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Riverfront Development-Kanakapura

Riverfront Development-Kanakapura

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Riverfront Development Report Riverfront Development Report Document Transcript

  • “The aim of this project would be transform Kanakapura as a unique cultural platform with recreational and entertainment facilities serving the city, its people and tourists with new dimension, meaning and scale of development. The riverfront development shall be envisaged as a city’s identity on its waterfront.” Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Submitted To: The Commissioner, Directorate of Urban Land Transport, Urban Development Department, Government of Karnataka Submitted By: A.R.Alagarsamy IP 0112, M.Plan (Infrastructure Planning) CEPT University, Ahmedabad, Gujarat
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 1 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I Would like to express my gratitude to the Commissioner, DULT for giving an opportunity to work in the Organization, and takeup the inititation of this project. I would also like to thank Mr.Sahailendra Singh, Special officer-DULT for his valuable guidance and suggestion I am deeply indebted to my mentor and the sole supervisor Ms.Ritumoni Sonowal for his valuable guidance, assistance and moral support throughout the Internship period. I am honoured and grateful to have got her as my supervisor for this work during which I have gained plenty of valuable knowledge.I hope that will not be the end of it. 5My special thanks also goes to the Deputy Director, Mr.Raghu-KPA, for providing required information and documents on time. I would like to express my gratitude to all those who gave me the possibility to complete this project. Finally yet importantly, I would like to recognize the unrelenting long-distance support of my family back home in Madurai, Tamilnadu. Their prayers for me were the main source of inspiration, motivation and encouragement to accomplish this research work. To my parents and my younger brothers, this work is dedicated to you. A.R.Alagarsamy June 2012
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 2 Table of Contents List of Figures ............................................................................................................................................5 List of Tables .............................................................................................................................................7 CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION.........................................................................................................................8 1.1: Introduction .......................................................................................................................................8 1.2 Types of waterfronts...........................................................................................................................9 1.3 Trend of Waterfront developments worldwide .................................................................................9 1.4 Elements of Successful Waterfront Development............................................................................10 1.5 Waterfront Developments:...............................................................................................................10 1.6 Special Characteristics of Water front Area......................................................................................11 1.7 Importance of Public spaces .............................................................................................................11 1.8 Characteristics of a Public Space.......................................................................................................12 CHAPTER 2. LITERATURE REVIEW ...............................................................................................................13 2.1 Selection Criteria for Case Studies....................................................................................................13 2.2 Case Study 1: Malaysia Riverfront ....................................................................................................13 2.2.1 Characteristics of the River front Area ......................................................................................13 2.2.4 Kuching Riverfront: ....................................................................................................................14 2.2.5 Strategies: ..................................................................................................................................17 2.2.6 Institutional Framework for waterfront development..............................................................17 2.3.1 Sabarmati and growth of Ahmedabad.......................................................................................18 2.3.4 Objectives: .................................................................................................................................19 2.3.5 Characteristics of Riverfront area..............................................................................................19 2.3.6 Success Stories............................................................................................................................22 2.4 Case Study 3: Three Rivers Park Riverfront Development................................................................22 2.4.1 Objective....................................................................................................................................22 2.4.2 Three Different Views of Riverfront in Pittsburgh .....................................................................23 2.4.3 Sustainable Riverfront Development.........................................................................................24 2.4.4 Components of Three Rivers park Riverfront Development Project.........................................25 2.4.5 Characteristics............................................................................................................................26 2.4.6 Success Stories...........................................................................................................................27 2.5 Case Study 4: Thames Riverfront Development ...............................................................................29 2.5.1 The Role of the Waterfront in the Thames Gateway.................................................................29
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 3 2.5.2 Vision for Waterfront Development..........................................................................................29 2.5.3 Strategy Principles......................................................................................................................29 2.5.4 Strategy Formulation .................................................................................................................30 2.6 Learning’s from the Case Studies......................................................................................................31 2.6.1: Riverfront Qualities...................................................................................................................31 2.6.2 Steps to creating Great Waterfronts .........................................................................................31 2.6.3 Need of Riverfront development planning................................................................................32 2.6.4: Case Studies Review..................................................................................................................32 Chapter 3: Project Methodology ................................................................................................................34 3.1 Aim, Objectives & Methodology of project ......................................................................................34 3.1.1. Aim............................................................................................................................................34 3.1.2. Objectives..................................................................................................................................34 3.2: Methodology....................................................................................................................................35 ................................................................................................................................................................36 3.5. Study Area Delineation ....................................................................................................................37 3.5.1 Arkavathi River...........................................................................................................................38 Chapter 