ensured the less loss of life, property. The project directly addressed to three
Less loss of life and property.
Reduction of vulnerability and sufferings.
Normal life situation even in disaster
‘Community Based Disaster Preparedness (CBDP) programme in South 24 Parganas district of West
Bengal be implemented by Indranarayanpur Nazrul Smriti Sangha in 45 Gram Sansads (the lowest
development structure under Panchayet Raj act) across Sagar and Mathurapur-II blocks of the district.
2.0 Exact geographical Location and population Dynamics
Sundarbans, the majestic mangrove delta in the southern
tip of West Bengal, leading to Bay of Bengal is one of the South 24 Pargnas
most diversified bio-mass in the world. Known for its
abounding flora and fauna, the delta is also the home for Mahestola
almost four-and-half million people. The Sundarban that Budge Budge-I Sonarpur
has created creative verses within artistic minds is also Budge Budge-IIBishnupur-II
known for the terror it regularly unleashes on the hapless Falta
millions who depend on it for survival. Magrahat-II
Diamond Harbour-I Jaynagar-I Gosaba
Diamond Harbour-II Basanti
The area called Sundarbans is spread over two countries Mandirbazar
(India and Bangladesh). It is a network of rivers, channels Jaynagar-II
and creeks, encompassing 54 major islands and hundreds Kulpi
of smaller ones. The changing course of the rivers, Mathurapur-II Pathar Pratima
developing landmasses and vanishing islands makes the
delta a dynamic entity. The Sundarbans in India is about Kakwip
9500 skm in area, of which roughly 60 percent have been Patharpratima
earmarked as classified forest area and thus, not open for
human inhabitation. The delta falls in two districts of North Sagar
24 Parganas and South 24 Parganas, with the latter Namkhana
accounting for over three-fourths of the land. Of the 19
administrative blocks that forms the delta, thirteen are in
South 24 Parganas. The major urban centers in the delta
are Kakdwip, Raidighi and Canning, gateways to the interior part of Sundarban. The delta starts from about
80 kms South of Kolkata and stretches for another 120 kms from there.
Pathar Pratima, Namkhana, Mathurapur II, Kakdwip, Sagar, Kultali, Gosaba and Basanti are the blocks in
the South Sundarban area that received the brunt of natural calamities. The above blocks constitute nearly
45 percent of the Sundarban population. The intricate river networks form the lifeline for the people, aiding
movement, transport and communication, despite its irregularity, unpredictability and lack of any systematic
transport system. Bulk of the farming community is small and marginal land owners. There are a large
percentage of scheduled caste and minority groups, constituting over 60 percent of the population. Tribal
population, living in closely formed clusters, is scattered around the blocks. In terms of numbers, the tribal
people constitute only a negligible 3% of the population. The tribal communities of Sundarbans are basically
from the Santhal Parganas, brought centuries ago as slaves to the delta.
The major occupation is land farming and fishing. Almost 80 percent of the population is engaged in farming,
farm related labour, fishing, fishing labour and unskilled daily labour. However, despite its huge potential in
terms of land and water availability, almost 70 percent of the people are denied of employment even for one
third of a year. Thus, poverty and lack of employment opportunities, thanks to prolonged negligence and
apathy has contributed to the overall precarious scenario in the delta, both in social and economic terms.
The unique geographic positioning of Sundarbans has made it one of the most calamities prone in the
region. People move from one calamity to another, be it floods, thunderstorms or cyclones. Poor become
poorer and unable to recover from one calamity, they fall from the calamity to a calamity process, an
unending cycle that has destroyed the will and spirit of the Sundarban community.
