Water Resource Management Plan-Madurai City


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Strategic Water Resource Management Plan for Water supply in Madurai.

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Water Resource Management Plan-Madurai City

  1. 1. WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PLAN A CASE STUDY OF MADURAI CITY DISSERTATION PROGRAM – 2013-2014 FINAL REVIEW Thesis By: A.R.Alagarsamy (IP0112) Guidance By: Dr.Anjana Vyas Date : 22/04/14
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION Background of Study Need of Study Aim, Objective & Methodology
  4. 4. BACKGROUND • A secure water supply is essential for public health, society and economy, therefore it is critically important to manage water resources effectively. • Uncontrolled development, ground water depletion, rivers getting polluted, overall demand for water increased much rapidly in comparison to the population growth in urban areas. • The purpose of the water resources planning process is to ensure security of water supply now and in the long-term, taking account of increasing pressures on water supply from factors such as increasing population, climate change and environmental requirements. • And topographical and geological conditions also playing major role in water resource management. • The freshwater scarcity and water stress in many areas of arid / semi arid zones in India, there is an urgent need for conservation and better management of water resources. • Consistently increasing demand-supply gap, growing competition, conflicts over water use. Chapter1
  5. 5. Source: Madurai CDP-2006, Census 2011 INTRODUCTION - Madurai TIRUVALLUR VELLORE TIRUVANNAMALAI DHARMAPURI COIMBATORE MADURAI SIVAGANGA THENI RAMANATHAPURAM TUTICORIN TIRUNELVELI NILGIRIS KANNIYAKUMARI SALEM NAMAKKALERODE KARUR PUDUKKOTTAI DINDIGUL NAGAPATTINAM CUDDALORE THIRUVARUR PERAMBALUR THANJAVUR CHENNAI VILUPPURAM PONDICHERRY (PONDICHERRY) NH.5 NH.4 NH.45 NH.47 NH .7 NH.49 NH.49 NH.7A NH.7 NH.45 TIRUCHCHIRAPPALLI Tamil Nadu State VIRUDHUNAGAR KANCHIPURAM Madurai District Peraiyur Tirumangalam Usilampatti Vadipatti Nattam Melur MADURAI Source: Madurai CDP 2006 • Madurai City is the administrative headquarters of Madurai district • Locates on the banks of River Vaigai. • Area – 51.96 km2 • Population (2011) – 11,37,595 • Bifurcation of Madurai district in to Madurai, Dindigul (1994), Theni (1997) results decline in Growth rate. • Average Rainfall 850mm • Madurai is rich in culture and heritage city and it’s average daily floating population is 2.10 lakhs.  1970 – the city Municipality upgraded into corporation  1985 – Dindigul district bifurcated from Madurai district  1996 – Theni district bifurcated from Madurai district Chapter1
  6. 6. NEED OF THE STUDY • High urbanization and increasing population growth in recent years increasing water needs. • Depends up on Vaigai Dam, locates 60 km away from city • Inconsistent and improper water supply. • Rainwater conservation potential not exploited. • Large amount of runoff, during monsoon. • Surface water bodies in city deteriorating because of encroachment and blockage of drained water by wastage disposal. • The topography and geographic formation of the city is helpful for artificial and groundwater recharge and ground water is suitable for drinking and domestic purposes. What could be an appropriate strategy for management of water resources available in urban area, to meet its future water supply needs for a city like Madurai, and How to optimize water resources in Madurai City will meet its future demand for water? Chapter1 Source: Madurai Corporation
  7. 7. AIM To prepare strategic water resource management plan for water supply in the city of Madurai from assessment of existing water resources present in the city and evolve a technical solution towards water conservation, distribution and maintenance of the system. OBJECTIVE The specific objective of this research are the following:  To identify and evaluate the present water resources for Madurai city.  To evaluate the existing water supply and issues towards distribution.  To analyze and assess the possibilities of implementing new strategies in water resource management.  To prepare a strategic plan for water supply and water conservation for Madurai city. Chapter1
  8. 8. METHODOLOGY Study the role of water resources in planning of urban area Significance of water resources development and Management Approaches to management of water resource Role of various stakeholders in managing the resource Distribution and status of existing water resources and management plans for future To study existing pressure points on the resource Natural and human induced factors affecting water supply Existing institutional structure for management of resource To study the consumption pattern and the trends Mechanisms for water resource augmentation Strategies and Guidelines in the form of Water Resource Management Plan Literature review Data collection Analysis Outcome Chapter1
  9. 9. LITERATURE REVIEW Policy Review (in Central & State Level) Case Studies Review Inferences from Case Studies
  10. 10. LITERATURE REVIEW – PROJECT & POLICY REVIEW Policies & Schemes contents National Water Policy 2002 WRD&M consider as basin and sub basin level management; integrate surface and ground water for sustainable use; transfer water from rich area to insufficient area. Encourage PSP & PPP in water resource projects. Hydrology Project Hydrological data storage system; Hydrological surface and groundwater Modelling system; Ground water estimation and ground water management system implemented in 13 major states Repair, Renovation and Restoration of Water bodies Restore the existing water bodies, improve and augment storage capacities of surface and ground water bodies; Ground water recharge, Community participation and self supporting systems, Capacity building at community level; Improve drinking water availability. Introduced in 15 states during XI five year plan Artificial Recharge to Ground water through dug well To provide recharge facility and improve groundwater condition in the groundwater depleted areas; improve groundwater quality; increase sustainability of groundwater table and Community level participation in water resource management in the affected areas. Policy on Ground Water Recharge and Rainwater Harvesting Based on this program, every buildings are instructed to do Rainwater harvesting system in their households, and build the structure as per standards and specifications given by State government. Chapter2
