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Mod6

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  • 1. Addressing the network IPv4 CCNA Exploration Semester 1 – Chapter 6
  • 2. IP addressing – works at <ul><li>OSI model layer 3 </li></ul><ul><li>TCP/IP model Internet layer </li></ul>Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data link Physical Application Transport Internet Network Access TCP, UDP IP Ethernet, WAN technologies HTTP, FTP, TFTP, SMTP etc Segment Packet Frame Bits Data stream
  • 3. Addressing topics <ul><li>Binary and decimal </li></ul><ul><li>Types of IP addresses </li></ul><ul><li>Assigning addresses </li></ul><ul><li>Network part and subnet masks </li></ul><ul><li>Calculating addresses </li></ul><ul><li>Ping and Traceroute Utilities </li></ul>
  • 4. Binary and decimal <ul><li>Convert to 8-bit binary </li></ul><ul><li>248 </li></ul><ul><li>187 </li></ul><ul><li>89 </li></ul><ul><li>Convert to decimal </li></ul><ul><li>00110100 </li></ul><ul><li>01010101 </li></ul><ul><li>11001111 </li></ul>
  • 5. 248 to binary 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 8 16 32 64 128 248 -128 120 24 -16 8 56 -32 24 120 -64 56
  • 6. 187 to binary 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 2 4 8 16 32 64 128 187 -128 59 27 -16 11 11 -8 3 59 -32 27 3 -2 1
  • 7. 89 to binary 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 2 4 8 16 32 64 128 89 -64 25 25 -16 9 9 -8 1
  • 8. 00110100 to decimal 52 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 4 16 32 1 2 4 8 16 32 64 128 32 +16+ 4 52
  • 9. 01010101 to decimal 85 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 4 16 64 1 2 4 8 16 32 64 128 64 +16+ 4 + 1 85
  • 10. 11001111 to decimal 207 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 2 4 8 64 128 1 2 4 8 16 32 64 128 128 + 64 + 8 + 4 + 2 + 1 207
  • 11. Binary and decimal <ul><li>Convert to 8-bit binary </li></ul><ul><li>248 11111000 </li></ul><ul><li>187 10111011 </li></ul><ul><li>89 01011001 </li></ul><ul><li>Convert to decimal </li></ul><ul><li>00110100 52 </li></ul><ul><li>01010101 85 </li></ul><ul><li>11001111 207 </li></ul>
  • 12. IPv4 address Prefix /24 Subnet mask: 00010001 00010101 10101000 11000000 17 21. 168. 192. octet octet octet octet network part host part 00000000 11111111 11111111 11111111 0 255. 255. 255.
  • 13. Find the network address In a network address, all the host bits are 0. The router needs to do this for every packet. 00010001 00010101 10101000 11000000 17 21. 168. 192. 00000000 00010101 10101000 11000000 0 21. 168. 192.
  • 14. Logical AND Do a logical AND at each position 00010001 00010101 10101000 11000000 17 21. 168. 192. 00000000 11111111 11111111 11111111 0 255. 255. 255. 00000000 00010101 10101000 11000000 0 21. 168. 192.
  • 15. Find the broadcast address In a broadcast address, all the host bits are 1. The broadcast is the last address in the network. 00010001 00010101 10101000 11000000 17 21. 168. 192. 11111111 00010101 10101000 11000000 255 21. 168. 192.
  • 16. 3 types of address <ul><li>Every network has: </li></ul><ul><li>Network address – the first one </li></ul><ul><li>Broadcast address – the last one </li></ul><ul><li>Host addresses – everything in between </li></ul>
  • 17. Classful addressing network part host part A network part host part B network part host part C 60 53. 17. 10. 201 38. 16. 172. 17 21. 168. 192.