Floods strike the delta 2.3 times a year. Unlike other areas where floods are followed by bumper crops, in
Sundarbans they are dreaded by the people. Being in close vicinity to the ocean, tidal floods that cause
havoc in the delta inundates the land with saline water. Once saline water enters the land, there is no way
out for the people. They loose their cultivation, paddy growth decays, ponds get salivated, no drinking water
is possible, animals go thirsty and chaos reigns in the village alleys. So much so, that at times, cultivation
becomes impossible for up to four years in a stretch. Salinity of the top soil is difficult to be washed away. It
has to dilute itself through fresh rains and often, when the salinity starts vanishing, a fresh inundation
threatens the very sustenance of the families who are dependent on farming.
Thanks to the centuries of calamity experience, the people of Sundarbans have their own way of protecting
their lives, but not their livelihoods. Today, the disasters in the delta are slow killers. People have learned
how to tide over the flooding waters and move themselves to safety. But they cannot carry their land to
The only mechanism that the government had to combat the floods was embankments. Year after year, long
stretches of embankments are made and repaired, only to be breached and broken at the first rush of
waters. The embankments have become a way of business for the vested interests in the local government
It is estimated of the 200,000 hectares of estuaries that the delta possesses; only about 40,000 hectares are
utilized for fishing. Sundarban has the potential to supply fish to the entire North and eastern India, but sadly
enough, one can find fish from Andhra Pradesh being sold in its inner markets. Fishery, one of the most
potent economic activities that the delta possesses is in shambles. Today, the hundreds of thousands of
poor and small time fishermen have been swamped aside by the big trawlers and the nexus they have with
powerful middlemen, political bodies and local mafia. Unscrupulous damage done to the river banks, its eco
system and environment has destroyed the bio-marine in the river network. In the name of that elusive pot of
gold by catching and selling prawn spawns, people have for years destroyed other varieties of marine lives.
Every February over the last decade and half, villages in Sunderbans area are abruptly emptied.
Sunderbans is “mono-cropped”. In other words, it now produces just one type of crop, harvested at one time
of year. So busloads of men leave for the agriculturally rich Hooghly and Burdwan districts, seeking work on
the roads and fields there, in the rice mills and construction sites or whatever they could manage to hold on.
It has been found that displacement of labour from agricultural work and increasing outward migration are
the most important change on the agricultural scene in the past deaden and half. This outbound migration of
male members has also resulted in an increase in the ratio number of female agricultural workers in their
areas. Thus, today, women who were predominantly confined within their homes and tending to the family
members are forced to come out and engage in economic activities, while continuing with their engagement
at home front.
At the same time, the number of marginal workers have gone up significantly from 8.1 per cent in 1991 to
14.2 per cent in 2002 while there was a sharp fall in the percentage of “main workers” (more than 183 days
a year), especially male workers, coming from rural areas. The figures thus indicate both casualization and
feminization of the workforce in rural areas, with the ratio of marginal women workers becoming larger and
more significant, while men are more and more moving out in search of the elusive employment.
The cumulative effect of protracted calamities, inability of the people to cope with the rising disasters and
interlined poverty and lack of support, infrastructure and empathy from successive governments and
administration has put the people in jeopardy. Violence against women, atrocities, armed robbery, trafficking
and forced migration is direct consequences of the disaster-poverty cycle in the delta.
3.0. Operational framework
3.1. Origin of the request
The CBDP programme was initiated in 45 Gram sansads of the two blocks of South 24 Parganas district of
West Bengal from March 2008 to 2009.
• Sansad and Booth No. of Mathurapur-II (3 GP) and Sagar Block (3 GP)
• CBDP Area of Operation:
Block Gram Village/Sansad Sansad No. Booth No.