  11. 11. CASE STUDIES REFERRED Case Study Focus to London Water resource estimation and augmentation of future projection; Private participation in water supply Singapore Maximum use of water, like Reuse of reclaimed water; Self sustainable water management techniques Kochi Water resource management guidelines; Efficient use of alternate water resources, Rainwater Harvesting Jaipur Water distribution management for reducing Non Revenue water by Fix leakages; Public Private participation in water conservation program like Artificial recharge and Rainwater harvesting Dewas PPP in water supply and Rainwater Harvesting System. Chapter2
  12. 12. RELEVANCE OF CASE STUDY  Importance of water resource are quite high.  Demand forecasting practices for water resources  Different Water resource management practices.  NRW reduction  Leakage Management  Use of Reclaimed water  Sustainable Water Resource Management  Various water augmentation techniques  The city depends on the existing water resources for its demands which locates away from its premises.  The city faces heavy water shortage in certain period of time.  Economically importance city.  High numbers of Floating population.  Cities from Arid / Semi arid climate region. Chapter2
  13. 13. Chapter2 Inferences from case studies  Forecasting future water demands is important for water resource augmentation and to understand demand-supply baseline.  Water connection guidelines  To regularize illegal connections  Optimum use of water supply.  For NRW reduction measures  Water Audit  Leakage Management  Complete mapping of water network  Maximum use of water (reclaimed and reuse of water)  Efficiency improvement in water supply network.  Sustainable water resource management by careful planning and management with consideration of existing resources.  Use Maximum of surface water, it automatically recharge when it raining.  Reduce the dependency on ground water.  Integrate adequate infrastructure investment technology with efficient technologies.  Policy for Groundwater recharge, rainwater harvesting etc.,  Public awareness campaign on water conservation measures.  Encourage public participation in water supply project. Objective 1 Objective 3 Objective 2 Objective 4
  14. 14. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF CASE STUDIES London Singapore Kochi Jaipur Dewas Madurai Decentralization No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Regulation Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Policy Setting Defra (Govt) MOWR (Govt) WRD (GoK) WRRA, (GoR) MPWRD TWAD Project done by Private PUB (Govt) KWA PHED Private PWD, TWAD Sufficient Natural Resources Availability (Like Rainfall, Surface Water) Yes Yes No No No No O & M Private PUB KWA PHED Private ULB Community participation No No No No Yes Forecasting Yes (For 25 Years) For self-sustain Yes No No No Metering In Progress Yes (100%) Yes (90%) Yes (60%) No No Sustainable Water Management Rainwater Harvesting Yes No Yes Yes (Implementation by policy) Yes No Reclaimed Water Yes, for industrial uses Yes, NEWater Yes, for industrial uses No No No Artificial Recharge No No Yes, to avoid salination Yes, to recharge ground water No No Source augmentation in advance Yes Yes Yes No No No NRW Reduction Measures Leakage Mapping Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Timely management of distribution system Yes Yes Yes No No No Efficiency Improvement in distribution system Yes Yes Yes Yes No No AreasNeedtoconcernforwater resourceManagementinstudyarea Chapter2
  15. 15. Research Questions from Literature review On the basis of literature review of International and Indian cities scenarios, the following are the clarifications need to be deal for the study area taken • At present, what is the scenario for water resource in the study area? • What are possible water resources in the city? • What are the different suitable water management for urban area? • What could be an appropriate water conservation and water augmentation mechanism to be adopted by city to achieve water resource management in the study area? Chapter2
  16. 16. STUDY AREA DELINEATION Administrative zones Population Trends Budget Analysis
  17. 17. Source: Madurai CDP, Madurai Corporation Madurai Corporation Madurai Corporatio n North side of Vaigai River South side of Vaigai River Total North Zone East Zone South Zone West Zone Ward (Nos) 21 16 19 16 72 Ward List 1 - 21 44 – 59 31 – 43 & 60 – 65 22- 30 & 66 -72 Area (Sq.km) 19.50 6.12 7.40 18.78 51.96 Chapter3 Anaiyur AvaniyapuramThirupparanku ndram Source: Madurai CDP & Madurai Corporation Source: Madurai Corporation; Census 2011
  18. 18. Source: Madurai Corporation. Madurai CDP Population density and population growth From the recent population trends, the ward 56, 35, 45 and 46 are densely populated wards in Madurai Corporation. And Ward 4, 11, 66 and 67 are less densely populated wards in city. From this above graphs, the East Zone and South Zone are densely populated zones, North Zone is newly developed Zone, so population are some how equally distributed among wards. In West zone still need to develop, most of the areas are open area. Chapter3
  19. 19. Source: Madurai Corporation BUDGET SCENARIO – WATER SUPPLY SECTOR  After reviewing Budget from Madurai corporation, the expenditures are less than Income, corporation has surplus amount for new water conservation projects. (In 2012-13, Surplus of 1374.32 lakh)  Here, the incomes are from Revenue income (Water supply Tax, Devolution Fund, Service Charges and Fees) and Capital income (Funds from MP & MLA, Grants for JnNURM scheme and others)  Expenditures are Revenue Expenditure (personal cost, Operating Expenses, Program Expenses, Administrative and Finance Expenses) and Capital Expenditure (Capital Works and Repayment of Loans) Chapter3 Source: Madurai Corporation
  20. 20. WATER SUPPLY Water Source Water supply Process Per Capita Supply Water supply Indicators
  21. 21. Source: Madurai Corporation, Google Earth WATER SUPPLY IN MADURAI Madurai Water supply System Vaigai Dam Water supply Sources Schemes Designed Capacity Present Quantity Second Vaigai Water supply scheme 47 MLD 22 MLD First Vaigai Water supply scheme 68 MLD 65 MLD Manaloor and Thiruppuvanam Head works 7 MLD 2 MLD Collector Well, Melakkal Head works 50 MLD 14 MLD Thachampattu Head works 2 MLD 2 MLD Total 174 MLD 105 MLDVaigai Dam Floccul ation Sand Filter Chlorination & Alum Mixture Clear Water tank Reservoir To Madurai City Water Treatment System – Pannipatti Village Chapter4 Source: Google Earth Source: Tamilnadu Agritech