4: Analysis......................................................................................................................................40 4.1. Topographical Characteristics Analysis............................................................................................40 4.1.1 Geomorphology .........................................................................................................................40 4.1.2 Ground Water Potential.............................................................................................................41 4.1.3 Elevation.....................................................................................................................................42 4.1.4 Soil Types ...................................................................................................................................43 4.2. Infrastructure Services.....................................................................................................................44 4.2.1 Water supply system..................................................................................................................44 4.2.2 Sewerage System.......................................................................................................................46 4.3 Existing Landuse Analysis..................................................................................................................47 4.3.1: Section 1....................................................................................................................................48 4.3.2: Section 2....................................................................................................................................49 4.3.3 Section 3.....................................................................................................................................50 4.3.4 Section 4.....................................................................................................................................51 4.3.5 Section 5.....................................................................................................................................55 4.3.6 Section 6....................................................................................................................................56
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 4 4.4 Existing Landuse Pattern – Study Area .............................................................................................57 4.5 Environmental Concerns...................................................................................................................58 4.6 Proposed Landuse Development (Interim Master Plan-2021).........................................................60 Chapter 5: PROPOSALS – RIVERFRONT DEVELOPMENT .............................................................................62 5.1 Proposals - Sections wise..................................................................................................................62 5.1.1 Section 1.....................................................................................................................................62 5.1.2 Section 2.....................................................................................................................................63 5.1.3 Section 3.....................................................................................................................................64 5.1.4 Section 4.....................................................................................................................................66 5.1.5 Section 5.....................................................................................................................................80 5.1.6 Section 6.....................................................................................................................................84 5.2: Proposed Landuse – on Study Area (Based on Riverfront Development).......................................85 5.3 Common Proposals...........................................................................................................................86 5.3.1 Defined River width ...................................................................................................................86 5.3.2 Check Dams................................................................................................................................88 5.3.3 Dredging - De siltation of River..................................................................................................92 5.3.4 Sewage Treatment Plants ..........................................................................................................93 5.3.4 Integrated Solid Waste Management Technique......................................................................96 5.3.5 Trees & Plants for Riverfront Area.............................................................................................97 5.3.6 River Cleaning Technology.........................................................................................................99 Biblography.................................................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 5 List of Figures Page No Fig 1: Trend of Waterfront developments 9 Fig 2: Elements of Successful Waterfront Development 10 Fig 3: Kuching Riverfront 14 Fig 4: Land uses around Kuching Riverfront 15 Fig 5: Land uses Kuching Riverfront 16 Fig 6: Institutional Framework for waterfront development 17 Fig 7: Sabarmati and growth of Ahmedabad 18 Fig 8: Landuse Plan - Sabarmati 21 Fig 9: Three Rivers Park Riverfront Development 22 Fig 10: Sustainable Riverfront Development 24 Fig 11: Components of Three Rivers park Riverfront Development Project 25 Fig 12: Three Rivers park Riverfront Views 28 Fig 13: Thames Riverfront Development Strategy Formulation 30 Fig 14: Flow chart Methodology 35 Fig 16 : Study Area 37 Fig 17 : Topographical Characteristics - Geomorphology 40 Fig 18 : Topographical Characteristics - Groundwater 41 Fig 19 : Topographical Characteristics - Elevation 42 Fig 20 : Topographical Characteristics – Soil types 43 Fig 21 : Infrastructure - Watersupply 45 Fig 22 : Infrastructure - Sewerage 46 Fig 23 : Existing Landuse 47 Fig 24 : Existing Landuse – Section 1 47 Fig 25 : Existing Landuse – Section 2 48 Fig 26 : Existing Landuse – Section 3 49 Fig 27 : Existing Landuse – Section 4 51 Fig .28 : Existing Landuse – Section 5 55 Fig 29 : Existing Landuse – Section 6 56 Fig 30 : Existing Landuse Charts 57 Fig 31 : Existing Landuse Environmental Concerns 58
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 6 Fig 32 : Proposed Landuse Development (IMP 2021) 60 Fig 33 :Builtup Vs NonBuiltup 60 Fig 34 :Existing Landuse Distribution 61 Fig 35 :Proposed Landuse – Section 1 62 Fig 36 :Proposed Landuse – Section 2 63 Fig 37 :Proposed Landuse – Section 3 64 Fig 38: Water Harvesting – Section 3 65 Fig 39:Proposed Landuse – Section 4 66 Fig 40:Proposed Landuse Sketchup – Section 4 68 Fig 41:Yoga Center 69 Fig 42:Yoga Center Modal Plan 70 Fig 43: Yoga Center Modal from River View 71 Fig 44:Car Parkin 72 Fig 45:Handicraft Markets 73 Fig 46:Dhobi Ghats 74 Fig 47:Cinema Theater 75 Fig 48: Children’s Play ground 76 Fig 49: Walkways & Fountains At Riverside 77 Fig 50:Proposed Landuse – Section 5 78 Fig 51:Exhibition Center 79 Fig 52:Proposed Landuse – Section 6 80 Fig 53:Proposed Landuse –Based on Study Area 82 Fig 54:Cross Section of River at different locations 83 Fig 54:Check Dam Specifications 84 Fig 55:Check Dam Locations 88 Fig 56:Dredging Quantity 91 Fig 57:STP Locations 92 Fig 58: Duck Weed Technology 99
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 7 List of Tables Tab 1: Special Characteristics of Water front Area 11 Tab 2: Characteristics of the River front Area - Kuching 13 Tab 3: Kuching Riverfront Details 15 Tab 4: Characteristics of Sabarmati 19 Tab 5: Sabarmati Landuse Categories 21 Tab 6: Three Rivers park Riverfront Development Project Characteristics 26 Tab 7: Case Studies Review 32 Tab 8 :Proposed Landuse – Section 1 62 Tab 9 :Proposed Landuse – Section 2 63 Tab 10 :Proposed Landuse – Section 3 64 Tab 11 :Proposed Landuse – Section 4 67 Tab 12:Proposed Landuse – Section 5 71