  • 18. Classful addressing <ul><li>Easy to work out but very wasteful. </li></ul><ul><li>Routers and hosts still assume class subnet masks by default </li></ul><ul><li>Class A /8 255.0.0.0 </li></ul><ul><li>Class B /16 255.255.0.0 </li></ul><ul><li>Class C /24 255.255.255.0 </li></ul>
  • 19. Classless addressing <ul><li>Any suitable prefix can be used </li></ul><ul><li>We (and devices) need to know what the prefix is. </li></ul><ul><li>More flexible, less wasteful. </li></ul>
  • 20. Classless addressing /16 <ul><li>172.16.0.0/16 mask 255.255.0.0 </li></ul><ul><li>Broadcast address 172.16.255.255 </li></ul><ul><li>Hosts 172.16.0.1 to 172.16.255.254 </li></ul><ul><li>65534 host addresses </li></ul>00000000 00000000 00010000 10101100 0 0. 16. 172.
  • 21. Classless addressing /24 <ul><li>172.16.0.0/24 mask 255.255.255.0 </li></ul><ul><li>Broadcast address 172.16.0.255 </li></ul><ul><li>Hosts 172.16.0.1 to 172.16.0.254 </li></ul><ul><li>254 host addresses </li></ul>00000000 00000000 00010000 10101100 0 0. 16. 172.
  • 22. Classless addressing /22 <ul><li>172.16.0.0/22 mask 255.255.252.0 </li></ul><ul><li>Broadcast address 172.16.3.255 </li></ul><ul><li>Hosts 172.16.0.1 to 172.16.3.254 </li></ul><ul><li>1022 host addresses </li></ul>00000000 00000000 00010000 10101100 0 0. 16. 172.
  • 23. Classless addressing /26 <ul><li>172.16.0.0/22 mask 255.255.255.192 </li></ul><ul><li>Broadcast address 172.16.0.63 </li></ul><ul><li>Hosts 172.16.0.1 to 172.16.0.62 </li></ul><ul><li>62 host addresses </li></ul>00000000 00000000 00010000 10101100 0 0. 16. 172.
  • 24. Classless addressing /28 <ul><li>172.16.0.0/28 mask 255.255.255.240 </li></ul><ul><li>Broadcast address 172.16.0.15 </li></ul><ul><li>Hosts 172.16.0.1 to 172.16.0.14 </li></ul><ul><li>14 host addresses </li></ul>00000000 00000000 00010000 10101100 0 0. 16. 172.
  • 25. Calculating addresses <ul><li>A host has IP address 192.168.1.70/24 </li></ul><ul><li>What is the subnet mask? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the network address? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the broadcast address? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the range of host addresses in the network? </li></ul>
  • 26. 192.168.1.70/24 – fill in the table Last host First host Broadcast Network Subnet mask Host Full Last octet decimal Last octet binary
  • 27. 192.168.1.70/24 192.168.1.254 254 11111110 Last host 192.168.1.1 1 00000001 First host 192.168.1.255 255 11111111 Broadcast 192.168.1.0 0 00000000 Network 255.255.255.0 0 00000000 Subnet mask 192.168.1.70 70 01000110 Host Full Last octet decimal Last octet binary
  • 28. Calculating addresses <ul><li>A host has IP address 192.168.1.70/26 </li></ul><ul><li>What is the subnet mask? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the network address? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the broadcast address? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the range of host addresses in the network? </li></ul>
  • 29. 192.168.1.70/26 fill in the table Last host First host Broadcast Network Subnet mask Host Full Last octet decimal Last octet binary
  • 30. 192.168.1.70/26 192.168.1.126 126 01111110 Last host 192.168.1.65 65 01000001 First host 192.168.1.127 127 01111111 Broadcast 192.168.1.64 64 01000000 Network 255.255.255.192 192 11000000 Subnet mask 192.168.1.70 70 01000110 Host Full Last octet decimal Last octet binary
  • 31. Calculating addresses <ul><li>A host has IP address 192.168.1.70/28 </li></ul><ul><li>What is the subnet mask? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the network address? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the broadcast address? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the range of host addresses in the network? </li></ul>
  • 32. 192.168.1.70/28 fill in the table Last host First host Broadcast Network Subnet mask Host Full Last octet decimal Last octet binary
  • 33. 192.168.1.70/28 192.168.1.78 78 01001110 Last host 192.168.1.65 65 01000001 First host 192.168.1.79 79 01001111 Broadcast 192.168.1.64 64 01000000 Network 255.255.255.240 240 11110000 Subnet mask 192.168.1.70 70 01000110 Host Full Last octet decimal Last octet binary