  22. 22. Source: TWAD Board; Madurai Corporation Water storage & distribution system Storage System North Side – 12 Nos – 155 Lakh Liters capacity South Side – 16 Nos – 374 Lakh Liters Capacity Ground Level Storage Reservoir – 1 No – 68 Lakh Liters Distribution System Combination Grid Iron and Tree system 28 distribution zones Pumping Main – 128 KM Distribution Pipe – 650 KM Pipes dia from 90mm to 350mm pipe materials from AC, CI and PVC material Chapter4
  23. 23. Source: Madurai Corporation Per capita water supply Standard to provide = 135 lpcd City Average Supply = 103 lpcd Graph 4: Per Capita water supply – Madurai Corporation The above graph shows per capita water supply in ward wise, the Ward numbers18, 30, 33. 36, 60 are having high per capita supply. But in wards 34, 40, 55, 66, 70 having low per capita supply in the city Chapter4
  24. 24. WATER SUPPLY INDICATORS Name of City Madurai Corporation Present LPCD 103 lpcd Population Coverage 100% Households Coverage 93% Treatment Capacity (% of Supply) 75% Total no. of OHT 28 Total Capacity of OHT 530 Lakh Liters Total No. of UG Sump 1 Total Capacity of UG Sump 68 Lakh Liters Storage Capacity (% to Supply) 50 % Length of Pumping Main 2 x 64 = 128 KMs Length of Distribution Main 650 KM Distribution Network Length (% of Road Length) 83% No. of Distribution Zone 28 Frequency of Water Supply Once in 4 Days Domestic Water Supply Connections 128230 Commercial Water Supply Connections 7835 Industrial Water Supply Connections 580 Slum Population per Stand post 70  Majority of water collected from Vaigai Dam by Vaigai water supply scheme  Very less quantity of water augmented from Head works near in city limit.  The city has very well network coverage and has enough water supply infrastructure.  The corporation receives funds from JnNURM schemes and state governments funds for improving infrastructure development works in city. Chapter4 Source: Madurai Corporation
  25. 25. ANALYSIS Issues (Surface Water & Ground Water) Non Revenue Water Water Demand Projection Deficiency Measures (Water Demand Vs. Water Source Availability)
  26. 26. SURFACEWATER ISSUES Surface Water Bodies – Lakes, Ponds and Ooranis: In and around Madurai Corporation  From the shown surface water bodies, the corporation can store up to 27.44 MCM of water during Monsoon season.  At present 6.34 MCM of water only able to store in this surface water bodies Encroached Water bodies Source: Dhan Foundation Chapter5 Source: PWD, Madurai Corporation
  27. 27. Source: Madurai Corporation, TWAD Board GROUNDWATER ISSUES • Over extraction from groundwater, without making any recharge, the Ground Water table depleted. • Poor maintenance of drainage system and absence of recharge structure (rainwater harvesting) linked with GW depletion. • Population growth and densely populated wards also impact on ground water usage. Chapter5
  28. 28. NON REVENUE WATER Non Revenue Water Chart Water Input Vaigai Water Supply Scheme 1 & 2 – 110 MLD (77%) Authorized Consumption (66.25%) Billed Authorized Consumption (64.42%) Billed metered Consumption - Revenue Water (64.42%)Collector Well, Melakkal Headworks – 20 MLD (14%) Billed Unmetered Consumption 91.47 MLD (64.42%) Manaloor and Thiruppuvanam Headworks – 7 MLD (5%) Unbilled Authorized Consumption (1.83%) Unbilled metered Consumption - Non-Revenue Water (35.58%) Thachampattu Headworks – 5 MLD (4%) Unbilled Unmetered Consumption 2.60 MLD (1.83%) Water Losses (33.75%) Apparent Losses (7.25%) Unauthorized consumption 10.30 MLD (7.25%) Metering inaccuracy - Real Losses (26.50%) Leakages in transmission and/or distribution mains 26.00 MLD (18.31%) Leakages and overflow of storage tanks 10.58 MLD (7.45%) It Includes 15 MLD of Industrial supply Chapter5
  29. 29. WATER DEMAND FORECASTING – POPULATION PROJECTION For considering, those above three methods of population projection system, the incremental increase method is adopted for further water demand calculation and other infrastructure services proposal and strategies suggested on this report. Because incremental increase method, is somehow relate value with Arithmetic increase method. But in exponential method of calculation the values are varies much from other two method consider for projection Exponential Method Method Arithmetic Increase Incremental Increase Exponential Method Year 2011 11.38 11.38 11.38 2021 12.32 12.41 16.65 2031 13.26 13.61 24.48 2041 14.19 15.00 36.07 Chapter5
  30. 30. Source:: Discussion with Madurai corporation officials WATER DEMAND FORECASTING - POSSIBLE AREA OF EXPANSION Existing Zone Expansion Areas North side of Vaigai River Anaiyur Avaniapuram Villangudi Kannanaendhal Naganakulam Thiruppalai Melamadai Uthangudi Vandiyur South side of Vaigai River Thirupparankundram Harveypatti Thirunagar Anuppanadi Chinthamani Iravathanallur Pudukulam Thiyagarayar Colony Possible Expansion areas Area - 94.71 Sq.km Present Water supply (by various sources) – 31.70 MLD Total Area Area - 146.67 Sq.km Chapter5
  31. 31. WATER DEMAND Year Population Added Areas Total Population Water Demand Institutional & Industrial Demand Fire Fighting Demand Distribution Losses Total Demand Water Supply Melakkal Headworks Thachampattu Headworks Manaloor and Thiruppuvan am Headworks Hand Pump & Power Pump First Vaigai Water supply Scheme Second Vaigai Water supply Scheme Added Areas Shortage 1991 9.41 9 127 13 10 22 172 60 112 2001 9.29 9 125 13 10 22 170 85 10 2 5 68 85 2011 11.38 499,818 16 154 15 13 27 209 115 14 2 7 2 68 22 31.7 94 2021 12.40 623,695 19 167 17 14 30 227 146.7 14 2 7 2 68 22 31.7 81 2031 13.61 747,572 21 184 18 15 32 249 146.7 14 2 7 2 68 22 31.7 102 2041 15.00 1,118,528 26 203 20 16 36 275 146.7 14 2 7 2 68 22 31.7 128 Demand Supply Chapter5 Source:: TWAD Board Source: TWAD Board
  32. 32. WATER DEFICIENCY • If we consider 135 lpcd with some losses in the system, the total demand will be 209 MLD (Present) but corporation supplies 115 ML in 4 days once. • At present per capita supply is 103 lpcd • In 1991, the shortage was 112 MLD, during 1993 the corporation received World Bank for First Vaigai water supply scheme, because of this scheme it adds 65 MLD in the system. • Project demand for 2021, it needs 227 MLD of water, but it can able to supply 146.7 MLD only with possible sources. • The shortage of water is growing like 81 MLD (2021), 102 MLD (2031) and 128 MLD (2041) • If the corporation did not take any action at present, it may face very big water problems in the future. Chapter5