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 8 CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1: Introduction In general, a waterfront is the zone of interaction between urban developments and the water and a waterfront area is considered as a unique and irreplaceable resource where it is the interface between land, water, air, sun and productive plants. Moreover, the waterfront is characterized as a place integrating land with water and having a natural attraction to people. In fact, the seashore and riverfront are the most attractive water features for human settlement and, in most countries; the land in front of water is developed earlier than the inland areas. Waterfront development refers to any development in front of water and a water body; a river, lake, ocean, bay, creek or canal. In the development area, considered that a waterfront development may not necessarily need to be directly fronting water but may only need to look attached to the water. They believe that commanding a view of water can still be considered as a waterfront property. An official definition by the US Federal Coastal Zone Management Act, Office of Ocean and Coastal Resources (OOCR) (1972) defines the term urban waterfront or port as, “any developed area that is densely populated and is being used for, or has been used for, urban residential, recreational, commercial, shipping, or industrial purposes”. A more detailed definition by Guo (1998) as cited in Dong (2004, p. 7) described the waterfront as the interface point where land and water meet, between approximately 200 to 300 meters from the water line and 1 to 2 km to the land site and also takes in land within 20 minutes walking distance. Wu & Gao, 2002, as cited in Dong (2004, p. 7) added the waterfront area should have multiple features which incorporate each other and surrounded by structural and nonstructural objects to form a focal point. In many cities in the world, waterfront areas began as commercial centers, transportation hubs and manufacturing centers, as a central focus for them. However, due to complex and multiple problems such as technology change, the historic preservation movement, increased environmental awareness and urban renewal, a dramatic change in waterfront areas was brought about and they became large spaces of unused property in the past thirty years or so. The first waterfront development projects were started in North American cities, in particular Baltimore and Boston, in the 1960s. Nowadays, waterfront development is a global trend and thousands of schemes are being carried out in large metropolises, medium-sized cities and even small towns all over
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 9 the world. Whereas the early examples of waterfront development primarily focused on leisure and retail, contemporary schemes have a broader scope; many are set up with the aim to create attractive mixed urban environments that appeal to the imagination of people and persuade them to work there, to live there, or to visit these. Breen & Rigby (1996) assign developed waterfronts into six distinct groups: commercial waterfronts; cultural, educational and environmental waterfronts; historic waterfronts; recreational waterfronts; residential waterfronts; and working waterfronts. 1.2 Types of waterfronts As per NEW YORK CITY COMPREHENSIVE WATERFRONT PLAN, there are four principal functions of the waterfront:  The Natural Waterfront, comprising beaches, wetlands, wildlife habitats, sensitive ecosystems and the water itself.  The Public Waterfront, including parks, esplanades, piers, street ends, vistas and waterways that offer public open spaces and waterfront views.  The Working Waterfront, where water dependent, maritime and industrial uses cluster or where various transportation and municipal facilities are dispersed.  The Redeveloping Waterfront, where land uses have recently changed or where vacant and underutilized properties suggest potential for beneficial change. 1.3 Trend of Waterfront developments worldwide  1960s - Massive waterfront development began and consequently initiated the world-wide era of waterfront revitalization.  1970s - Urban waterfront redevelopment bloomed,  1980s - Accelerated and continued in the future. Now Fig 1: Trend of Waterfront developments
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 10 Clearly, interest in promoting waterfront development in many countries was caused by environmental protection, shoreline access, water quality, historic preservation, tourism and economic development, as well as the growing potential of the waterfront for recreational, commercial and residential uses. Moreover, festival and water sports are perhaps the most visible public-oriented activities that have played a key role in the rediscovery of waterfronts. 1.4 Elements of Successful Waterfront Development 1.5 Waterfront Developments: Criteria for guidelines of riverfront development concept  River as a main attraction of development o According to the guideline, for any reason, river’s role is remaining as a main attraction for the development. o River itself must be developed earlier than any others development planning. o Removal and changing river line or row are not permitted.  Beautification of river reserves o According to the guideline, developers are required to provide recreation and beautification plan for river. o Maintaining river reserve as a buffer zone to control environmental problem such as soil erosion. Elements of Successful Waterfront Development Effective Management Beginning the project Financial Feasibility Environmental Approvals Project Theme & Image Construction Technology Authenticity Public Perception of Need Function Source: Torre, 1989; Journal of Techno Social-ISSN 2229 8940-Vol 4 No 1 April 2012 (Pg 24) Fig 2: Elements of Successful Waterfront Development
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 11 o Utilization river reserve for green areas and recreational use are allowed to the developers.  Level of river flow o According to the guideline, a development close to river areas would not increase level of river flow. Development are more than 10 ha are required to build retention pond with maximum area approximately between 3-5% of total development area.  Development of permanent infrastructure o According to the guideline, the development of permanent building and infrastructure are not allowed within river and river reserves, unless facilities for recreational purposes such as playground. 1.6 Special Characteristics of Water front Area Characteristics Description Dynamic area Waterfront zone is a dynamic area with frequently changing biological, chemical and geological attributes. Habitat Waterfront zone include highly productive and biologically diverse ecosystems that offer crucial nursery habitats for many species. Natural defense Waterfront zone features such as mangrove forests serves a critical natural defense against natural hazards (flooding, erosion and storms). Pollution moderator Water ecosystems may act to reduce the impacts of pollution originating from land such as, wetlands absorbing excess nutrient sediments, human waste Source: ‘An Evolution of Waterfront Development in Malaysia ‘ By Azlina Binti Md. Yassin Submitted on 16 Th Pacific Rim Real Estate Society Conference, Wellington 24-27 January 2010. 1.7 Importance of Public spaces A public space may be a gathering spot or part of a neighborhood, downtown, special district, waterfront, or other area within the public realm that helps promote social interaction and a sense of community. Tab 1: Special Characteristics of Water front Area
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 12 Examples include spaces such as plazas, town squares, parks, marketplaces, public commons and malls, public greens, piers, special areas within convention centers or grounds, sites within public buildings, lobbies, concourses, or public spaces within private buildings. As with all categories of Great Places, it is important to identify what sets a space apart from others spaces to qualify it for a Great Spaces designation. Public Spaces must be at least 10 years old. 1.8 Characteristics of a Public Space It includes the followings, 1. Promotes human contact and social activities. 2. Has design and architectural features that are visually interesting. 3. Promotes community involvement. 4. Reflects the local culture or history. 5. Relates well to bordering uses. 6. Is well maintained. 7. Has a unique or special character. 8. Establish a water’s edge that is continuous, publicly accessible and magnificent 9. Create a network of public spaces that attract and invite both Localities and tourists to waterfront 10. Require design excellence for waterfront public spaces 11. Provide a wide-range of public spaces that foster culture and creativity in our city 12. Ensure all public spaces adhere to a high environmental standard. 13. Strengthen connections along the waterfront on both sides of the river 14. Develop strong link between existing communities and emerging waterfront communities and spaces 15. Improve the aquatic habitat and water quality along the waterfront and integrate them with river and stream improvements 16. Maintain a consistency in waterfront design elements in all public spaces (i.e. Park benches and lamp posts) 17. Coordinate the water usage and supporting land base to maximize the economic, recreational and environmental asset of Water bodies.
