Wood Basics - Lunch & Learn

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Does specifying wood seem like a foreign language? Then this presentation is for you. You'll receive an overview of wood terminology, applications of wood materials, production of wood, characteristics of wood and relationship with properties, grading, durability, specification and handling as well as an overview of manufactured wood products such as laminated veneer lumber (LVL)

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Wood Basics - Lunch & Learn

  1. 1. Wood Basics<br />Terminology, Properties & Specification<br />
  2. 2. Learn more about wood at UTAS<br />Centre for Sustainable Architecture with Wood<br />Graduate Certificate in Timber (Processing & Building)<br />4 units, part time, online<br />Areas covered include:<br />Wood science<br />Design for durability and service for life<br />Timber as a renewable resource<br />Sustainable design and construction<br />Engineered wood products<br />International technologies and developments<br />Plus, selected topics of individual interest<br />More information: Associate Professor Greg Nolan <br />(03) 6324 4478 or enquiries@arch.utas.edu.auwww.csaw.utas.edu.au<br />
  3. 3. Learning Objectives<br />Participants completing this activity will be able to:<br />Describe the essential timber and wood product types<br />Describe the essential properties of timber and wood products<br />Specify timber and wood products<br />For architects - AACA Competencies:<br />Design<br />Documentation<br />
  4. 4. This Presentation<br />Basics:<br />Product types<br />Sizes<br />Grade & grading<br />Structural<br />Appearance<br />Moisture content<br />Species<br />Durability and treatment<br />Specification<br />
  5. 5. Product Types: Round timber<br />Timber used in its naturally round shape<br />
  6. 6. Product Types: Sawn timber<br />Timber cut from the log<br />
  7. 7. Manufactured timber products<br />Laminated Veneer Lumber (LVL)<br />Glulam<br />I-beams<br />Product Types: Engineered wood products<br />
  8. 8. Product Types: Engineered wood products<br />Laminated Veneer Lumber (LVL)<br />
  9. 9. Product Types: Engineered wood products<br />Glulam<br />
  10. 10. Product Types: Other wood products<br />I-beams<br />
  11. 11. Product Types: Wood panels<br />Panel products<br /><ul><li>Plywood
  12. 12. Hardboard
  13. 13. Particleboard
  14. 14. MDF
  15. 15. Veneer</li></li></ul><li>Sizing: Terminology<br />Timber is ordered by actual or nominal dimensions<br />Nominal dimensions <br />approximate size of timber based on its unseasoned condition and rough dimension that it was originally cut to. <br />e.g. a sleeper of nominal size of 200 x 50 mm will have actual dimensions less than this. This is to account for shrinkage and any machining that may have occurred<br />Actual dimensions<br />are actual timber size<br />
  16. 16. Generally;<br />Seasoned timber - uses actual dimensions <br />Unseasoned (green) timber– uses nominal dimensions <br />Sizing: Terminology<br />
  17. 17. Sizing: Terminology<br />Timber dimensions <br /><ul><li>Usually nominate the depth first followed by breadth
  18. 18. “Depth by breadth”
  19. 19. e.g.
  20. 20. Studs and joists – 90 x 35 mm
  21. 21. Wall plate and battens – 45 x 70 mm
  22. 22. Joist – 190 x 35 mm
  23. 23. In North America it’s reversed</li></li></ul><li>Sizing: Availability<br />Availability<br /><ul><li>Seasoned structural timber usually only available in 35 mm and 45 mm breadth for both hardwood and softwood
  24. 24. Check with local suppliers before specification, especially outside metro area</li></li></ul><li>Sizing: Pine Sizes<br />
  25. 25. Sizing: Hardwood (seasoned) sizes<br />
  26. 26. Sizing: Hardwood (unseasoned) sizes<br />
  27. 27. Grade & Grading: Structural<br />Structural stress grades<br /><ul><li>F-grades – can be graded visually, mechanically or proof graded
  28. 28. Applicable to sawn structural timber, round and plywoods
  29. 29. MGP grades – machine graded, softwoods only
  30. 30. Applicable to sawn structural timber
  31. 31. GL grades – Glulam grades
  32. 32. LVL and I-beams,
  33. 33. unique properties to each manufacturer – manufacturers grade</li></li></ul><li>Grade & Grading<br />Non-structural grades<br /><ul><li>Merchant (merch) “grade”
  34. 34. Merch was a structural grade in 60’s / 70’s
  35. 35. No longer recognised as a grade</li></li></ul><li>Grade & Grading<br />Structural stress grades<br /><ul><li>F Grades
  36. 36. e.g. F5, F7, F8, F17, F27
