Q913 re1 w1 lec 1

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Q913 re1 w1 lec 1

  1. 1. Reservoir Engineering 1 Course (1st Ed.)
  2. 2. 1. 2. 3. 4. About This Course Resources Training Outline (beta) Petroleum Engineering & Its Importance 2013 H. AlamiNia Reservoir Engineering 1 Course: (Lec1) Introduction 2
  3. 3. Course Description This course is prepared for:  3 semester (or credit) hours and meets for a total of 3 hours a week. Sophomore or junior level students (BS degrees) (Major) Petroleum engineering students (Minors) Production, Drilling and reservoir engineering students Prerequisites :Reservoir fluid properties and reservoir rock properties. The main objective: explaining the fundamentals of reservoir engineering and their practical application 2013 H. AlamiNia Reservoir Engineering 1 Course: (Lec1) Introduction 4
  4. 4. Lectures Each session Consists of different sections (about 4-5 sections) Consists of about 50 slides Is divided into 2 parts with short break time Would be available online 2013 H. AlamiNia Reservoir Engineering 1 Course: (Lec1) Introduction 5
  5. 5. Timing Last Session (Review) Session Outlook Presentation A Break Time Presentation B Next Session Topics Roll Call Roll Call, 5 Last session (Review), 5 Next Session Topics, 5 Session Outlook , 5 Presentation B, 45 Break Time, 5 Presentation A, 45 TIME (MIINUTE) 2013 H. AlamiNia Reservoir Engineering 1 Course: (Lec1) Introduction 6
  6. 6. Assessment Criteria Class activities Class activities, 5 5% Mid-term exam Mid-term exam, 25 25% Final exam 70% Final exam, 70 PERCENT OF GRADE 2013 H. AlamiNia Reservoir Engineering 1 Course: (Lec1) Introduction 7
  7. 7. Syllabus 1390 edition 1378 edition 2013 H. AlamiNia Reservoir Engineering 1 Course: (Lec1) Introduction 9
  8. 8. 1390 Edition 2013 H. AlamiNia Reservoir Engineering 1 Course: (Lec1) Introduction 10
  9. 9. 1390 Edition (Cont.) 2013 H. AlamiNia Reservoir Engineering 1 Course: (Lec1) Introduction 11
  10. 10. 1390 Edition (Cont.) 2013 H. AlamiNia Reservoir Engineering 1 Course: (Lec1) Introduction 12
  11. 11. 1378 Edition 2013 H. AlamiNia Reservoir Engineering 1 Course: (Lec1) Introduction 13
  12. 12. 1378 Edition (Cont.) 2013 H. AlamiNia Reservoir Engineering 1 Course: (Lec1) Introduction 14
  13. 13. Class Lectures 2013 H. AlamiNia Reservoir Engineering 1 Course: (Lec1) Introduction 15
  14. 14. Major References Ahmed, T. (2006). Reservoir engineering handbook (Gulf Professional Publishing). 2013 H. AlamiNia Reservoir Engineering 1 Course: (Lec1) Introduction 16
  15. 15. Syllabus Proposed References: Ahmed Tarek, H. (2001). Reservoir engineering handbook (Houston, Texas: ButterworthHeinemann). Craft, B.C., Hawkins, M.F., and Terry, R.E. (1991). Applied petroleum reservoir engineering. Dake, L.P. (1983). Fundamentals of reservoir engineering (Elsevier Science). Slider, H.C. (1983). Worldwide practical petroleum reservoir engineering methods (PennWell Books). 2013 H. AlamiNia Reservoir Engineering 1 Course: (Lec1) Introduction 17
  16. 16. Class Schedule Lec. No. Topic Lec. 1 Introduction Lec. 2 Lec. 2: Petroleum Reservoirs Lec. 3 Lec. 3: Gas & Oil Properties Lec. 4 Lec. 4: Oil & Water Properties and Experiments Lec. 5 Lec. 6 - Lec. 7 - Lec. No. Topic Lec. 9 - Lec. 10 Lec. 11 Lec. 12 Lec. 13 Lec. 14 Lec. 15 - Lec. 8 - 2013 H. AlamiNia Lec. 16 Reservoir Engineering 1 Course: (Lec1) Introduction 19
  17. 17. Lec. 1: Introduction About This Course Resources Training Outline (beta) Petroleum Engineering & Its Importance 2013 H. AlamiNia Reservoir Engineering 1 Course: (Lec1) Introduction 20
  18. 18. Lec. 2: Petroleum Reservoirs Reservoir Fluid Behaviors Petroleum Reservoirs Oil Gas Gas Behavior Gas Properties: Z Factor 2013 H. AlamiNia Reservoir Engineering 1 Course: (Lec1) Introduction 21
  19. 19. Lec. 3: Gas & Oil Properties Gas Properties: Isothermal gas compressibility (Cg) Gas formation volume factor (Bg) Crude Oil Properties: Density Solution gas Bubble-point pressure Oil formation volume factor (Bo) Total formation volume factor (Bt) 2013 H. AlamiNia Reservoir Engineering 1 Course: (Lec1) Introduction 22
  20. 20. Lec. 4: Oil & Water Properties and Experiments Crude Oil Properties: Viscosity Surface Tension Laboratory Analysis Laboratory Experiments 2013 H. AlamiNia Reservoir Engineering 1 Course: (Lec1) Introduction 23