Sagar Block Ganga Sagar Ganga Sagar Colony 11 85
Ganga Sagar 13 87
Ganga Sagar (W) 12 86
Ganga Sagar 10 84
Ganga Sagar 9 83
Dhablot Mission-1 3 92
Kapil Vidya. 1 90
Madhyapara 2 91
Mission-2 4 93
Rashpur 16 104
Chemaguri FP 5 94
Purbapara FP 6 95
Prasadpur Jr. Basic 17 105
Prasadpur FP 18 106
Rashmoni 7 96
Moriganga-1 Kastala 1 4
(MG-1) Pakhirala 6 9
Silpara 9 12
Khirkultala 2 5
Sikarpur 10 13
Sapkhali 3 6
Chapatala 4 7
Hetal Ketki 7 10
Pathar Pratima 8 11
Kachuberia 5 8
Mathurapur-II Raidighi Gayenpara Purba 1 46
24 No. Lot 2 47
Sikari Para 11 56
Taltala Mistri Para 12 57
Gayenpara Paschim 5 50
Kankandighi Purkait Para/Halderpara 1 70
Daktarergheri 4 73
Naskarpara 2 71
Sipai Para U.dk.Mudi Para 3 72
Munda Para 5 74
Nagendrapur Khatua Para 10 114
Giri Para 11 115
Nagendrapur Uttar Para 1 105
Purba Sridharpur Paschim Para 9 113
Purba Sridharpur Purba Para 3 107
Hat Para-Keoratola-Christianpara 2 106
Chatterjee Para- Halderpara 7 111
Mandal Para 8 112
Purkait Para 6 110
Prodhan Para 5 109
3.2. Arguments lead to the choice of the CBDP project
The assessments done by INSS with the guidance of senior consultants during the planning phase indicated
that there are several key developmental gaps that necessitates some contextual and community based
programme with the objective of increasing their capacity to cope with natural disaster (Flood) using their
1. People got used to the frequent disasters and have found a way of living with the floods, there
appears to be two basic attitudes - one is of self-confidence with some coping strategies and the
other, a sense of apathy or hopelessness, ‘leaving it to the fate’. Saying that floods are sent by God.
In any case Flood act as a massive threat to the development of the society and cause massive loss
of life and livelihood during disaster. Low risk perception and absence of any organized effort for
disaster preparedness at community level. People consider flood as a regular phenomena and have
a feeling that nothing could be done by them to reduce the impact of disaster.
2. South 24 Paraganas more specifically project area have a deep rooted social structures,
systems and traditions that have withstood the upheavals of history, an important factor to be
considered when we speak of mindsets. Social norms, age-old distinction of caste based
occupation and segregation are still prevalent in the district. In other way a Very high dependency
on external relief during the time of disaster.
3. Society of the project area is complex in structure and nature. They are distributed in various castes
and sub-groups. The Other Backwards class (OBC) forms the major chunk of population. Next
comes the Scheduled Castes (SC). Backward Castes- In other words High level of social and
economic exclusion act as great challenge for any community based problem. During the flood
relief programme, it was a great challenge to manage the high level of dominance by high caste
people in distribution process.
4. The vulnerability and Capacity Analysis
Aspects Vulnerability Capacity
Organizational 1. Distribution of relief, monopolized by the 1. People got physical and
(SHG, CBOs, PRIs, PRI and the influential people. (Relief psychological support from the
School, different during disaster is one of the most organization.
committees etc) powerful instruments of exploitation and 2. Organization increases the
subjugation). people’s capacities especially for
2. The structures within the society are women and reduce the vulnerabilities.
exploitative. The weaker sections have 3. People are united by the
no voice. organization through various
3. Even at meetings they can not speak up meetings.
against the powerful. 4. Organization brings equality among
4. Schemes of government do not help poor all the people irrespective of caste
people to develop their life style. and religion.
5. PRI members take money from the poor
people in order to give the scheme.
6. Lack of capable teachers and lack of
organized education is barrier for
education of the poor.
7. Children don’t get timely midday meal.
8. Because of ignorance people are
cheated by other people.
9. Outsiders induce them to give them
something but they don’t give them.
Social 1. The weaker sections (the poorest) have
(caste, religion, a tendency to accept what is said by the
gender, rich, poor powerful without questioning.
etc) 2. Ignorance and lack of critical awareness
makes them to accept whatever is said
by the educated.
3. Casteism is acutely practiced and it
promotes discrimination and
untouchability in the society.