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 13 CHAPTER 2. LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Selection Criteria for Case Studies In this Case Studies, I review & analyzed Malaysia Riverfront (Kuching); Pittsburgh (Three Rivers Park Riverfront) & Ahmedabad (Sabarmati Riverfront). Basically this three riverfront projects are situated within or close to downtown area and play important role in the functioning of the city. And the study areas primarily need to include public open space providing potential for various outdoor activities like recreation. And Mostly the impact & effect of riverfront development projects illustrated in the particular location in terms of economy, people’s health, recreational & tourism activities. Some of the riverfront development projects are basically recreational purposes & some of them housing purposes. It may vary as per the distance from CBD & its requirements & needs. Also each of the cases must be considered as successful waterfront development, by their investors, consumers, private and Government agencies. 2.2 Case Study 1: Malaysia Riverfront Waterfront Areas : Kuching Riverfront. Malacca Waterfront, Glenmarie Riverfront Waterfront development in Malaysia emerged after the growth of societies along the river edges and this subsequently initiated the emergence of port towns and several other urban forms. During that time, waterfront areas were the busiest places to cater for business and trading, and these further transformed waterfront areas into focal points for Malaysians. Population growth, economic growth, urbanization and increased technology have transformed many Malaysian river systems from water industries into non water industries. Due to these changes, the function of riverfront areas has also changed and the current pattern of riverfront development in Malaysia now focuses more on mixed-use development and recreation, while incorporating Malaysian cultural and historical values. 2.2.1 Characteristics of the River front Area Case study Areas Kuching Waterfront Malacca Waterfront Glenmarie Riverfront Features Tab 2: Characteristics of the River front Area - Kuching
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 14 Name of water body Sarawak River Malacca River Langat River Type of Project Recreational Recreational Residential Project’s Owner State of Sarawak State of Malacca DRB-HICOM Amenities Restaurants, River Access, Shops, Waterfront Settlements River Access, Shops, Waterfront Settlements Restaurants, River Access, Housing Views River Views & City River Views & City Limited River Views Proximity to River 50m 50m 50m Proximity to CBD 1 KM 1 KM 35 KM Source: Waterfront Development in Malaysia At present, many riverfront development projects have been undertaken throughout Malaysia, some were successful developments while others were not. In some cases, the implementation of these riverfront projects was driven more by investment needs rather than for community and environmental needs. 2.2.4 Kuching Riverfront: The main objective of this development proposal is to strengthen the commercial and recreational activities which reflects character, social, culture & identity of the place. The design considers visual Fig 3: Kuching Riverfront
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 15 character and quality of the place as a riverside marketplace. Social and cultural events and festivals as well as history and architecture of the place are the important aspects of the design. Kuching Riverfront Financial Sources Fully funded by the State Government Institutional Arrangement The master plan of the project implementation was prepared by SEDC and Land Corporation Development Authority (LCDA) and approved by state government. Construction Period Began in 1991 & Completed in August 1993 Development Area Approximately one mile along the south bank of the river, encompassing the river frontage to the historic business center of the township. Developer Sarawak Economic Development Corporation (SEDC), Sarawak, Malaysia. Contractors PPES Bena Sdn Bhd + Uraco (M) Sdn Bhd Consultants ConyBeare Morrison & Partner (Australia) + United Consultants (Sarawak, Malaysia). Project cost 89.90 Million (Malaysian Ringgit) Concept An urban river park that blends the historical and cultural setting with the provision of facilities and activities for tourists and the community, particular families. Possible features to be considered as follows: Esplanade / pedestrian links, Malls Entertainment area. Family outing areas and children’s playground. Tourist attraction areas and Possible center for river cruise. Source: ‘ An Evolution of Waterfront Development in Malaysia ‘ By Azlina Binti Md. Yassin Submitted on 16Th Pacific Rim Real Estate Society Conference, Wellington 24-27 January 2010. 2.2.4.1 Landuse around Riverfront Area in Kuching Residential Public Space Commercial Tab 3: Kuching Riverfront Details
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 16 Kuching’s Waterfront is a significant commercial area where trading activities concentrated along main Bazar and Gambier Street areas on the south bank, with the Astana and Malay villages around it on the north bank of Sarawak River. The marketplace serves as public realm that displays local characters and help to promote the place to outsider.  The Kuching Waterfront is an approximately 1 kilometer long riverside esplanade stretching from the main area and commercial heartland of the city to downtown Kuching.  River steps create opportunities for river activities as well as closeness to the river’s edge.  The landscaped waterfront is dotted with food stalls, restaurants and benches and offers excellent views of Historical & Administrative Buildings on the bank of River Sarawak.  The waterfront also features an observation tower, an open-air theater and musical fountains.  The Sunday Market at Satok operates during weekends offers a large diversity of items for trade.  The Kuching Civic Center offers a panoramic view of the city from a viewing platform during the day. Key Map RIVERFRONT LANDUSE MAP Fig 4: Land uses around Kuching Riverfront Fig 5: Land uses Kuching Riverfront
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 17 2.2.5 Strategies: The design concept is festive market which represents the positive cultural traits, trading activities for seasonal and diurnal times displaying a variety of daily and local products in the colonial buildings, Chinese shop houses and also the new amenities provided. In addition, the extension bridges enclosed the jetty that served as viewing platform and linkage to the promenade. This project will revitalize the waterfront, enhance the quality of life and meet the demand of healthy environment for public involvement. To achieve a linkage between the city to the River, at the same time reinforcing Sarawak’s heritage and culture via integrating traditions and technologies. 2.2.6 Institutional Framework for waterfront development 2.3 Case Study 2: Sabarmati Riverfront Development Town & Country Planning Dept of Local Govt Economic Planning Unit Dept of Mineral & Geo Dept of Land & Mines Dept of Irrigation & Drainage CABINET Ministry of Housing & Local Government Prime Minister’s Department Ministry of Natural Resources and Ministry of Agriculture Dept of Wild life Dept of Bio Diversity & Dept of Environme Irrigation Division Town & Country Planning Dept Local Authori ty State Economic & Planning Use Land Administrator Dept of Environment Dept of Irrigation & Drainage COMMITTEE FEDERAL LEVEL STATE LEVEL Source: Malaysian Department of Drainage and Irrigation, 2009 Fig 6: Institutional Framework for waterfront development