  • 34. Unicast, Multicast, Broadcast <ul><li>Unicast – a message addressed to one host </li></ul><ul><li>Broadcast – a message addressed to all hosts on a network. Uses network’s broadcast address or 255.255.255.255 locally </li></ul><ul><li>Multicast – a message addressed to a group of hosts. Uses an address starting 224 - 239 </li></ul>
  • 35. Private IP addresses <ul><li>Unrestricted use on private networks. Not routed across the Internet. </li></ul><ul><li>10.0.0.0 – 10.255.255.255 (10.0.0.0/8) </li></ul><ul><li>172.16.0.0 – 172.31.255.255 (172.16.0.0/20) </li></ul><ul><li>192.168.0.0 – 192.168.255.255 (192.168.0.0/24) </li></ul>
  • 36. Public IP addresses <ul><li>Routed over the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Master holder is IANA </li></ul><ul><li>Assigned to regional registries and then to ISPs </li></ul><ul><li>ISPs allocate them to organisations and individual users </li></ul><ul><li>Use is strictly controlled as duplicate addresses are not allowed </li></ul>
  • 37. Special addresses <ul><li>0.0.0.0 “all addresses” in default route. Hosts cannot be given addresses starting 0. </li></ul><ul><li>127.0.0.1 is loopback. Hosts cannot be given addresses starting 127. </li></ul><ul><li>240.0.0.0 and higher – reserved for experimental purposes. </li></ul><ul><li>169.254.0.0 - 169.254.255.255 local only </li></ul><ul><li>192.0.2.0 to 192.0.2.255 for teaching </li></ul>
  • 38. Network address translation <ul><li>A large number of hosts on a network use private addresses to communicate with each other. </li></ul><ul><li>The ISP allocates one or a few public addresses. </li></ul><ul><li>NAT allows the hosts to share the public addresses when they want to use the Internet </li></ul>
  • 39. Addressing hosts <ul><li>Static addressing – address is configured by an administrator </li></ul><ul><li>Servers, printers, routers, switches need static addresses </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic addressing – address is allocated automatically by DHCP by leasing addresses from a pool </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic addressing is best for workstations </li></ul>
  • 40. Blocks of addresses 192.168.1.255 Broadcast 192.168.1.254 Router 192.168.1.224/27 192.168.1.224 - 253 Network devices 192.168.1.192/27 192.168.1.192 - 223 Peripherals 192.168.1.128/26 192.168.1.128 - 191 Servers 192.168.1.1-127 User hosts 192.168.1.0/25 192.168.1.0 Network address Summary Address range Use
  • 41. Subnetting 192.168.1.0/24 Last octet binary Borrow 1 bit from host part, give it to network part, /25 00000000 255.255.255.0 Subnet mask 00000000 192.168.1.0 Address 10000000 255.255.255.128 Subnet mask 00000000 10000000 192.168.1.0 192.168.1.128 Addresses
  • 42. Subnetting 192.168.1.0/24 Borrow 2 bits from host part, give to network part, /26 11000000 255.255.255.192 Subnet mask 00000000 01000000 10000000 11000000 192.168.1.0 192.168.1.64 192.168.1.128 192.168.1.192 Addresses
  • 43. Subnetting 192.168.1.0/24 Borrow 3 bits from host part, give to network part, /27 11100000 255.255.255.224 Subnet mask 00000000 00100000 01000000 01100000 10000000 10100000 11000000 11100000 192.168.1.0 192.168.1.32 192.168.1.64 192.168.1.96 192.168.1.128 192.168.1.160 192.168.1.192 192.168.1.224 Addresses
  • 44. Subnetting 192.168.1.0/24 Borrow 4 bits from host part, give to network part, /28 And so on… 192.168.1.128 192.168.1.144 192.168.1.160 192.168.1.176 192.168.1.192 192.168.1.208 192.168.1.224 192.168.1.240 Subnet mask 255.255.255.240 11110000 10000000 10010000 10100000 10110000 11000000 11010000 11100000 11110000 00000000 00010000 00100000 00110000 01000000 01010000 01100000 01110000 192.168.1.0 192.168.1.16 192.168.1.32 192.168.1.48 192.168.1.64 192.168.1.80 192.168.1.96 192.168.1.112
  • 45. Subnetting 192.168.1.0/24 <ul><li>Every time you borrow another bit you: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Double the number of subnets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Halve the size of the subnets </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Each subnet has a network address, a broadcast address, and everything in between is a host address. </li></ul><ul><li>Here are some ways of visualising the process. </li></ul>