  33. 33. Outcomes from Analysis  Madurai has sufficient amount of surface water bodies which helps to store rainwater and runoff water to store for non drinking purposes and ground water recharge.  After the growth in industrial and real estate, the surface water bodies and its drainage paths were encroached. So the tanks cannot get drainage water.  The city is completely depend on Vaigai River and Vaigai Dam for water supply.  NRW – High leakage in system, absence of metering  To achieve source sustainability by reduce over dependency on Vaigai dam and Vaigai River.  Implement Water Harvesting system (Rainwater Harvesting, Artificial Recharge, Restructure, Rehabilitate and Rejuvenation of existing surface water bodies).  Focus on reduction on NRW by efficient water distribution system, control and Fix leakages, Water metering  Reuse of Reclaimed water for industrial purposes  Alternative Source Chapter5
  34. 34. PROPOSALS & STRATEGIES Possible Strategies NRW Reduction Water Harvesting Reclaimed Water Groundwater Extraction
  35. 35. Proposals and Strategies – Methods to be adopted for WRM Chapter6 Sl.No Strategies Major scope 1 Implement metering in all kind of water connections to regularize the water supply process and increase the revenue. NRW Reduction 2 Use computer application and software for monitor water supply process. 3 Leakage Control – Water Auditing, Fix overflow sensor 4 Detect and regularize the illegal connection 5 Optimum usage of produced water 6 Harvesting of Rainwater and other water sources Water Harvesting 7 Artificial Recharge 8 Systems and technologies development for Recycling and Reuse of waste water for reducing burden on water resources. Reclaimed Water 9 Restoration and Rejuvenation of surface water bodies Alternate resources 10 Optimum use of conserved water Management approach 11 Maximum usage of storage reservoirs and Tanks 12 Improvement of water supply in scarce locations 13 Integration of surface water management and Ground Water management 14 Transfer the approach from water supply management to water demand management 15 Watershed level management approach 16 Private sector participation in water supply projects in capital and O&M activities. PSP 17 Public awareness campaign and IEC activities for economic use of water. IEC
  36. 36. Source: Water Resources Management-A World Bank Policy Paper Proposals and Strategies – NRW Reduction  As per CPHEEO limits, 15% of transmission losses in the system, but if it is more than that, the Water supplying authority needs to take action to reduce Non-Revenue water losses in the system.  At Present the Madurai Corporation has 35.58% of Non-Revenue water losses,  Apparent losses are 7.25%, it happens because of improper management in the system, unauthorized consumption is easy to reduce by proper surveillance in the city.  Real losses are 26.50%, it happen because of leakages from the system. Madurai Water supply system is one of the oldest system in the country. The major leakages are happen in Main lines (18.31%) and storage reservoir (7.45%) Action 1: Water Audit and Water Balance Action 2: Water Metering – in Household level and District Metering Area Action 3: Leakage Control Action 4: Detect and regularize the illegal connection Action 5: Operation and Maintenance Practices Chapter6
  37. 37. Proposals and Strategies – NRW Reduction Chapter6 Water lost in NRW 49.48 MLD (35.58% of total supply) Where is it lost from Unbilled Authorized Consumption – 2.60 MLD (1.83%) Unauthorized Consumption – 10.30 MLD (7.25%) Leakages in transmission and distribution mains – 26.00 MLD (18.31%) Leakages and Overflow of Storage tanks – 10.58 MLD (7.45%) Reasons for NRW Poor water management Old infrastructure in core areas (South and East Zone) Improvement measures Prioritizing water loss reduction strategies in the system Leakage Monitoring, Leak detection and repair policy Water Zoning map Address causes of unauthorized consumption Training to staff NRW Reduction Schedule and Cost (Amount in Lakhs) Sl.N o Year 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 Total NRW Measures 1 Water Audit 10 20 15 45 2 Metering 180 180 180 180 720 3 DMA zone formation 40 20 60 4 SCADA 200 170 370 5 Regularize water connection 25 20 45 Cost (in Annually) 190 200 435 370 25 20 - 1,240 Work Plan for NRW Reduce this losses from 33.01% to 15% by using NRW reduction strategy, i.e., 18.01% of losses have to be reduce from the system. Source:: Non Revenue Water (NEW) Management Strategy for Surabaya Water Company; Water Resources Management-A World Bank Policy Paper; NRW Reduction Toolkit
  38. 38. Proposals and Strategies – Rainwater Harvesting for Buildings • Rainwater Harvesting can be done in 10 Years period • From this the system, can save 64.76 Million Liters of water per year in monsoon season (i.e., rainfall period 45 days) Totally 392.42 ML water can able to harvest. • Total Project Cost – Rs.15,469.31 Lakhs • Project Benefit cost at the end – Rs.7,848 Lakhs (in terms of recharge GW, i.e., 50paise/liter) • Reduce this cost by providing 50: 50 (Govt : Public) ` Chapter6 Source: Cost Estimation based on Rainwater Harvesting and Conservation – Manual by CGWB-MoWR 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Building Type Residential 12823 12823 12823 12823 12823 12823 12823 12823 12823 12823 Commercial 1566 1566 1566 1566 1566 Industrial 287 287 Cost/ RWH Residential 6000 6000 6000 6000 6000 6000 6000 6000 6000 6000 Commercial 80757 80757 80757 80757 80757 Industrial 185983 185983 Construction cost Residential 769.38 769.38 769.38 769.38 769.38 846.32 846.32 846.32 846.32 846.32 Commercial 1,264.65 1,264.65 1,264.65 1,264.65 1,264.65 - - - - - Industrial 533.77 533.77 - - - - - - - - Total cost (in Lakhs) 2,567.81 2,567.81 2,034.03 2,034.03 2,034.03 846.32 846.32 846.32 846.32 846.32 Water savings (in Million Liters / Annum) 8.34 16.68 24.16 31.63 39.11 44.24 49.37 54.5 59.63 64.76 Savings interms of consumed water (in Lakhs) 166.8 333.6 483.2 632.6 782.2 884.8 987.4 1090 1192.6 1295.2 Phase 2Phase 1
  39. 39. Proposals – Water Harvesting by Surface Water Bodies Rainfall Harvesting Potential = Rainfall (in mm) x Collection Efficiency Rainfall = 850 mm (Average) Sl. No Items Area (in Sq.Km) 1 Circulation area 8.29 2 Public Places 2.07 3 Vacant land 4.14 4 Water Bodies 5.03 Total 19.53 Sq.km Possible Areas to collect and store rain water in Madurai Percolation rate = 10 ml / min (for black and red soil) = 10, 000 Liter / KM Per day percolation rate = 10,000 x 19.53 / (10 ^ 6) = 0.20 ML per day  By using surface water bodies, increase storage upto 28.71 ML/Annum  Recharge ground water upto 9.04 ML/Annum Chapter6 Source: Author Source: Madurai Corporation
