1, Trait TheoriesTraits Theories ofLeadership Leadership Traits:Theories that consider • Ambition and energypersonality, social, physic • The desire to leadal, or intellectual traits to • Honest and integritydifferentiate leaders fromnonleaders. • Self-confidence • Intelligence • High self-monitoring • Job-relevant knowledge
Trait TheoriesLimitations:• No universal traits found that predict leadership in all situations.• Unclear evidence of the cause and effect of relationship of leadership and traits.
2. Behavioral TheoriesBehavioral Theories of LeadershipTheories proposing that specific behaviorsdifferentiate leaders from nonleaders. • Trait theory: Leaders are born, not made. • Behavioral theory: Leadership traits can be taught.
a. Ohio State StudiesInitiating StructureThe extent to which a leader islikely to define and structure hisor her role and those of sub-ordinates in the search for goalattainment.ConsiderationThe extent to which a leader is likely to have jobrelationships characterized by mutual trust, respectfor subordinate’s ideas, and regard for their feelings.
b. University of Michigan StudiesEmployee-Oriented LeaderEmphasizing interpersonal relations; taking apersonal interest in the needs of employees andaccepting individual differences among members.Production-Oriented LeaderOne who emphasizes technicalor task aspects of the job.
c. TheManagerial Grid (Blake and Mouton) EXHIBIT 11–1
3. Contingency TheoriesFiedler’s Contingency Model
a. Fiedler’s Model: Defining the SituationLeader-Member RelationsThe degree of confidence, trust, and respectsubordinates have in their leader.Task StructureThe degree to which the job assignments areprocedurized.Position PowerInfluence derived from one’s formal structuralposition in the organization; includes power tohire, fire, discipline, promote, and give salaryincreases.
Findings from Fiedler Model
b. Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership TheorySituational Leadership Theory (SLT)A contingency theory that focuses on followers’readiness. Unable and Unable but Able and Able and Unwilling Willing Unwilling Willing Follower readiness: ability and willingnessLeader: decreasing needfor support and supervision Directive High Task and Relationship Supportive Monitoring Orientations Participative
Leadership Styles and Follower Readiness (Hersey and Blanchard)Follower Unwilling WillingReadiness Able Supportive Monitoring Participative Leadership Styles High Task Unable Directive and Relationship Orientations
c.Leader–Member Exchange TheoryLeader-Member Exchange (LMX) TheoryLeaders create in-groups and out-groups, andsubordinates with in-group status will have higherperformance ratings, less turnover, and greater jobsatisfaction.
Autocratic Management Style• an autocratic manager dictates orders to their staff and makes decisions without any consultation.• The leader likes to control the situation they are in.• Decision are quick .• This type of management style can decrease motivation and increase staff turnover
Democratic or participative style• A democratic manager delegates authority to the staff, giving them responsibility to complete the task.• Staff will complete the tasks using their own work methods on time.• Employees are involved in decision making giving them a sense motivating individuals.• Increases job satisfaction by involving employees or team members .• Slow decision making process.
Laissez Faire Management style• A laissez faire manager sets the tasks and gives staff complete freedom to complete the task as they see fit. “leave it be”.• It works for teams in which the individuals are very experienced and skilled self-starters.• There is minimal involvement from the manager.• The manager coaches or supply information if required.• Benefits - staff are developed to take responsibility .• Staff feel lost and not reach the goals set within the time frame
Employee Control Leaders controlAutocratic Laissez - Faire
Transactional and Transformational LeadershipTransactional LeadersLeaders who guide or motivate their followersin the direction of established goals byclarifying role and task requirements.Transformational LeadersLeaders who provide individualizedconsideration and intellectualstimulation, and who possess charisma.
Characteristics of Transactional LeadersContingent Reward: Contracts exchange ofrewards for effort, promises rewards for goodperformance, recognizes accomplishments.Management by Exception: Watches andsearches for deviations from rules andstandards, takes corrective action.
Characteristics of Transformational LeadersIdealized Influence: Provides vision and sense of mission,instills pride, gains respect and trust.Inspiration: Communicates high expectations, usessymbols to focus efforts, expresses important purposes insimple ways.Intellectual Stimulation: Promotes intelligence, rationality,and careful problem solving.Individualized Consideration: Gives personal attention,treats each employee individually, coaches, advises.