4. People of low castes live in separate
5. Religion is used by the influentials to
divide people for political reasons;
different rituals and customs of religion
are made to be barriers for the people by
the vested interest groups.
6. Males take decision most of the time;
women can not go out without the
permission of their husbands.
7. Most women do not know what the
income of the husband is.
8. Rich people don’t help poor people.
There are money-lending and other forms
of exploitation of the poorer people by the
less poor within the same caste
9. There is double exploitation of the poor –
from the higher castes and also from
within the community.
Economic 1. The Poor people take everything as fate
( livelihood, and also have a mentality of leaving
occupation, everything to the fate.
accessibility to 2. There is a sense of hopelessness. Poor
resources, people do not really strive to improve
government and their condition, they think it is useless.
NGO presence) 3. Most people do not have sufficient
income to protect their necessary
things; .people borrow money at high
interest during the time of disaster.
4. Poor people spend lot of money in
drinking alcohol though they have less
income, which is also affecting their
health and they spend for treatment.
5. they earn less money but they spent
6. many people are unemployed
7. in NGOs people don’t get sufficient salary
Geographical 1. Poor people inhabit the flood prone areas 1. High places reduces the damages .
( land zone, river as land in safer places is expensive.
areas, low lying 2. Low lying areas are more vulnerable due
areas etc) to water logging. Low areas near the river
are more vulnerable as water enters first
and recedes last.
3. Living in low places increases the
4. Living on river embankment is risky if
there is a breach.
Human 1. Specially vulnerable persons – like the
( vulnerable specially challenged, pregnant mothers,
individuals and nourishing mothers, children below 5
groups – the years are more vulnerable because they
specially challenged, need the help of others;
pregnant mothers, 2. Specially vulnerable groups – the poorest
lactating mothers, section of the community have special
children below 5 and problems
excluded population 3. Children of 5-10 years are most
etc) vulnerable to traumatic stress as trauma
makes them to regress and usually they
are the neglected group in the relief
3.3. SWOT analysis of the organisation
Strength: Weakness Opportunities: Threat:
• Committed and • Distance of office • Easy to approach • Natural calamity
effective leadership location keeps away the government (Frequent floods)
• Experienced Staff from the target officials • Imbalance in attitude
• Team spirit and people • coverage of of the community
purposefulness • Inadequate maximum villages • Corruption among
among the staff infrastructure for the programme Govt. Officials
• Hard work of the facilities operation • Fear of Conversion
INSS Staff • Lack of own • People’s • Strong castism
transport facility cooperation and • The illiteracy of the
• Financial support
• Minimum collaboration people
and good will of the
qualification of the • Government’s
staff hinders the schemes
• Ability to win
professionalism of • Ready of the staff
peoples’ good will,
the organization. and the community
trust and Support
• Lack of net- working
• Good rapport with
with other local
• 25 years of working
Social service sector
• Outstanding women
leaders from SHGs
3.4. Coordination with authorities and other organisations working in the region or in same
area of activity.
Coordination with authorities and other organisations is helpful as well as ready to cooperate in our
development activities they encourage our coordination to carry out the government related programs. We
are recognized and identified by our sincere hard work and effective achievement in the development sector
in our region. So they invite us to carry out the welfare activities which formulated by the local government.
The authorities give their valuable presence in our necessary programs.
4.1. Goal: Enhancing the capacity of the community to reduce the impact of flood and
take informed and proactive action through CBDP process.
5. Key achievement under specific objectives:
CBDP is community centric and it is based on a whole community approach facilitating most vulnerable
Under CBDP, the local community with special focus on vulnerable groups was taken as the primary focus
of attention and treated as the common unit, which gets affected in any disaster. Further, whether a
disaster is major or minor, national of local, it is the vulnerable people at the community or village level who
suffer its adverse effects. They have been able to use their own coping and survival strategies to face and
respond to the situation since ages. Only they are not organized or built upon their traditional knowledge
and skills with advance local technologies to face the immediate impact of disaster. Considering these
aspects the entire approach of CBDP was designed to be community centric. CBDP relies on the capacity
of community/vulnerable and so did not aim to infuse major material input to the community. Every
individual member was equally important to the programme and there was no social targeting in CBDP.