  40. 40. Proposals – Water Balance  At present, the city losing 164.56 ML of water per Annum in runoff during regular monsoon season.  In the month of Sep, Oct and Nov Maximum runoff  Because of improper maintenance in the drainage system, the storage capacity in water bodies are deteriorating Chapter6 Source: Author
  41. 41. Source: PWD, Madurai Corporation GROUNDWATER EXPLORATION Chapter6 Groundwater availability = 10.27 MCM (within City Area – 146.67 sq.km) Groundwater can extract by providing Bore wells in the location. We can use same bore wells as used for recharge purposes during monsoon season. Bore well cost (1 No.)= Rs.2,00,000/- O&M cost 20% of capital cost Ground Water Exploration (Rs. In Lakhs) Sl.No Year 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 Total 1 Bore Wells 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 280 2 O & M 8 16 24 32 40 48 56 224 Cost (in Annually) 48 56 64 72 80 88 96 504 Source: CGWB, TWAD Board
  42. 42. Proposals and Strategies – Waste Reuse in Industrial purposes Chapter6 Usable Reclaimed water Stage Actions Quantity 1 Generation 97 MLD 2 Collected 61 MLD 3 Treated by STP 34 MLD 4 Disposed from STP 25 MLD 5 Sewage Farm 13 MLD Industrial demand in city, at present = 15 MLD Reclaimed water from Avaniyapuram STP = 12 MLD Infrastructure cost for Reclaimed water Distance between Avaniyapuram and Melur Industrial Estate = 30 Km Distance between Avaniayapuram and Kappalur Industrial Estate = 12 km Provide 600mm dia AC pipeline from STP to respective industrial estates, Rate for 1m of pipe laying and its relative works = Rs.1284/- 600mm dia. Pipe laying - including Supply, Installation, Testing & Commissioning of Pipe Lines & Associated works Sl.No Description of Items Quantity Units Rate (in Rs.) Total Cost (in lakhs) 1 To Kappalur Industrial Estate 12,000 m 1,284.00 154.08 2 To Melur Industrial Estate 30,000 m 1,284.00 385.20 Total Project Cost 539.28 Total Project period is 3 years starts from 2015. Source: CPWD Rates-2007 • There are 2 Industrial Estates locates in Kappalur and Melur, 5 large scale industrial units and 12364 small and medium scale industrial units are present in Madurai. • By using this system, industries can reduce 50-60% of water from their demand
  43. 43. Water Resource Management  After implementing all this possible Water Resource Management Strategies, still the corporation is shortage of 8.81 MCM per Annum. (24.14 MLD)  It can further reduce by IEC activities on water conservation measures and public awareness campaign. Chapter6 Items Per day (MLD) Per Annum (MCM) Share % Shortage (@ 2021) 94 34.31 100 % Proposed WRM methods NRW Reduction (from 35.58% to 15%) 29.00 10.59 31 % Surface water storage 0.08 0.03 Runoff Storage 0.44 0.16 Groundwater Extraction (Potential) 28.14 10.27 30 % Rainwater harvesting 0.19 0.07 Reclaimed Water 12.00 4.38 13 % Needs to augment 24.14 8.81 26 % Reduction in Water deficiency Groundwa ter Exploratio n Reclaimed Water NRW Reduction
  44. 44. Water Resource Management Chapter6 WRM Techniques Water Resource Management Schedule and Cost (Amount in Lakhs) Sl.No Year 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 Total A NRW Measures 1 Water Audit 20.00 40.00 15.00 75.00 2 Metering 180.00 180.00 180.00 180.00 20.00 3 DMA zone formation 80.00 30.00 10.00 4 SCADA 200.00 70.00 70.00 5 Regularize water connection 25.00 20.00 45.00 B Ground Water Draft Works 1 Bore Wells 40.00 40.00 40.00 40.00 40.00 40.00 40.00 80.00 2 O & M 8.00 16.00 4.00 32.00 40.00 48.00 56.00 24.00 C Reclaimed water for Industries 1 To Kappalur Industrial Estate 30.82 92.45 30.82 - - - - 54.08 2 To Melur Industrial Estate 77.04 231.12 77.04 - - - - 385.20 Cost (in Annually) 355.86 599.57 646.86 452.00 105.00 108.00 96.00 2,363.28 During the year 2012-13, the corporation has surplus amount of 1374 lakhs under water supply sector. As per project estimation cost is below the surplus amount in hand, so the corporation can execute the above mentioned projects with their budget limits.
  45. 45. Bibliography Asian Development Bank. Non Revenue Water Reduction Toolkit. New Delhi, 2012. Toolkit. Atkins. "Future Proofing Indian Cities - Final Urban Diagnostic for Madurai." Urban Diagnostic. 2014. Report. Brar, Tejwant Singh, R.K. Jain and Deepak Khare. "Water resource Management Plan for An Urban Area - Patiala." International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering ISSN 0974-5904, Volume 04, No 06 SPL 4.6 (2011): 997-1003. Central Ground Water Board - Ministry of Water Resources. Manual on Artificial Recharge of Ground Water. New Delhi: Central Ground Water Board, 2007. Manual. 12 April 2014. <http://cgwb.gov.in/documents/Manual%20on%20Artificial%20Recharge%20of%20Ground%20Water.pdf>. —. Rainwater Harvesting and Conservation - Manual. Manual. New Delhi: Central Ground Water Board , 2002. Document. Centre for science and Environment. LEGISLATION ON RAINWATER HARVESTING. n.d. 25 March 2014. <http://www.rainwaterharvesting.org/policy/legislation.htm>. Centre for Science and Environment. www.rainwaterharvesting.org. n.d. 17 March 2014. <http://www.rainwaterharvesting.org/Urban/Costs.htm>. Dass Amit, Jethoo A.S, Poonia M.P. "Impact of Drought on Urban Water Supply: A Case Study of Jaipur City." International Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology (IJEIT) 1.3 (2012): 170-173. Case Study. Daykin, Ann Davies Suzie. Review of Water Resources Management Plan Process-Final Report. Policy Projects for CLG, DfT, DECC and Defra. London: ihpr-In House Policy Resources, June 2011. Report. Dhan Foundation. Neerindri ... (No Water). Madurai: Dhan Foundation, 2007. Farley, Malcolm, et al. The Manager's Non-Revenue Water Handbook. Bangkok: United States Agency for International Development (USAID), 2008. Handbook. Gaurav Dwivedi, Makarand Purohit. Privatised Industrial Water supply in DEWAS - A Case Study Of Impacts And Conflicts. Case Study. Barwani, MP: Manthan Adhyayan Kendra, 2012. Report. GIZ-ASEM. Draft City Sanitation Plan-Kochi. Sanitation Plan. Cochin: Corporation of Cochin, 2011. Report. Gopakumar, Govind. Transforming Urban Water Supplies in India - The role of reform and partnerships in globalization. New York: Routledge, 2012. Contemporary South Asia series.