  21. 21. Petroleum Engineering Definition Petroleum Engineering, by definition, is finding crude oil and natural gas in the ground and devising a way to bring it out of the ground. Petroleum Engineer Role Petroleum Engineers supply society with crude oil and natural gas for energy. This energy fuels our cars and planes, heats our homes, powers our plants and generates electricity. 2013 H. AlamiNia Reservoir Engineering 1 Course: (Lec1) Introduction 26
  22. 22. What Is Petroleum? Crude oil, or petroleum, is an organic substance derived from the remains of prehistoric plant and animal matter. It is a mixture of hydrocarbons, i.e. molecules containing hydrogen and carbon, which exist sometimes in liquid form (crude oil) and sometimes as a vapor (natural gas). 2013 H. AlamiNia Reservoir Engineering 1 Course: (Lec1) Introduction 27
  23. 23. Fish and Plant Fossil 2013 H. AlamiNia Reservoir Engineering 1 Course: (Lec1) Introduction 28
  24. 24. Petroleum Formation Millions of years ago, rains washed prehistoric plant and animal remains into the seas along with sand and silt, and layer upon layer piled up on the sea bottom. These layers were compressed under the weight of these sediments, and the increasing pressure and temperature changed the mud, sand and silt into rock and the organic matter into petroleum. This rock is known as source rock. 2013 H. AlamiNia Reservoir Engineering 1 Course: (Lec1) Introduction 29
  25. 25. Oil Sources Because oil and gas are lighter than water, they float on top of water. Oil and gas that formed in the source rock deep within the earth floated up through tiny pore spaces in the rock. Some seeped out at the surface of the earth. Some was trapped by dense, non-porous rock, called shale. These underground traps of oil and gas are called reservoirs. Reservoirs contain porous rocks which allow fluids to flow through the pore spaces, i.e. which are permeable. 2013 H. AlamiNia Reservoir Engineering 1 Course: (Lec1) Introduction 30
  26. 26. An Example of Porous Rocks 2013 H. AlamiNia Reservoir Engineering 1 Course: (Lec1) Introduction 31
  27. 27. Petroleum Extraction Courtesy OEOC, Ahvaz, 2011 2013 H. AlamiNia Reservoir Engineering 1 Course: (Lec1) Introduction 32
  28. 28. Petroleum Extraction: Drilling Once the geoscientists analyze a prospective oil field and the land is leased, a wildcat well is drilled to obtain more information about the reservoir. In late 1800's, oil wells were drilled by hammering steel pipes into the rock. Today, rotary drilling rigs are used, where a drill bit is turned around and around, deeper and deeper, cutting into the rock. 2013 H. AlamiNia Reservoir Engineering 1 Course: (Lec1) Introduction 33
  29. 29. Drilling: Top Drive Courtesy GPTK, Tabnak, 2008 2013 H. AlamiNia Courtesy GPTK, Tabnak, 2008 Reservoir Engineering 1 Course: (Lec1) Introduction 34
  30. 30. Rotary Drilling Drilling fluid, or drilling mud, is used to lubricate the bit so it doesn't get stuck, and to flush the rock pieces to the surface. These cuttings are examined by a mud logger, who looks for signs of oil and gas. Not all wells are straight and vertical. Horizontal drilling has become a very profitable way to increase production by having the wellbore contacting more of the formation. When the drilling is completed, the rigs can be disassembled for assembly at another drill site. Some rigs are on ships and barges for drilling offshore. 2013 H. AlamiNia Reservoir Engineering 1 Course: (Lec1) Introduction 35
  31. 31. Drilling Mud System Courtesy OEOC, Ahvaz, 2011 2013 H. AlamiNia Reservoir Engineering 1 Course: (Lec1) Introduction 36
  32. 32. Well Completion After drilling, steel pipe called casing is set in the hole and is cemented into place. A heavy-duty system of valves called a Christmas Tree is set into place at the wellhead to control the flow of the oil, gas and water and prevent a blowout. Then the well casing is perforated at the right depths to make holes for the oil and gas to flow into the wellbore and up to the surface. 2013 H. AlamiNia Reservoir Engineering 1 Course: (Lec1) Introduction 37