  37. 37. Visual and/or mechanical testing process
  38. 38. Applies to all softwood, hardwood, plywood and rounds
  39. 39. MGP (Machine graded pine) Grades
  40. 40. e.g. MGP 10, MGP 12, MGP 15
  41. 41. Machine tests stiffness of timber
  42. 42. Applies only to radiata, slash, hoop, Caribbean pine. Some spruce is available </li></li></ul><li>Grade & Grading<br />Structural stress grades<br /><ul><li>Characteristics that affect stress grade:
  43. 43. Sloping grain
  44. 44. Knots
  45. 45. Fractures
  46. 46. Some companies also sort on appearance after stress grading (e.g. for pergola framing timbers)</li></li></ul><li>Grade & Grading<br />Structural stress grades<br />Main stress grade limiting characteristics<br />Dead knots<br />Slope of grain<br />Live knots<br />
  47. 47. Grade & Grading<br />Structural stress grades<br />Lesser stress grade limiting characteristics<br />Core wood – pith – weaker wood – lower load capacity<br />Surface checks / fractures – only a problem if they become splits<br />
  48. 48. Grade & Grading<br />Structural stress grades<br />Lesser stress grade limiting characteristics<br />Wane - absence of underbark timber<br />Want – absence of timber other than wane <br />Bow – curvature along the face Spring – curvature along the edge<br />
  49. 49. Grade & Grading<br />Structural stress grades Identification<br /><ul><li>MGP stress grade is marked with either ink marks, stamp, end tag or sticker</li></ul>- Ink marks may occur every 1.2 m <br /><ul><li>Do not rely on the mill colour marks for grade identification
  50. 50. Rely on actual grade marking or grade on delivery docket
  51. 51. If there is more than one grade mark on the timber, ALWAYS go with lowest grade</li></li></ul><li>Grade & Grading<br />Structural stress grades<br />Important<br />Grading applies at time of grading<br /><ul><li>So if:
  52. 52. Forklift splits / tears a chunk out of timber; or
  53. 53. Timber is re-sawn into smaller dimensions
  54. 54. Member no longer has any stress grade
  55. 55. Timber needs to be regraded or considered as non-structural</li></li></ul><li>Grade & Grading: Appearance<br />Appearance grades products<br /><ul><li>Flooring and light decking
  56. 56. Lining / panelling
  57. 57. Handrails, balusters, balustrades, stringers, and treads
  58. 58. Dressed boards, joinery and trim: mouldings, architraves, skirting boards, shelves, door and window frames
  59. 59. Cabinets: built in cupboards, benches, furniture
  60. 60. Cladding, fascia</li></li></ul><li>Grade & Grading: Appearance<br />Appearance grades<br /><ul><li>Feature, “colonial” meaningless unless it is accompanied by a grade description
  61. 61. e.g. in Australian Standard for softwood (AS 4785) and hardwood have appearance grades
  62. 62. Softwood (AS 4785)
  63. 63. clear, appearance, select, standard or utility
  64. 64. Hardwood (AS 2796)
  65. 65. select, medium feature, high feature</li></li></ul><li>Grade & Grading<br />Appearance grades products<br />Hardwood appearance grades (AS2796):<br /><ul><li>select
  66. 66. medium feature
  67. 67. high feature</li></li></ul><li>Moisture content<br />Structural products<br /><ul><li>Seasoned (S) timber:
  68. 68. Also called kiln-dried (KD)
  69. 69. Average between 10% and less than or equal to 15%
  70. 70. Minimal additional shrinkage - dimensionally stable
  71. 71. Remain straight - little twisting, cupping or bowing
  72. 72. Well suited for painting
  73. 73. Unseasoned timber
  74. 74. Also called “green”
  75. 75. >15%</li></li></ul><li>Moisture content<br />Appearance products<br />Varies for each product but generally: <br />- Interior: not more than 14% and not less than 9%<br />- Exterior: not more than 18% and not less than 10%<br />
  76. 76. Species<br />Hardwoods<br /><ul><li>NSW/Qld – blackbutts, ironbarks, spotted gum, stringybarks,
  77. 77. Victorian/Tasmanian – Tassie oak, ash species
  78. 78. WA – jarrah, karri
  79. 79. Imported – oak, merbau/kwila, belian</li></ul>Softwoods<br /><ul><li>Australia plantation pines – radiata, hoop, slash
  80. 80. Australian native - cypress
  81. 81. Imported – radiata, baltic pine, spruce, Douglas fir, SPF, western red cedar</li></li></ul><li>Species<br />Plantation softwoods<br /><ul><li>Radiata pine most commonly used plantation grown softwood timber in Australia
  82. 82. Advantages:
  83. 83. light-weight
  84. 84. easy to handle and cut
  85. 85. can be finished with a variety of coatings and stains
  86. 86. easily treated to extend durability
  87. 87. high strength to weight ratio
  88. 88. reliable supply and low cost
