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Mis prsntatn.ppt

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Transcript

  • 1. By AL AMEEN.MSYSTEM CONCEPTS
  • 2.  1. What are systems?  a. input-process-output an orderly arrangement of interdependent ideas or constructs (ABSTRACT SYSTEM)  Example: Circulatory system, Transportation system, School system etc  b. a set of elements which operate together to accomplish an objective (PHYSICAL SYSTEM)
  • 3. System concepts  General Model of a System: Input, process and output.  The features which define and delineate a system form its boundary. The system is inside the boundary and the environment is outside the boundary.  a system is composed of subsystems  Examples: stereo system. PC, automobile.
  • 4. System
  • 5. Types of Systems  . Deterministic & Probabilistic  deterministic: The interaction between the parts or subsystems is known for certain;  example: a computer program which performs exactly to a set of instructions  probabilistic: A system that can be described in terms of probable behavior (a certain degree of error);  examples: An inventory system, a five year old (who does not follow a certain set of instructions).
  • 6.  . Closed and Open systems:  Closed system: self contained, one that does not exchange material, information, or energy with its environment.  Examples:  A freshman in an 8:00 AM class;  A chemical reaction in a sealed, insulated container.
  • 7. • Open Systems: exchange information, material, or energy with the environment, including random and undefined inputs. Examples:  Biological Systems, and Organizational Systems Open systems tend to have form and structure Adapt to changes in environment so as to continue to exist
  • 8.  . Human-Machine Systems: They both perform some of the activities in the accomplishment of a goal (making a decision).  the Machine elements are - hardware and software are relatively closed and deterministic, whereas the human elements of the system are open and probabilistic.
  • 9. THANK YOUTHANK THANK YOU YOU THANK YOU