The CBDP worked for bringing a change of mindset among all the stakeholders of it
CBDP requires a change of mindset of implementing agencies to have confidence the capacity of
people. It rested on the belief that even the most vulnerable person has the capacity to take care of himself if
proper guidance is provided. On the other hand, CBDP brought a change of mindset of community from
dependency on relief to preparedness in the context of natural disaster.
Ensured the claimed participation of the community
One of the uniqueness of the CBDP concept is that it does not create any separate organizational structure
to implement it; it works through the existing structure. People’s constitutional right to participate in the
decision making process (participatory democracy) was incorporated into the methodology. At the same
time, CBDRR facilitated the generation of a feeling at the community (encompassing all subsets of it) that
they themselves are responsible to take care of themselves and the less vulnerable section would take care
of the more vulnerable sections. Participation from all groups, men, women, youth, elderly, and persons with
disability would ensure the proper functioning of the programme. All are stakeholders (community, PRI,
Government officials) in the programme and the programme methodology aspired to bring all of them
CBDP focused on preparedness for natural disasters ( flood)
CBDP focused on preparedness for natural disasters where the measures for preparedness are identified
and developed by the community and INSS took the role of the facilitator. No material input was provided for
any mitigation activity but community took some steps to reduce the impact of disaster by taking some
action by themselves and using the local resources or tapping the government facilities through linkage and
advocacy. Preparedness included some steps that had to be taken by individuals and at the same time
some preparedness activities were conducted at family level and community level. In each case, the
community kept in mind the special needs of vulnerable groups develops strategies for disaster
CBDP Programme management was based on a bottom up approach
In the process of programme implementation, the INSS involved its staffs from all levels in planning and
decision-making so that the programme became a true example of bottom up programme management.
CBDP aimed to make it sustainable endeavor for disaster preparedness and disaster risk
CBDP aimed at a sustainable system where community got motivated and empowered to move forward
without any external support.
5.0. Description of the project activities done and results achieved
INSS has well established network and long standing presence with the community in the selected villages.
They have already implemented women empowerment programme in those villages and promoted 32
SHGs for women with the community. These groups have started savings and credit activities. The
strength lies of the INSS on selected areas are the existing SHGs used as platform to initiate the
programme. Practically, these groups and networks used as the entry point to the community for
initiating CBDP programme. Specific activities for CBDP implementation designed during the
programme with active involvement of the other community members as disaster is everybody’s
problem. This could be considered as the uniqueness of the CBDP methodology. But the guiding
principles remain the same for the programme. Involvement of community at every level of the project
acted as the accelerating force behind it.
Sl.No. Particulars Unit Target Achievements No. of participants
1 PLA /VCA 45 45 45 3375
2 Focus Group Discussion 45 45 45 270
3 Gram Sansad Action Plan 45 45 45 320
4 Gram Sansad Mobilization 45 45 45 2475
5 GP level meeting 6 6 6
6 Para level meeting 60 60 60 10500
7 Mothers’ meeting 45 45 45 1575
8 SHG meeting 15 15 15 300
9 Mock drill 45 45 45 11250
10 CD show 45 45 45 2500
11 FSK, CSK,ORS demonstration 45 45 46 813
12 Swimming competition 45 45 45 11000
13 Capacity building training on Project 0 0 3 100
14 Training/demo on raising hand 45 45 45 315
15 Training/demo on raising temporary 45 45 45 725
16 Training on First Aid Box 45 45 45 678
17 Training /Demo on boat making 45 45 45 1620
18 Training /Demo on life jacket 45 45 45
19 Task Force Group Formation & 1620
Training 45 45 45
22 Meeting with animators & Staff 12 12 9 30
Briefing of the activities
• Identification of project stakeholders and project areas
• Identification of vulnerable people, areas and need assessment using participatory methods
• Establishing linkages with various stakeholders of the project and following that throughout the year
Inter Personal Communication with the families built the rapport specially with the vulnerable community. The
IPC done to strengthen the community and social mobilization activities looking at the need of changing
Small group meetings initiated the community bonding and understanding the need and purpose of CBDRR thus
strengthening the programme.