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 18 The sabarmati Riverfront Development project began as an urban renewal project to significantly improve the spatial structure and habitat conditions of the river and adjoining areas. This project aims to transform Ahmedabad’s historic yet neglected river into a vibrant & vital focus for the Ahmedabad City. The development project encompasses both banks of the Sabarmati for a 10.5 kms, stretch, creating approximately 185 hectares of reclaimed land. The project includes water management systems to minimize flooding in traditionally flood-prone areas and to clean up the Sabarmati with new sewage treatment infrastructure. These include providing interceptor sewer lines along both banks of the river to divert sewage to Ahmedabad’s two sewage treatment plants; and building retaining walls which will protect the low-lying areas near the riverbanks from flooding. A key element of the project is a new linear two-level promenade. The lower promenade with a minimum width of 10 meters will be just above water level, providing uninterrupted pedestrian access to the water. The upper promenade will host a variety of public buildings, cultural and educational institutions, public parks and plazas and a few areas for commercial development, while new traffic infrastructure will connect the riverfront to the city. The project aspires to create a unique identity for Ahmedabad by creating a unique skyline for the city. Being a landmark project with far reaching impacts, it is the backbone for rejuvenating inner city neighborhoods adjacent to the riverfront project, thereby spurring future developments within the city. 2.3.1 Sabarmati and growth of Ahmedabad Fig 7: Sabarmati and growth of Ahmedabad
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 19 2.3.4 Objectives: The following are the objectives considered for Riverfront development project.  Make the riverfront accessible to the public  Stop the flow of sewage, keep the river clean and pollution-free  Reduce risk of erosion and flooding in flood prone neighborhoods  Create riverfront parks, promenades and Ghats to enjoy the water.  Revitalize riverfront neighborhoods, rejuvenate Ahmedabad.  Generate resources to pay for all of the foregoing.  Stitch together East and West Ahmedabad.  Create a memorable identity for Ahmedabad. 2.3.5 Characteristics of Riverfront area Case study Areas Sabarmati Riverfront Features Name of water body Sabarmati River Type of Project Recreational Company Sabarmati River Front Development Corporation Limited (SRFDCL) Amenities Restaurants, River Access, Shops, Waterfront Settlements, Gardens, Walkways, Amusement parks, Golf Course, Water sports Views River Views & City Proximity to River 50m Proximity to CBD 1 KM Sabarmati Riverfront Financial Sources The project has been planned as a self-financing project. The revenues would be Tab 4: Characteristics of Sabarmati
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 20 generated from the sale of proclaimed land. Construction Period Start on Early 2005 & Complete on Nov 2012 Development Area Includes both banks of the Sabarmati for a 10.5 kms, stretch, creating approximately 185 hectares of reclaimed land. Developer Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation Setup Special Purpose Vehicle - Sabarmati River Front Development Corporation Limited (SRFDCL) for Consultants HCP Design, Planning and Management Pvt. Ltd Concept It is an environmental improvement, Social and Urban rejuvenation project by development of riverfront along Sabarmati River in the commercial capital of State. The Objective of the project is to improve spatial structure and habitat conditions of the river and adjoining areas. Basically it is an Urban renewal project
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 21 anduse Plan In Sabarmati Riverfront Development, the major part is Gardens followed by public places. It’s clearly shown as the riverfront development is basically for Recreational purposes. Landuse Approved by Covt of Gujarat (Under GTPUD Act 1976) Sl. No. Sanctional Land use Area Sq.m Arae Ha % 1 Roads 4,44,378 44 22 2 Garden 2,74,585 27 14 3 Open Space 3,71,198 37 18 4 Public Purpose 2,88,875 29 14 5 Lower Promenade 2,66,462 27 13 Fig 8: Landuse Plan - Sabarmati Tab 5: Sabarmati Landuse Categories
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 22 6 Multi Use for Sale 2,94,083 29 14 7 Sports 72,503 7 4 8 Residual (Utiliities, Residential, Commercial, General, Education) 15,787 2 1 Total 20,27,871 202.8 2.3.6 Success Stories  The Sabarmati Riverfront Project add almost 10,00,000 sq. mts. of parks, promenades and plazas to Ahmedabad.  The Sabarmati Riverfront Project help provide Ahmedabad with many new cultural trade and social institutions (36,000 Sq.m).  Creating of City Level Recreational Activities – Water Sports and Floating restaurants.  Tourist attraction.  Recharge of Ground water Aquifers of the city  Continuous Green coverage along the river corridor.  Elimination of Flood Hazard.  Creating Vibrant Urban neighborhoods and beautification of the city. 2.4 Case Study 3: Three Rivers Park Riverfront Development How & Why Riverfront Development in Pittsburgh: 2.4.1 Objective The following are the Objectives considered for development of Riverfront in Pittsburgh.  expanding Point State Park from a singular pendant to a necklace of two strands.  the Mon Wharf as a river destination, not just a parking lot.  Most of Pittsburgh’s riverbanks were polluted & abused due for Industries located, and it creates negative impact to fresh water systems. It degraded their riverfronts  Hard surfaces and retaining walls created hostile environments for native birds, fish, and mammals.  Industrial processes and toxic runoff contaminated the soil and water.  Structural embankments increased the damage caused by major storms and floods. Fig 9: Three Rivers Park Riverfront Development
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 23  powerful perpendicular connections from the historical neighborhoods to the rivers.  the Strip District as a mixed-use district with shops, entertainment, and housing along with offices.  an accessible, beautiful, (largely) green riverfront, becoming the city’s principal public realm.  that this riverfront is luminescent, not as when the banks glowed with the energy of the mills, but with the buzz of post-industrial activities and technologies.  people living at or near the water’s edge in a variety of dwelling types.  using the rivers daily for ordinary purposes, not just during organized events.  the riverfronts lined with remarkable fabric, not only occasional, conspicuous architecture.  great places strategically located along the rivers, and connected by public rights-of-way.  new businesses along the river, emblematic of the New Economy.  old businesses and institutions responding to their river edges rather than treating their river edge as a back yard. 2.4.2 Three Different Views of Riverfront in Pittsburgh At the scale of confluence At the scale of the downtown At the scale of the Pittsburgh Pool At the scale of the confluence it will be manifested spatially as a grand public basin, an outdoor room defined by the West End, Fort Pitt, and Fort Duquesne bridges. At the scale of the downtown it will be continuous public face stretching along the on the Ohio to the Sixteenth Street Bridge o Street Bridge on the Monongahela. At the scale of the Pittsburgh Pool between the Emsworth, Braddock, and Highland Park dams, it will be the centerpiece of the region’s park system, acting to connect regional assets