  46. 46. Bibliography Government of Tamilnadu. Tamilnadu Government Gazette. Housing and Urban Development Report. Chennai: Government of Tamilnadu, 2010. Document. 26 Feb 2014. <http://www.madurai.tn.nic.in/madurailpa/procedures/DCR_maduraiLPA.pdf>. International Institute of Health and Hygiene,New Delhi . ENVIS Centre on Hygiene, Sanitation, Sewage Treatment Systems and Technology. n.d. 05 April 2014. <http://www.sulabhenvis.nic.in/Database/STST_wastewater_2090.aspx>. K.C.Sivaramakrishnan. "Drinking Water Supply: Right and Obligation." Ramaswamy.R.Iyer. Water and the Laws in India. New Delhi: SAGE Publications India Pvt. Ltd, 2009. 251-274. Loh, Jieying. Water management: Learning from Singapore’s water success. 26 March 2009. Article. 29 January 2014. <http://workingwithwater.filtsep.com/view/934/water-management-learning-from-singapore-s-water-success/>. M.S., C. Balamurugan: Dheenadayalan. "Studies on the quality of groundwater in Madurai, Tamilnadu, India." Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research (2012): 1632-1637. Research Article. M.S.Vani. "Community Management in Water Governance." India, Water and the Laws in. Ramaswamy R.Iyer. New Delhi: SAGE Publications India Pvt. Ltd, 2009. 167- 209. Madurai Corporation. n.d. 18 March 2014. <>. —. City Development Plan. Development Plan. Madurai, 2006. Report. —. Detailed Project Report for Basic Services to Urban Poor. Jnnurm Report. Madurai, 2010. —. Madurai Corporation Website. n.d. Ma. 11 November 2013. <>. Ministry of the Environment and Water Resources. Key Environmental Statistics. Statistics. Singapore, 2013. Ministry of Urban Development. Non Revenue Water Reduction Toolkit. Toolkit. New Delhi: JnNURM, 2012. Ministry of Water Resources - Government of India. Guidelines for Repair, Renovation and Restoration of Water Bodies. Guidelines. New Delhi: MOWR, 2009. Document. Ministry of Water Resources. Ministry of Water Resources. n.d. 11 March 2014. <http://wrmin.nic.in/index2.asp?sublinkid=574&langid=1&slid=786>.
  47. 47. Bibliography Nair, Shadananan. "Challenges in urban water management in a changing environment – case study from a growing tropical city." Novatech 2010. Lyon, France, 2010. 1-7. P.C.Bansil. Water Management in India. New Delhi: Concept Publishing Company, 2004. PPP Cell Department of Economic affiars-Ministry of Finance. Toolkit for Public Private Partnerships in Urban Water Supply for Maharshtra. New Delhi: Macro Graphics Pvt. Ltd., 2009. Toolkit. 12 April 2014. <http://www.pppinindia.com/pdf/dea_ppp_water-supply.pdf>. PUB. PUB, Singapore's National Water Agency. n.d. 29 January 2014. <http://www.pub.gov.sg/water/Pages/singaporewaterstory.aspx>. Puthucherril, Tony George. "Riparianism in Indian Water Jurisprudence." R.Iyer, Ramaswamy. Water and the Laws in India. New Delhi: SAGE Publications India Pvt.Ltd, 2009. 98. R.P.S.Malik and John Briscoe. India's Water Economy: Bracing for a Turbulent future. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2006. Sapient Techno Consultants. Preliminary Water Audit: Estimation of Water Losses and Strategy for Loss Reduction - City of Kalol, Gujarat, India . PAS project. Ahmedabad: PAS, 2010. Sharma, Dinesh. "Drinking Water Management of Jaipur City." Jaipur, 24 January 2011. Presentation. SSWM. Sustainable Sanitation and Water Management. n.d. 17 March 2014. <http://www.sswm.info/category/implementation-tools/water- sources/hardware/precipitation-harvesting/rainwater-harvesting-u>. Sutton and East Surrey Water plc. "Water Resources Management Plan 2013 ." Ed. Anthony Ferrar. Surrey, 2013. 1-48. The World Bank. Water Resources Management-A World Bank Policy Paper. Washington: International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, 1993. Policy Paper. TWAD Board - Rainwater Harvesting. Rainwater Harvesting. n.d. 24 March 2014. <http://www.aboutrainwaterharvesting.in/rwh_cost.htm>. TWAD Board. Hand Book on Water supply. Chennai: Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit), n.d. Handbook. 12 April 2014. <http://saiindia.gov.in/english/home/Public_Folder/Professional_Practices_Group/State_Local_Manual/PUDUCHERRY_MANUAL/Wad%20Manual/Water%20Su pply.pdf>. —. Major Water Supply Schemes. n.d. 3 April 2014. <http://www.twadboard.gov.in/twad/watersupply_schemes5.aspx>.
  48. 48. Bibliography —. Rainwater Harvesting. n.d. 25 March 2014. <http://www.aboutrainwaterharvesting.in/rwh_methods_ppm.htm>. —. Tamilnadu Water supply and Drainage Board. n.d. 20 March 2014. <http://www.twadboard.gov.in/twad/madurai_dist.aspx>. —. Tamilnadu Water Supply and Drainage Board. n.d. 21 March 2014. <http://www.aboutrainwaterharvesting.in/rwh_methods_individual.htm>. United Utilities. Draft Water Resource Management Plan. Report. London: United Utilities PLC, 2013. UNWater-WWAP. UN Water. 6 11 2013. <http://www.unwater.org/statistics_res.html#sthash.QKPQ7VmZ.dpuf>. W.Mays, Larry. Water Resources Engineering - Second Edition. Tempe, Arizona: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2011. World Bank (John Briscoe; R.P.S.Malik). India's Water Economy: Bracing for a Turbulent future. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2006. World Bank. Non Revenue Water (NEW) Management Strategy for Surabaya Water Company. Kualalumpur: Ranhill Water Services Sdn. Bhd., 2011.