Meeting with the key persons using them as social gatekeepers other than the existing SHGs in the project area.
Networking & Advocacy
Organizing and facilitating District and Block level meetings with PRI, Govt. officials, other agencies to
established linkage and strengthened the disaster preparedness activities amongst the stakeholders
Facilitated Gram Panchayat level meetings to involve and undertake ownership.
Assessment of vulnerabilities and Capacities
o Mobilized people to participate in Participatory Learning and Action (PLA) exercise, it considered as a tool of
o Initiated PLA exercise in each ward to understand the vulnerabilities and capacities of the community thus
resulting in decreasing vulnerabilities and increasing capacities through strengthening coping up
o Follow up of PLA methodologies with other community member for triangulation and consensus among all
and for further actions; this included small meetings in hamlets too.
Formation and Strengthening of disaster Management Task Force in village Level
o Disaster Management Task force formation through FGDs
o Skill Training for Task Force on early warning, search and rescue, Family survival kits, Child survival
kits, rescue items like local small boats, banana raft, ORS, Tube well lifting, water purification, life
jacket preparation, community contingency fund, first aid etc.
o Enactment of Disaster Preparedness drills at the village level
Preparation and implementation of Community contingency plan
o Mobilized community for community Contingency plans
o Preparation of Community Contingency Plans
o Updating Contingency Plans to include increasing vulnerabilities
Community Based Preparedness/Family Level Preparedness strategies and activities
Demonstration of Early warning, rescue, FSK, Temporary Shelter, Temporary toilets, Health and Hygine,Life
Jacket, Tube well lifting,ORS,First Aid etc separately other than the taskforce with the community members
through small demonstrative activities among all the community member to change mindset and take
preparedness measures. All these demonstration were based on the local coping up mechanism supported by
the technical knowledge.
Information Education and Communication-IEC
Developing IEC materials on different Coping up mechanism undertaken by the communities through case
studies, Process documents etc.
Community level awareness campaign on CBDP (Rallies,etc)
Monitoring and Evaluation
Common Review meeting cum Workshops at the organization level other than the weekly staff meeting this
supplemented with the visit of the technical person at the field level regularly. In the common review meeting
done to strengthen the capacity of the staff on technical issues related to disaster preparedness including
capacity building initiative among the staff to implement the programme smoothly.
Staff Training conducted on the needed technical inputs for the programme at organization level. This ensured
the staff capacity building through direct training methodology in the field.
CBDP activities were conducted at community level keeping in mind the objectives of the programme. As
mentioned in objective 1, community capacity would be enhanced to cope with disaster and reduce the loss
of life and livelihood during disaster. Basically the objective is to facilitate the generation of consciousness
regarding the nature and dimension of natural disaster at the community level so that people can take
informed decision and remain prepared to reduce the immediate impact of natural disasters. The focus
would be at one disaster (which is most prominent in the region, i.e. flood) but the activities would try to
strengthen the capacity of community to plan for other community development issues.
For objective 2, emphasis was given on moderating disaster related behavioral changes towards natural
calamities and helping communities to feel that they have the potential to stay prepared and reduce the
impact of natural disaster. Moreover, this change would encourage of community should realize their right to
remain prepared for natural disaster.
Motivating the vulnerable community to believe in the maxim of self-help in the context of natural disasters.
The objective is to help people to rely on the importance of preparedness rather than considering relief
materials as the only support in the context of natural disaster.