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 24 2.4.3 Sustainable Riverfront Development Area Types – Composition of Elements 1 Streets with Planting Strips + Multi Storied Buildings with Water Demands + Green Area 2 Streets with Planting Strips + Multi Storied Buildings with Water Demands + Square + Green Area 3 Streets with Planting Strips + Parking Lots + Green Area 4 Highway + Parking Lots 5 Streets with Unusable Planting Strips + Highway + Railway + Multi Storied Buildings with Water Demands + Green Area 6 Streets with Unusable Planting Strips + Highway + Railway + Parking Lots + Green Area 7 Streets with Unusable Planting Strips + Highway + Railway + Parking Lots + Sport Fields 8 Saw Mill Run Situation Source: http://www.riverlifepgh.org//images/uploads/Atelier_Dreiseit_for_Riverlifel_Stormwater_Communicator.pdf Fig 10: Sustainable Riverfront Development
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 25 2.4.4 Components of Three Rivers park Riverfront Development Project Component 1: Improve connections to Point State Park Fig 11: Components of Three Rivers park Riverfront Development Project
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 26 Component 2: Mon Wharf as a river destination Component 3: Allegheny Riverfront Park (Extensions to the East (or) West) Component 4: North Shore Development Concept 2.4.5 Characteristics Case study Areas Three Rivers park Riverfront Development Project Features Name of water body Allegheny, Monongahela, and Ohio Rivers Tab 6: Three Rivers park Riverfront Development Project Characteristics
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 27 Type of Project Development of continuous trails and green space along the 21 km waterfront loop between the West End Bridge on the Ohio River, the 31st Street Bridge on the Allegheny River and the Hot Metal Bridge on the Monongahela River. Company River life Task Force Amenities Restaurants, River Access, Shops, Waterfront Settlements, Gardens, Fountains, Walkways, Amusement parks, Golf Course, Water sports Views River Views & City Proximity to River 200m Proximity to CBD 1 KM Development Area 21 km waterfront loop between the West End Bridge on the Ohio River, the 31st Street Bridge on the Allegheny River and the Hot Metal Bridge on the Monongahela River. Developer River life Task Force 2.4.6 Success Stories 2.4.6.1 Environment - Sustainable storm water management system Storm water collection and treatment to create a public amenity that cleans and filters storm water and minimizes the discharge of storm water into the Ohio River. It is their opinion that this vision could become the basis for a new benchmark for sustainable water management, both locally and nationally. 2.4.6.2 Economy (If You Build It, They Will Come) - Sustainable riverfront development, Along with cutting-edge design and a dedicated community, has helped many cities transition from post- industrial stagnation to new economic growth. a) Louisville’s 55-acre park on the riverfront created a 28% increase in business development, and waterfront workers there have increased from 350 to 5,300. b) Chattanooga’s Riverfront Park has spurred $500 million in private investing. c) Chicago’s 25-acre Millennium Park is projected to create $2.6 billion in visitor spending and have a $1.4 billion impact on real estate in the next 10 years. d) From 2000-2010, over $4 billion was invested in Pittsburgh’s riverfront development, half of it private. e) Pittsburgh is home to more than 100 multi-billion dollar global company headquarters.
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 28 f) More than $500 million has been invested in LEED-certified Green Buildings, of which Pittsburgh has more than 30 either built already or under construction. g) Rails-to-trails conversion in Western Pennsylvania has led to hundreds of miles of bike trails, much of it along riverfronts. The Great Allegheny Passage, which will soon link Pittsburgh with Washington, D.C., will see thousands of users each year. 2.4.6.3 Riverfront Investments Design Three River’s parks Riverfront Green spaces and trails $ 112,000,000 Infrastructure (Roads, Bridges, etc.) $ 792,000,000 Private Development - North Shore $1,724,000,000 - Downtown $ 783,000,000 - Strip District $ 133,000,000 - SS / Mon River $ 580,000,000 Total Downtown Riverfront Investment $ 4,124,000,000 2.3.6.4 Living Environment a) Since the development of Pittsburgh’s Riverfronts, Three Rivers Park has also supported a significant increase in downtown residential living. b) Hundreds of new residential units, both for sale and for rent, have sprung up along the rivers’ edges. c) Downtown living reduces the severity of regional sprawl, energizes our downtown, and supports our many service businesses and cultural attractions. The lives of these new downtown residents are enhanced by the outdoor enjoyment, healthy lifestyle, and recreational opportunities created by the Park.Recreation (Pittsburgh’s Rivers are People Magnets) Fig 12: Three Rivers park Riverfront Views
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 29 2.5 Case Study 4: Thames Riverfront Development 2.5.1 The Role of the Waterfront in the Thames Gateway The strategy set out in this document identifies a series of policies, actions and projects which will create the employment, the environment and the lifestyle to which those involved aspire, primarily by securing the opportunities offered by the area’s defining asset – the Thames. However, as the objectives of the strategy make clear, “the reality will be made tangible by contributing to and delivering a clear vision of the region’s future, and in particular the role of the waterfront in that vision.” The fundamental point of departure of the Waterfront Strategy is to harness the development benefits that potentially emanate from the River Thames. In very simple terms, the Thames, its riparian environs and related sensitive habitats provide or contribute to the three crucial components – or “pillars” - of a sustainable growth strategy.  A Lifestyle  An Environment  A Gateway 2.5.2 Vision for Waterfront Development  Contribute to the delivery of an outstanding quality of life experience for the sub regions, citizens and to become a destination of choice for visitors.  Capturing the tremendous opportunities that the River Thames offers to the TGSE sub-region in terms of contributing to sustainable growth, the gateway function and employment.  Balancing the growth and development pressures that emerge from and impinge upon these very same assets. 2.5.3 Strategy Principles  Sharing the river  Safeguarding the gateway function of the river
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 30 2.5.4 Strategy Formulation Fig 13: Thames Riverfront Development Strategy Formulation
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 31 2.6 Learning’s from the Case Studies 2.6.1: Riverfront Qualities From the above studies, the following are the qualities are listed out in the waterfront destinations. 2.6.2 Steps to creating Great Waterfronts The following are the major steps taken for creating great waterfronts, with Public accessibilities. 1) Access and Linkage 2) Edge Uses 3) Attractions & Destinations 4) Identity & Image 5) Amenities 6) Water Uses 7) Flexibility in Design 8) Seasonal Strategy 9) Landuse Management 10) Diverse Funding Sources.