  89. 89. Other plantation pines: Slash, Caribbean </li></li></ul><li>Durability: Basics<br />
  90. 90. Durability<br />Natural durability <br />AS 5604 (Relates to heartwood only)<br />
  91. 91. Durability: Protection from weather <br />AS 1684: Protected from weather<br />Protected<br />from weather<br />30 deg<br />Exposed to weather<br />
  92. 92. Durability: In-ground<br />In-ground<br />In-ground durability trials<br />‘Wedding Bells’, Nth NSW<br />
  93. 93. Durability: Outside above-ground<br />Outside above-ground<br />Above ground durability trials, Beerburrum QLD<br />
  94. 94. Preservative treatment<br />Why treat with preservatives?<br /><ul><li>Extends the life of timbers against borers, termites and decay
  95. 95. Sapwood has less natural resistance to insect attack and fungal decay than the heartwood of the same species
  96. 96. Reliability and proven service life
  97. 97. Lengthen the time that is will sequester carbon – approx. 50% of the dry weight of wood is carbon - other materials contribute to carbon pollution</li></li></ul><li>Bark<br />Sapwood<br />can be<br />treated to<br />appropriate<br />‘H’ level<br />Heartwood<br />cannot be <br />treated therefore<br />dictated by <br />natural durability <br />class<br />Sapwood<br />Sawn Section<br />Heartwood<br />Log<br />Preservative treatment<br /><ul><li>Only sapwood can be effectively treated
  98. 98. Limit non-treatable timber to 20% cross-section</li></li></ul><li>Preservative treatment<br />Hazard Levels<br /><ul><li>Select the level of treatment (H level) required to cope with the environment in which the timber will be used
  99. 99. H level corresponds to the biological hazard and exposure to the environment</li></li></ul><li>OK for use all over Australia<br />Preservative treatment<br />AS 1604 Hazard Levels<br />
  100. 100. OK for use South of Tropic of Capricorn only<br />Preservative treatment<br />AS 1604 Hazard Levels<br />
  101. 101. Preservative treatment<br />Envelope treatment<br /><ul><li>For hazard levels H1 – H6 preservative must penetrate:
  102. 102. 100% of the sapwood
  103. 103. 0 – 20mm of the heartwood
  104. 104. The exception is for timber framing South of Tropic of Capricorn - Hazard level H2F</li></li></ul><li>Preservative treatment<br />Types of preservatives<br /><ul><li>Water-borne (CCA, ACQ, copper azole)
  105. 105. Landscape, fencing, decking, framing, outdoor timber
  106. 106. In-ground and above ground applications
  107. 107. LOSP (light organic solvent preservatives)
  108. 108. Joinery, handrails, H2 framing
  109. 109. Above ground applications only
  110. 110. Envelope treatments (blue-pine framing)
  111. 111. H2F framing south of tropic only</li></li></ul><li>Preservative treatment<br />Types of preservatives<br /><ul><li>Oil-borne (creosote)
  112. 112. Power poles, marine, vineyard sticks
  113. 113. In-ground or in water use
  114. 114. Supplementary brush/spray/dip (e.g. copper naphthenate)
  115. 115. Glue-line
  116. 116. LVL, plywood, particleboard flooring
  117. 117. Hazard level H2S (south of Tropic of Capricorn only)</li></li></ul><li>Specification<br />Depth (mm) x Breath (mm) x Length (mm or m)<br />In-ground / Above Ground Durability Class 1, 2, 3 or 4<br />F5, F7, F8, F14, F17, F22, F27, F32<br />Pine: Clear, Appearance, Utility<br />
  118. 118. Wood Basics: Specification<br />
  119. 119. Specification<br />Specifying wood products<br /><ul><li>Application – framing, flooring, pergola, kitchen, fascia, cladding, formwork?
  120. 120. Performance – appearance, structural performance, service life, cost?
  121. 121. Environment – inside/outside, exposure to decay and/or termites, exposure to weathering, marine, poolside? </li></li></ul><li>Future Wood Products<br />Cross Laminated Timber (CLT)<br />Architects: Waugh ThistletonProject: Murray Grove, London<br />
  122. 122. More Information<br />
  123. 123. Learn more about wood at UTAS<br />Centre for Sustainable Architecture with Wood<br />Graduate Certificate in Timber (Processing & Building)<br />4 units, part time, online<br />Areas covered include:<br />Wood science<br />Design for durability and service for life<br />Timber as a renewable resource<br />Sustainable design and construction<br />Engineered wood products<br />International technologies and developments<br />Plus, selected topics of individual interest<br />More information: Associate Professor Greg Nolan <br />(03) 6324 4478 or enquiries@arch.utas.edu.auwww.csaw.utas.edu.au<br />

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