To achieve objective 3, emphasis will be given on involving government and other stakeholders in planning
process. Here planning stands for the planning at the community level in the context of natural disasters1.
To achieve objective 4, emphasis would be given to community driven initiatives, building on their self help
capacities. The program will ensure livelihood security and improved water and hygiene together with
improved health seeking behaviour among the targeted communities.
5.1. The above said objectives attained through the change in mindset in the community. The
activities were designed to change mindsets:
• From relief to preparedness
• From dependence to self-reliance
• From victim to a stakeholder
• From passiveness to an active role in preparedness
• From helplessness (dependence on fate) to control over events
• From supplies to community empowerment
Thus Challenge of :
• Creation of a culture of preparedness
The steps followed to achieve the change in Mindset in the community
Village Meetings were the initial activity to sensitize community members and other stakeholders on the
concept of disaster preparedness. It was to mobilize, organize, and make the village communities aware of
disaster preparedness/risk reduction leading them to empowerment and mitigate the impact of disaster.
INSS as implementing agencies promoted these activities, during the initial months, focused on meeting with
the village communities to spread the concept of disaster preparedness and how to sustain themselves.
IPC with families on various issues related to CBDP
This has remained a regular activity of the programme throughout the period. Animators have made house
visits and discussed various issues related to flood and the ways the members of the families have faced
that. Basically, house visits act as the accelerator behind all the programme activities. Informal discussions
with the family members were conducted with and objective of motivating them to reflect on their own
capacity to take an organized effort to reduce the impact of flood.
These visits also help the programme staffs to disseminate information regarding various meetings or
community level activities like PLA. Moreover special visits were also made to disseminate information on
specific issues like FSK, ORS preparation and preparedness measures during flood.
Participatory Learning and Action
Participatory Learning and Action (PLA) is an output-oriented process used for obtaining information and
applying it in a pre-determined way. The main advantage of using PLA tools is that it involves the entire
community in the information sharing and consensus building process.
Various tools of PLA are Resource and Social mapping, Transacts, Seasonality Charts, Institutional linkages
The women and vulnerable community attendance in PLA exercises will be taken as high priority.
There meetings held with the local government bodies, local leaders and other officials in two phases. In the
first phase, the objective was to create a relationship with them for their assistance and cooperation. Apart
from this, it was to familiarize the local bodies with the concept of CBDP and its benefits. The success of
these meetings is significant for the approval and implementation of plans, and dissemination to every
Task force formation
Task force comprises community members volunteered into pre-determined groups coming into effect with
the approach rainy season, (flood). They were the nucleus for the community getting prepared for the advent
Task force Trainings
After formation of these groups, they were trained in their respective specialized tasks. A date was fixed for
conducting training programs. This training imparts information on duties, roles and responsibility as well as
specialized activities like making of temporary shelters, building of boats, life jackets, rendering First Aid,
treatment for snakebites etc.
Women were a major part of task force activities and in the following activities they are very effective: First
Aid, Early Warning, Health, sanitation and Hygiene.
Family Level Preparedness
Preparedness is the essence of the project. This was done at the family as well as community level.
Families were made aware on important documents, food items, fuel, medicines etc, in case of any
emergency. The concept of Family Survival kits were shared with them. Its rationale was taught to them
through various intervention strategies. Strategies for motivating families for preparedness include home
visits & general meeting.
Community Level Preparedness
The community is mobilized to prepare themselves in the advent of flood. This level of preparedness needs
participation of community and local government officials. Strategies developed integrating various
resources of the community. As apart of this process Community fund mobilization for emergency, Grain
bank etc initiatives will be taken. Trainings will be given on various life-skills and new innovations will be
developed. Construction of temporary shelters, toilets, boat, and life jacket will be the part of the curriculum
for the community. Every booth will have its defined plan of action for disaster management.
Preparation of Plan of Action
The community’s Plan of Action to meet a natural disaster is prepared by themselves, facilitated by INSS.