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 32 2.6.3 Need of Riverfront development planning The Riverfront developments are contribute to the quality of life in all of its aspects like Economic, Social & cultural. 2.6.4: Case Studies Review Case Studies Malaysia Riverfront 1) To Help the local Vendors in terms of Wet Market & Dry Market 2) Commercial Oriented Development 3) Recreational development like walkways & Yoga Mediation center 4) River Beautification works Sabarmati Riverfront 1) Urban Reform Project 2) Flood Mitigation works 3) Recreational development 4) Public Space Creation 5) Slum Rehabilitation works 6) Groundwater Recharge 7) Infrastructure development Three Rivers Park Riverfront Development 1) Commercial Development 2) Parks & Recreational facility creation 3) Property developments 1) To develop city as a major commercial and service center with international class facilities. 2) To project on city as waterfront city with attractive investment opportunity to further enhances the economic growth and stability. 3) To establish cities as one of the major tourism attraction center of the country with international class facilities. 4) Appealing leisure and entertainment function contained with landscape & fountains. 5) Manifesting cities nature with urban economic development. 6) Increase the Overall living standard of people in the cities contain with riverfront. 7) Making excellent living environment. 8) Fully Accessible to Public & fully guaranteed as a Public waterfront. Tab 7: Case Studies Review
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 33 4) Landuse classification 5) Public Space creation 6) Attracting Investors 7) Revitalization of River Thames Riverfront Development 1) City Oriented Development 2) To Attract investors & boost economic growth 3) River Revitalization 4) Infrastructure Development 5) Recreational development
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 34 Chapter 3: Project Methodology 3.1 Aim, Objectives & Methodology of project 3.1.1. Aim “The aim of this project would be transforming Kanakapura as a unique cultural platform with recreational and entertainment facilities serving the city, its people and tourists with new dimension, meaning and scale of development. The riverfront development shall be envisaged as a city’s identity on its waterfront.” The project would look into the ways to rejuvenate the urban life and the space through improved quality of life, facilitating recreational and cultural activities, organizing informal businesses and designing better public spaces with creative amenities. The goal is to plan a development that would be oriented towards creating an urban form that is wholly consistent with the physiographic feature of the area. The urban form integrated with the natural landscape would create an enriching experience by responding to the context of water and existing diversity of activities thereby, create a visually dominant landmark. 3.1.2. Objectives Objective 1: Ecological preservation:  Identify and implement environmental protection priorities to protect water quality and other sensitive natural features;  Stop the flow of sewage, keep the river clean and pollution-free;  Revitalize riverfront neighborhoods, rejuvenate Arkavathi River Objective 2: Create Social/ Public space:  Make the riverfront accessible to the public  Create riverfront parks to enjoy the water. Objective 3: Designing Development that is in harmony with the natural character of the area.  The urban form integrated with landscape, thereby, creating an enriching experience by responding to the context of water, existing diversity of activities, and forming a visually dominant landmark. Encourage development of appropriate design, scale, and use to improve the utilization of public lands and to improve residents’ quality of life.  Create a memorable identity for Arkavathi River in Kanakapura
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 35 3.2: Methodology ANALYSIS Secondary Data  Water supply  Sewerage  Transport  Social Amenities  Public Space Literature Review & Background Study Objective Formulation Data Collection Secondary Data  Landuse  Geomorphology  Groundwater Potential  Soils  Elevation Topographic Geomorphology Soil Type Groundwater Potential Elevationes Infrastructure * Level of Service Improvements * Public Space Creation Formulation of Strategies Urban form * Existing Landuse Fig 14: Flow chart Methodology
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 36 Goal / Vision: 1. To plan a development that would be oriented towards creating an urban form that is wholly consistent with the physiographic feature of the area. 2. The urban form integrated with the natural landscape would create an enriching experience by responding to the context of water and existing diversity of activities thereby, create a visually dominant landmark. Objective 1: Ecological preservation Strategy 1: Environmental Protection Strategy 2: Green belt Strategy 3. Embankment Objective 2: Create Social/ Public space Strategy 1: Designs Public Places & Parks Strategy 2: Make Public Accessibility Objective 3: Designing Development that is in harmony with the natural character of the area. Strategy 1. River Oriented Activities Strategy 2. Needs for Kanakapura
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 37 3.5. Study Area Delineation Realizing the potential and scope for planned development along the river Arkavathi in the Kanakpura town, the Kanakpura Planning Authority identified the riverfront development project in its Master plan 2011. The Arkavati is a large mountain river in Karnataka, India, originating at Nandi Hills of Chikkaballapura district.It is a tributary of the Kaveri, which it joins at 34 KM south of Kanakapura, called Sangama in Kannada, after flowing through ramanagara and Kanakapura. The river drains into the Chikkarayappanahalli Lake near Kanivenarayanapura. Kumudavathi and Vrishabhavathi rivers are tributaries to this river. The river is used by the Bangalore Water Supply and Sewerage Board to provide 135 million liters of drinking water per day to the city of Bangalore, or about 20% of the entire city's water. As it is filtered in the nearby mountain aquifer, the water is fresh and crystal clear. The water is taken from two reservoirs built on the river, the Hesaraghatta (or Hesseraggatta), which was built in 1894, and the Tippagondanahalli Reservoir (or T G Halli), which was built in 1933. Kanakapura Planning Area Zones Kanakapura Conurbation Area BMRDA Regions Fig 16 : Study Area