  • 46. Subnetting 192.168.1.0/24 252 248 240 224 192 128 Subnet mask 2 6 14 30 62 126 No of hosts 4 8 16 32 64 128 Bit value/ network size /30 /29 /28 /27 /26 /25 Prefix 64 32 16 8 4 2 No of networks 6 5 4 3 2 1 Bits borrowed
  • 47. Address space <ul><li>Make a spreadsheet or table with numbers 0 to 255 </li></ul><ul><li>Link to show table </li></ul>
  • 48. Subnet chart
  • 49. Subnetting <ul><li>There are many subnet calculators, but you will not be able to use them in exams. </li></ul><ul><li>Start with the biggest subnet and work down to the smallest. </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure the subnets are valid sizes with valid subnet masks. </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure that there are no overlaps. </li></ul>
  • 50. Ping and traceroute <ul><li>Ping sends an ICMP message. If all is well, the destination replies. If not, a router may reply to say the destination is unreachable, or the ping may time out. </li></ul><ul><li>Traceroute sends a series of messages so that each router along the path replies. You get a list of addresses of all the routers. </li></ul>
  • 51. IPv6 <ul><li>Development started in 1990s because of concerns about IPv4 addresses running out </li></ul><ul><li>A whole new protocol suite – not just layer 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Uses 128-bit hierarchical addressing, written using hexadecimal </li></ul><ul><li>Simpler header </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated security – authentication, privacy </li></ul><ul><li>Quality of service mechanisms </li></ul>
  • 52. Subnetting - visual CCNA Exploration Semester 1 Chapter 6
  • 53. Prefix /24 Three octets in network part, last octet in host part. All possible numbers 0 – 255 in last octet belong in the same network. Network address yellow Broadcast address blue Subnet mask 255.255.255.0
  • 54. Prefix /25 First bit of fourth octet taken into network part. For every bit taken, double number of networks, halve their size. Network address yellow Broadcast address blue Subnet mask 255.255.255.128
  • 55. Prefix /26 2 bits of fourth octet taken into network part. For every bit taken, double number of networks, halve their size. Network address yellow Broadcast address blue Subnet mask 255.255.255.192
  • 56. Prefix /27 3 bits of fourth octet taken into network part. For every bit taken, double number of networks, halve their size. Network address yellow Broadcast address blue Subnet mask 255.255.255.224
  • 57. Prefix /28 4 bits of fourth octet taken into network part. For every bit taken, double number of networks, halve their size. Network address yellow Broadcast address blue Subnet mask 255.255.255.240
  • 58. Prefix /29 5 bits of fourth octet taken into network part. For every bit taken, double number of networks, halve their size. Network address yellow Broadcast address blue Subnet mask 255.255.255.248
  • 59. Prefix /30 6 bits of fourth octet taken into network part. For every bit taken, double number of networks, halve their size. Network address yellow Broadcast address blue Subnet mask 255.255.255.252
  • 60. Variable length Networks do not need to be all the same size. /27 /26 /25
  • 61. Summary <ul><li>Hierarchical Design model addresses performance, scalability, maintainability & manageability issues. </li></ul><ul><li>Traffic Analysis is used to monitor network performance. </li></ul><ul><li>Hierarchical Design Model is composed of 3 layers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distribution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Core </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Switches selected for each layer must meet the needs of each hierarchical layer as well as the needs of the business. </li></ul>
  • 62. Labs & Activities * If no previous Packet Tracer experience, else strongly recommended Mandatory* 1.2.4 PT Review carefully 1.3.3 Lab Mandatory 1.3.2 PT Mandatory 1.3.1 Lab Detail Type
  • 63.  

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