  33. 33. Christmas Tree Courtesy ICOFC, Khangiran, 2011 2013 H. AlamiNia Reservoir Engineering 1 Course: (Lec1) Introduction 38
  34. 34. Casing & Cementing Courtesy OEOC, Ahvaz, 2011 2013 H. AlamiNia Reservoir Engineering 1 Course: (Lec1) Introduction 39
  35. 35. Petroleum Extraction: Production Because oil, gas and water underground are under a lot of pressure at first, these fluids flow up a wellbore all by themselves, much like a soft drink that has been shaken up. When oil and gas are produced this way, it is called primary recovery. When the initial pressure is spent, sucker rod pumps are used to pull the oil out of the reservoir rock and up the well. Sometimes gas is injected at the bottom of the well, and as it expands, it lifts the oil up to the surface. This is called gas lift. 2013 H. AlamiNia Reservoir Engineering 1 Course: (Lec1) Introduction 40
  36. 36. Producing the Well Opening up new channels in the rock for the oil and gas to flow through is called stimulation. Three stimulation treatments are commonly used: Explosives to break up the rock, Injection of acid to partially dissolve the rock, and Hydraulic fracturing to split the rock and prop it open with proppants. 2013 H. AlamiNia Reservoir Engineering 1 Course: (Lec1) Introduction 41
  37. 37. Secondary Recovery After primary recovery, only a portion of the oil and gas has been produced, so secondary recovery, or waterflooding is done. Water and oil do not mix; oil is generally lighter than water and floats on top of it in the reservoir. During a waterflood, water is injected into the water zone of some of the wells to push the oil and gas up the other wells. 2013 H. AlamiNia Reservoir Engineering 1 Course: (Lec1) Introduction 42
  38. 38. Consumption of Oil: Fuels Fuel from produced oil and gas is used variously as gasoline for cars, jet fuel, kerosene, propane gas for cooking, heating oils for home furnaces, diesel fuels for trucks and buses and trains, industrial fuels for boilers in factories and ships, and solid coke for burning. Many electricity generating plants are also run on oil or natural gas. 2013 H. AlamiNia Reservoir Engineering 1 Course: (Lec1) Introduction 43
  39. 39. Consumption of Oil: Plastics, Rubber, Other Products and Fibers Plastics, Rubber, Other Products Many plastics and polymers are made from petroleum feedstocks. These are used to manufacture things like food wrap, toys, containers, and automobile tires. Other products include lubricating oils for machinery, grease, wax for candles, asphalt for roads and roofs, agricultural pesticides and fertilizers, and white oils and petrolatum for medicinal purposes. Fibers Polyester and nylon are petrochemicals that are made into thousands of consumer products like panty hose, nylon thread, and polyester. 2013 H. AlamiNia Reservoir Engineering 1 Course: (Lec1) Introduction 44
  40. 40. Careers in Oil Industry: Engineers and Scientists There are many careers in the oil industry. Nearly every type of engineer can be found upstream or downstream, including Chemical, industrial, mechanical, civil, electrical, bioengineers, and of course, petroleum engineers. Natural and earth sciences are also prevalent in the oil business. Chemists, biologists, physicists, geologists, geophysicists, and computer scientists work together on multidisciplinary teams with engineers to research and optimize oil field and refinery operations. 2013 H. AlamiNia Reservoir Engineering 1 Course: (Lec1) Introduction 45
  41. 41. Careers in Oil Industry: Other Professional There are also other professional and support careers, as in any business. These include business administration, accounting, law and tax, advertising, sales and marketing, secretarial and library functions, trucking, public and employee relations, and a host of other positions to keep operation smooth. 2013 H. AlamiNia Reservoir Engineering 1 Course: (Lec1) Introduction 46
  42. 42. 1. ONGC Videsh (2003). Petroleum Engineering & Its Importance. 2013 H. AlamiNia Reservoir Engineering 1 Course: (Lec1) Introduction 47
  43. 43. 1. Reservoir Fluid Behaviors 2. Petroleum Reservoirs A. Oil B. Gas 3. Gas Behavior 4. Gas Properties: Z Factor 2013 H. AlamiNia Reservoir Engineering 1 Course: (Lec1) Introduction 48

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