  49. 49. Source: ‘Water Resource Management Plan’ – Thames Water Report Water Resource Estimation for future projection Before WRMP • In Early stage, water drawn from Thames River, and its tributaries. The City authorities appointed water keepers to maintain, operate the water conduit and collect fees from the water users [ Concept for Private companies ] • In 1902, the private water companies were nationalized, acquires and created as ‘Metropolitan Water Board’ by the Metropolitan Water Act, because of bad quality in water supply. • The MWB, started and Operated several reservoirs in & around London because increase in demand side. The MWB & Other local water boards were combined and formed ‘Thames Water Authority’. Later it was privatized as ‘Thames Water’, a state regulated private company. Which currently provide London’s water supply needs. Present Water Resources and it’s Management Present Water demand = 1,217 MLD • Demand vs Supply Baseline to calculate Surplus / deficit in every year • Every five years, water companies in England and Wales are required to produce a Water Resources Management Plan that sets out how they aim to maintain water supplies over a 25-year period. • Water resource management can be done in four various ways: 1) Leakage Management, 2) Efficiency Improvement, 3) Use of reclaimed water, 4) Development of New water resources Location England, Europe Population 8.17 Million (2011) Climate Zone Oceanic Area 1,572 Km2 Urban Water use 150 lpcd Decentralization No Regulator Ofwat (Office of Water service) Policy Setting Defra (Department of Environment, Food and Rural affairs) Project Private Water Companies (Thames Water in Greater London) Learnings from Literature Review - London study
  50. 50. Source: http://www.pub.gov.sg/water/Pages/singaporewaterstory.aspx#sthash.snSIBAzZ.dpuf Sustainable Water Resources Management Before WRMP • Singapore imported water from Malaysia for it’s needs based on agreement signed on 1961 & 1962. • In 1998, Malaysia asked to increase the raw water price (0.04 US$ / M3) and in 2002 still increase now it’s 0.45 US$/M3. This rate is equivalent to the price of desalination. • Singapore refused to accept the new prices, but based on the old agreement Malaysia have to supply 1100 MLD upto 2061 (99 Year agreement) Present Water Resources and it’s Management Water demand = 1,730 MLD, it may double in the year of 2050 Water resources are precious in Singapore because of densely settled land Water resources are classified four types of 1) Local catchment water (17 Reservoirs) it collects 750 to 1100 MLD, based on rainfall (Average 2400mm) 2) Imported water (from Malaysia by two agreements) 1100 MLD 3) Highly-purified reclaimed water known as NEWater, (It meets 30% of demand) 4) Desalinated water (It meets 10% of demand) Lessons from Singapore: • Forward Planning • Careful Management of Water Resources • Sustainable Water resource management • Source Augmentation for meeting demand – (e.g. Desalination) • Putting together adequate infrastructure investment and efficient technologies. Water Bodies in Singapore Location South East Asia Population 5.18 Million (As on 2011) Climate Zone Tropical Rainforest Area 710 Km2 Urban Water use 153 lpcd Decentralization No Regulator No Policy Setting Ministry of the Environment and Water Resources Project Public Utilities Board (PUB) Learnings from Literature Review - Singapore Case study
  51. 51. Source: Kochi CDP, Kochi CSP, “Challenges in urban water management in a changing environment – case study from a growing tropical city” –Shadanan Nair Water Resource Management Systems, Guidelines & Suggestions • In 1963, Public Water supply system established; And New Plant started in Aluva (48 MLD). • Source : River Periyar (Perennial River) • In 1975, additional plant of 72 MLD; In 1983 – 70 MLD (World bank aided); In 2000 – 35 MLD (HUDCO Scheme) • Total capacity 225 MLD, Kochi city consumption 120 MLD, Rest sent to adjacent areas. Shortage of 69 MLD • 83% of Water supply Coverage • Mattancherry area suffers from very low and unreliable supply in some cases as low as 25-30 LPCD, So Households depends on expensive private tankers. For Water Resource Management System: • Rain water Harvesting (Ground water recharge, Judicious Management of available water resources) • Proper and timely maintenance of the public water system, Control of unauthorized use of public water. • Discourage use of chemicals and fertilizers before heavy rainfall to prevent its transportation through water, minimizing river pollution from industries, Proper filtering of tanks. • Reducing water loss in distribution system and starting water conservation measures from domestic level, increased public awareness on the needs of water conservation and pollution control and advanced training for the engineers and technicians. Location Kerala, India (Commercial Capital) Population 601,574 (as on 2011) Climate Zone Tropical Monsoon Area 94.88 sq.km Urban Water use 90 LPCD Approx. Decentralization Yes, Corporation of Cochin Regulator Kerala Water Authority Policy Setting Water Resources Department, Government of Kerala Project Centre for Water Resources Development and Management Water Demand Supply 2011 189 MLD 120 MLD 2021 227 MLD 2031 272 MLD Learnings from Literature Review – Kochi Case study
  52. 52. Source: PHED, Jaipur Water Distribution Management • Water Demand – 41.97 MLD; Supply – 34 MLD => Deficit 7.97 MLD • Illegal & Long distance connections • Low Pressure, short supply duration and tail end problems • Incidence of water pollution due to choking / over flowing sewers & seepage from manhole chambers • Increase in demand of new water connections from consumers due to reduced yield of groundwater in private wells and demanding bulk water. • Poor utility and asset mapping affecting monitoring process. • Poor utility and asset mapping affecting monitoring. • High non revenue water due to insignificant water tariff. • Consumers counseled for regularization of illegal connections. • Distribution network strengthened by providing additional pipelines, valves. • Water Audit started from year 2011 with complete accounting of water quantity right from all sources to consumer end. (NRW reduced from 42 to 32% and savings provided for useful water ) • Three level water quality monitoring system introduced including mobile units for daily monitoring. (almost 50% reduction in incidences of polluted water supply) • New water connection guidelines introduced to curb use of water in non drinking purposes like; construction, washing, industry & process etc. • Policy for release of connections in multistoried buildings implemented with provisions for bulk metering, RWH and recycling. • Consultant appointed for preparation of GIS based complete mapping of water utility and other assets. Location Rajasthan, India Population 3,073,350 (3.07 Million) Climate Zone Semi Arid Area 467 Sq.km Urban Water use 125 lpcd Decentralization Yes Regulator Water Resources Regulatory Authority Policy Setting Water Resources Regulatory Authority Project PHED Sources of Water Tube Well (1897 Nos) 2900 LL Single point Tubewells (117 Nos) 15 LL Bisalpur Dam 720 LL Total 3620 LL Water for Jaipur city is pumped from Bisalpur dam, at a distance of 110 KMs with almost 95 Mtrs. of Hydraulic head. More than 50% of O&M expenditure goes on power charges alone.