After information of the village is obtained through Participatory Learning and Action exercise, with regard to
natural and human resources, Institutional linkages, support systems, land features and other; they are
systematically reflected in the plan.
The plan states number of task groups formed, list of vulnerable people in the village, preparedness
strategies undertaken by the community and the role of local government. The Plan of Action is ‘Zero
Budget’ and will completely be shouldered by the community.
Gram Sansad Mobilization
The Gram Sansad (Village Assemblies) is an important component in CBDP process. It endorses legality
and makes the plan official. Once the Panchayat endorses the Plan of Action, the community owns it. It
ensures the Community Based Disaster Preparedness plan for the development of the village and gives it a
7.0. Criteria of selection of the villages and beneficiaries:
The area and direct beneficiary (as whole community) was selected on the basis of the following. During the
process of selection of the area has been clearly established with the Panchayat Raj System. So it was
possible to select the areas and beneficiaries according to the following criteria and to identify the most
Inhabitants of the most disaster prone areas: Based on the history of disasters in the area,
and as obtained by the government data. Most vulnerable areas are the lower parts in
proximity to the river.
They are mainly be from marginalised communities: scheduled caste, OBC and minorities.
This classification follows the criteria used by the official Indian census. The members of
these groups can be considered socially and economically deprived and they are the majority
of the poorest of the poor in the state.
The selected wards were taken from low river line of the basins.
The un reachable as stated by the sources; will on priroty to reach so as to support to the
Migration amongst villagers is on the ascending because of effect of flood on livelihood and
cause emergence of STDs and Shylock moneylenders
Situation of the village on or near poor embankment area and
Backwardness of the village in terms of human development indices
Monitoring and Appraisal
Capacitated vulnerable people and reduction of vulnerability
CORDINATION LEVEL DISTRICT/ BLOCK
INSS LEVEL LEVEL
Developing tools and
Capacity building on various PLANNING
issues. Identification of vulnerable
Developing and fixing of PLANNING
strategies. INSS represents at district
involvement of influential
MONITORING Sharing of Plan of Action of
Sharing of experiences INSS with District
Joint planning at ward level
among NGOs. administration.
by local influential
Field visit from Unicef and Convergence among District
persons, line departments
IAG Administration, Health,
ICDS and PRI.
Developing strategies and
Developing database with
process of application.
the help of District
Chalking out of plans for
Planning for using IEC
Attending of District and
Capacity building of staffs
Block level officials, Unicef
on various issues.
in the activity of INSS
Enriching us by giving
valuable suggestions from
Weekly review of activities.
the end of District and
Finding out probable
Block level officials, and
solutions for overcoming
Ensuring the participation of
representative of Health,
ICDS and PRI in our
Sustainability of the project
• Integrated CBDP activities with the Government sponsored Disaster Risk Management Program
• The select grass root (Animators) worker was directly from the target communities who know the basic
needs of the people, their behaviors, culture and mentality. In the initial stages they sat with the target
communities in a friendly atmosphere, and discussed with communities and assessed their priorities of
the needs. The objectives and plan the working strategies were developed jointly.
• CBDP Programme tagged with the Gram Panchayats who are responsible to look after the interest of
the people and have a committee who look after the flood victims. Many of the self-help groups are
already engaged in different types of social activities to carry out this programme after the phase out
period as they have done in the past. The linkage meetings will be carried among various stakeholders
to make the project strong enough to sustain.
• The active SHGs will under the umbrella of Cluster and Federation organize them into a sustainable
organized groups to facilitative the process of CBDRR as part of regular activities.
• The promotion of community based structures like Panchayati Raj Institutions, local clubs and the
existing strong SHG-Cluster-Federation were helpful for sustainability, which will play a vital role in
community management. These categories of people have social acceptance and possess the ability
and capacity of decision making, mobilizing and influencing the people.
• Task Force has been strengthened as community based organization.