What is Grammar?
• A set of rules and principles to speak and write a
language in a correct manner.
• The word Grammar derives from Greek word
(Grammatike) which means “Art of letters”
• Grammar Is also called the backbone of the language.
Why to use Grammar
To make the conversation positive and impressive.
How to use Grammar
By making correct use of tenses and speeches of English.
8 parts of speeches
word that names a
A Person A Place
A Thing An Idea
Kinds of nouns
• Common Noun
• Proper Noun
• Singular Noun
• Plural Noun
• Irregular Noun
Names general items like
• Mouse etc.
Name a specific (one-of-a-kind or unique) thing
Will always begin with a capital letter
Singular noun names a only one thing whereas plural noun
names more than thing. E.g
House - houses
Chair - Chairs
Conversion of singular to plural
When the singular noun ends in: -sh, -ch, -s, -ss, -x, -o
Form the plural by adding “-es".
Sandwich - sandwiches
brush - brushes
bus - buses
box - boxes
potato - potatoes
singular noun ends in "y", we change
“y” for “ies”
Butterfly - Butterflies
do not change the "y" for "ies" when the singular noun ends
in "y" preceded by a vowel.
day - days
toy - toys
which do not form the plural in this way
Woman - Women
Child - Children
Sheep - Sheep
Child - children
Man - men
Ox - oxen
Deer - deer
Series - series
Sheep - sheep
Species - species
Mouse - mice
Person – people
Cactus - Cacti
word that expresses some action or occurrence
Paul rides a bicycle
John types an essay
Action verbs express some physical or mental action
Paul rides a bicycle
Linking verbs make a statement by linking the subject with
word that describes or explains it.
I am riding a bicycle
Being, Been, Am, Is, Are, Was, Were, Shall be, Will be
A Word which replaces noun or nouns and designates
person, place or a thing.
John is student
He is student
Rule: A pronoun must agree with the noun it refer to
The train was late, it had been delayed.
The trains were late, they had been delayed.
Types of Pronouns
• Personal Pronoun (I, me, mine)
• Demonstrative Pronoun (This, That , These, Those)
• Interrogative pronoun (Who, which, what)
Personal pronoun refers to person who I doing the action or
to whom the action affects
e.g. I, me, He, Him, She, Her, We, Us, They, Them.
Which points to a specific thing
This, That, These, Those
They also indicate whether the thing is close or far
"That" (singular) and "Those" (plural) refer to an object or
person far AWAY.
Who owns that house? (distant - physical)
Is this John's house? (near - physical)
Used in order to ask a question
What, Which, Who, Whose, Whom
Who wrote the novel Rockbound?
Modifies or describes a noun or pronoun / adjective shows
the property of a noun
Which, What kind, How many
The lazy dog sat on the rug, the word lazy is an adjective
which gives more information about the noun dog.
Modifies and describes a verb, an adjective or any other
How -Tom sings well.
When - I can't meet you today.
Where - They will be here soon.
How much - He usually gets good
Adjective and Adverb
An Adjectives shows the relation with a Noun
A Slow Car
An Adverb shows the relation with a verb
He drives slowly
All those words which show the relationship between a
noun/pronoun and another word in the sentence.
The proposition never stands alone.
The preposition can be one word or group of words.
Some common prepositions
At, By, On, To, For, Of, Through, Up, Off, Onto, Up
to, In, Within, Across, Into, Along, Behind , Below
1. I'm tired __ waiting for you.
2. He hasn't smoked ___ ages.
3. Nina is good __ running.
4. I'm looking ___ my keys. Has anyone found them?
5. They dream __ moving to South Africa.
6. This song was written __ Madonna
7. You can look the word __ in a dictionary.
8. I can't come to the party. Don't wait ___ me.
9. She had problems __ reading the instructions.
10. The police car chased the robbers _______ the streets.
A word that joins words or group of words
And - They ate and drank.
Or - He will be here on Monday or Tuesday
Neither/nor Neither - John knew the answer nor Tom.
Either/Or - Either Neil or peter can give speech
But - She is small but strong.
So - I was tired so I went to sleep
(After, Before, Unless, Although, if, Until, as, Since,
When, Because, Then)
words which express the emotions
The interjection is a special word which is simply added to
a sentence to convey an emotion. It has no grammatical
relationship to the other parts of the sentence; in other
words, it could be removed with no effect on the
correctness of the sentence. It is generally followed by an
exclamation mark. It is also rare in academic writing,
except in direct quotations.
Some interjections are: Ouch, Oh no, Hey, Eh, Ah, My God
All curse words, used by themselves, are interjections.