  53. 53. Source: P.C.Bansil. Water Management in India. New Delhi: Concept Publishing Company, 2004; Gaurav Dwivedi, Makarand Purohit. Privatised Industrial Water supply in DEWAS - A Case Study Of Community led Water Resource Management & Privatized Industrial Water supply • In 1980s, Transition from Agricultural town to industrial town • Dewas Industrial Area majorly contain DIE industry, those DIE industries facing acute water shortage from last one decade. • Receiving maximum of 2.40 MLD, but actual requirement is 12 MLD • This 2.40 MLD also received from Tube-wells, Shipra River and Tankers operated by the local residents. • This water shortage affect the industries growth. In Dewas, Industrial Area • Introduced BOT project for industrial water supply • Water fetched from Narmada canal located at Nemavar 128 km from Dewas Industrial area. PPP Project • EPC ; O&M Contractor – MSK project (India) limited • Present supply 15 MLD & it may increase upto 23 MLD (30 Years contract) • The over extraction of groundwater was completely stopped because of this project, it reflects in the Ground water table improvement. • For Urban settlements also receive water from this project Location Madhya Pradesh, India Population 1,64,364 (2001) Climate Zone Arid Zone Area 45 Sq.KM Urban Water use 80 LPCD Decentralization No Regulator Dewas Industrial Association (DIA) Policy Setting Madhya Pradesh Water Resource Department (MPWRD) Madhya Pradesh State Industrial Development Corporation (MPSIDC) – For Industrial uses Project MSK Projects (India) Ltd, Baroda, Gujarat – BOT Project Learnings from Literature Review – Dewas Case Study
  54. 54. RAINWATER HARVESTING SYSTEMS – RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Recharge Pit Method Rainwater Harvesting for Individual houses area < 100 m2; pit size 1m x 1m x1m Sl.No Description Unit Quantity Rate(Rs) Amount (Rs) 1 Excavation work for Percolation pit m3 1 41.00 41.00 2 Filling Materials - Brick bats m3 0.6 312.42 187.00 3 Filling Materials - sand m3 0.4 326.92 131.00 4 Cover Slab -Precast RCC perforated - 40 mm thick m3 1 175.00 175.00 5 150mm Ø PVC pipe connection (includinng earthworks, laying, fixing and pipe surround with sand and gravel filling m 10 400.00 4,000.00 6 Miscellaneous items - - 500.00 Total 5,034.00
  55. 55. RAINWATER HARVESTING SYSTEMS – RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Recharging Trench method; Rainwater Harvesting for Multi Storied building of size 30m x 20m (area = 600m2) Sl.No Description Unit Quantity Rate(Rs) Amount (Rs) 1 Excavation work for Percolation pit m3 1 41.00 41.00 2 Filling Materials - Brick bats m3 0.6 312.42 187.00 3 Filling Materials - sand m3 0.4 326.92 131.00 4 Filing Materials - Pebbles in the top layet of recharge trench m3 1 262.50 263.00 5 150mm Ø PVC pipe connection (includinng earthworks, laying, fixing and pipe surround with sand and gravel filling m 10 400.00 4,000.00 6 Miscellaneous items - - 500.00 Total 5,122.00
  56. 56. RAINWATER HARVESTING SYSTEMS – OFFICE BUILDINGS Rainwater Harvesting for Individual office Buildings with compound Dug well depth 1m and Borewell Depth 10m Sl.No Description Unit Quantity Rate(Rs) Amount (Rs) 1 Excavation work for Percolation pit (1m depth & 1m dia.) m3 1 41.00 41.00 2 Filling Materials - Brick bats 40mm size - 0.7 m depth m3 0.6 312.42 187.00 3 Filling Materials - sand - 0.3m depth m3 0.4 326.92 131.00 4 Cover Slab -Precast RCC perforated - 40 mm thick m2 1 175.00 175.00 5 Recharge Borewell (250mm dia. & 10m depth) by rotary drilling including pipe material No. 1 50,000.00 50,000.00 6 Filing Materials - broken stone (40mm size) in the top layet of recharge trench m3 0.5 445.36 223.00 7 200mm Ø PVC pipe connection to the recharge well (includinng earthworks, laying, fixing and pipe surround with sand and gravel filling m 50 500.00 25,000.00 8 Miscellaneous items - - 5,000.00 Total 80,757.00
  57. 57. RAINWATER HARVESTING SYSTEMS – OFFICE BUILDINGS Injection well Method : Rainwater Harvesting for office Buildings; Well dia 1.5m; Depth 5m and Borewell depth 10 m Sl.No Description Unit Quantity Rate(Rs) Amount (Rs) 1 Excavation work for Percolation pit (2m dia.) m3 30 41.00 1,230.00 2 Soak way pit (Precast RCC Ring - 1.5m dia) with soft soil and 150mm dia. PVC casing Nos 17 300.00 5,100.00 3 Filling Materials - Brick bats 40mm size - 4 m depth m3 8 312.42 2,499.00 4 Filling Materials - sand - 1m depth m3 2 326.92 654.00 5 Recharge Borewell (250mm dia. & 10m depth) by rotary drilling including pipe material No. 1 50,000.00 50,000.00 6 Filing Materials - Pebble stones in outside potion of precast rings m3 8 1,500.00 12,000.00 7 200mm Ø PVC pipe connection to the recharge well (includinng earthworks, laying, fixing and pipe surround with sand and gravel filling m 150 500.00 75,000.00 8 150mm dia. Borewell for for monitoring groundwater table fluctuation - 15m depth No. 1 30,000.00 30,000.00 9 Cover Slab -Precast RCC perforated - 100 mm thick; 1.5m dia m2 1 1,500.00 1,500.00 10 Miscellaneous items - - 8,000.00 Total 185,983.00
  58. 58. Source: CGWB, TWAD Board GROUNDWATER RECHARGE (DURING MONSOON) Ground water Potential (As per CGWB & PWD-WRO) Madurai District Madurai City Utilizable Ground water Recharge 684.7 MCM 2.06 MCM Net Ground Water Draft 424.9 MCM 1.63 MCM Balance – Ground water storage 259.8 MCM 0.43 MCM Stage of Groundwater development 62.06 % Category of blocks as per need of Ground Water development Over Exploited (>100%) Chellampati,Usilampati, Sedapati, Critical (90 to 100%) Alanganalur Semi Critical (70 to 90%) Kallupati, Thiruparankundaram, Thirumangala, Safe (<70%) Madurai East, Madurai West, Vadipati, Kalikudi, Kotampati, Melur Salinity Ingression Nil Focus on recharge Ground water for long-term benefit Advantages of using surface water over ground water  Easily available and accessible water resource  Less amount of water treatment required compare to other methods.  Utilize surface water bodies as tourism attraction also, and it became an important economic factor for that city.  Surface water bodies can use for fisheries Chapter6 Source: CGWB, TWAD Board
  59. 59. Proposals and Strategies – Dredging and De silting of Water bodies  Dredging is an excavation activity or operation usually carried out at least partly underwater or fresh water areas with the purpose of gathering up bottom sediments and disposing of them at a different location. This technique is often used to keep water bodies can able store to maximum amount of water and it is helpful to recharge groundwater aquifer.  The process of dredging creates spoils (excess material), which are carried away from the dredged area. Dredging can produce materials for land reclamation or other purposes (usually construction-related). Capacity of Existing Surface Water bodies = 27.44 M.Cu.m = 27440 Million Liters / Annum Consider 50% of water only able to useable for domestic purposes, = 50% x 27440 = 13720 Million Liters / Annum = 13720 / 365 = 37.59 MLD Water savings from Surface water bodies = 37.59 MLD Chapter6
  60. 60. Strategies for Water Resource Management  Transfer the approach from water supply management to water demand management  Watershed level management approach  Optimum usage of produced water  Systems and technologies development for Recycling and Reuse of waste water for reducing burden on water resources.  Integration of surface water management and Ground water management  Restoration and Rejuvenation of surface water bodies  Optimum use of conserved water  Maximum usage of storage reservoirs and Tanks  Improvement of water supply in scarce locations  Harvesting of Rainwater and other water sources  Public awareness campaign and IEC activities for economic use of water.  Private sector participation in water supply projects in capital and O&M activities.  Implement metering in all kind of water connections to regularize the water supply process and increase the revenue.  Use computer application and software for monitor water supply process. Chapter6