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 38 3.5.1 Arkavathi River The Arkavathi is a tributary of the Cauvery. Rising in the Nandi Hills to the north of Bangalore it passes through most of Bangalore Rural district and joins the Cauvery at Sangama in Kanakapura district. It flows for 190 kilometres and in hydrological parlance is called a second order stream, meaning it is a tributary of the Cauvery which joins the sea. The Cauvery is a first order stream flowing into the sea, its major tributaries are second order streams and the Vrishbhavathi which joins the Arkavathi is a third order stream. The catchment area from where the water collects in the river is more than 4000 square kilometers. The river is used by the Bangalore Water Supply and Sewerage Board to provide 135 million liters of drinking water per day to the city of Bangalore, or about 20% of all the city's water.The water is taken from two reservoirs built on the river, the Hesaraghatta (or Hesseraggatta) which was built in 1894 and the Tippagondanahalli Reservoir (or T G Halli), which was built in 1933. The Gazetteer of Bangalore Rural says the Arkavathi “is not exactly a seasonal stream, in the summer months it presents the usual aspect of a sandy bed with a small current of water flowing at one side.” In short it was a perennial river. Large tanks such as the Madhure and the Dodballapur were also constructed on the river and would usually fill up. The town of Dodballapur depended on the Arkavathi for its drinking water requirement as did the town of Ramanagara. Existing Situation in Arkavathi River Basin in Kanakapura  Excess sediment/silt inputs caused by destructive form of land use and other land clearance activities paving way mainly for housing, quarrying and farming. Demographic Details (As on 2001) Total Area 7.20 Km2 Population 47,060 Population Density 6,537 / km2 Literacy 66% No. of Households 9,878 Table : Demographic Details (Source: Census 2001)
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 39  Excessive water withdrawals or diversions affecting the natural lake inflow volume as against the outflow capacity.  Sewage and Industrial pollution caused by direct discharge of domestic and industrial waste from surrounding industries and households.  The perennial source at Kanakapura is gradually reducing day by day due to numerous irrigation pumps.
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 40 Chapter 4: Analysis 4.1. Topographical Characteristics Analysis 4.1.1 Geomorphology Kanakapura LPA lies predominantly in Pediplain geomorphic unit. Small patches of Structural and Denudational hills are also traced in north eastern and southern part. The above figure shows geomorphic pattern within the conurbation boundary. This map clearly indicates that, infiltration zones are larger in area than runoff and are suitable for ground water recharge. The potentiality will also be moderate to good. Based on Topographical most of the Zone is falling under Pedi plain Strata, Pedi plain is the level ground surface slightly inclined towards the river flow. Source: Interim Master Plan -2021 (Kanakapura Planning Area) Fig 17 : Topographical Characteristics - Geomorphology
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 41 4.1.2 Ground Water Potential Apart from the structural valleys, supported by the surface water bodies as showing better prospects for ground water developments. The above figure clearly shows the ground water potential in which the ground water prospects in the valley portion is good and in majority area of the Conurbation boundary it is moderate. This can be converted as good potential zone by adopting artificial recharge techniques. The Groundwater potential in the valley portion of river flow path is good (i.e., 150 to 200 Meter). The Infiltration zones are larger in area than runoff and are suitable for ground water recharge. Source: Interim Master Plan -2021 (Kanakapura Planning Area) Ground Water Potential Water Body Very good to good Good Good to Moderate Moderate Moderate to Poor Poor Poor to Nil Fig 18 : Topographical Characteristics - Groundwater
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 42 4.1.3 Elevation The elevation falls from 833 m to 620 m from north of the study area to the south upto Arkavathy valley and increases in elevation generally towards the south-west. Terrain shows undulating topography with varying elevation between 833 meters to 620 meters above MSL. The lowest elevation being 620 m is found around Kanakapura town in the valley portion. The slopes vary from 20-150 metres/kilometre shows the elevation pattern in the Kanakapura Conurbation area. The Kanakapura conurbation area is in the Cauvery basin. The main tributary of Cauvery, river Arkavathy, flows in the study area. The study area is covered by the sub basin of Arkavathy and drains southwards. The drainage density and stream frequency are moderate to high (hilly zone, in northern, eastern and western part) and medium to low in central part. The drainage pattern is dendratic and parallel. It encourages for infiltration than runoff, as the stream frequency and density are medium to low and have good constant channel maintenance. These drainages are controlled by structures and lithology. Elevation – MSL (Meters) < 650 650 to 700 >700 Source: Interim Master Plan -2021 (Kanakapura Planning Area) Fig 19 : Topographical Characteristics - Elevation
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 43 4.1.4 Soil Types The area is underlain with grey and pink granites and granite gneisses and intruded by dolomitic pegmatite and quartz veins. The above figure shows the general lithological units in and around Kanakapura conurbation boundary. The inclusions of dolorate and amphibolites dykes are also traced. The general trends of the peninsular genesis are North West – South East to North East – South West. These show a steep dip of about 70 to 80 degrees due South East. According to the Earthquake Map of Karnataka, the Kanakapura Conurbation area belongs to very low damage risk zone and is in stable belt. Major portion of the study area consists of red loamy sandy soils, which is moderately porous and medium permeability. The patches of loamy, loamy clayey, sandy type of soils are noticed within the area. The clayey and loamy types of soils are more in area extent in southern part than in the rest of the area. Uplands show these types of soils. Soil Types Water Body Fine Sand Very Fine Sand Sandy Skeletal Fine Loamy Loamy skeletal Source: Interim Master Plan -2021 (Kanakapura Planning Area) Fig 20 : Topographical Characteristics – Soil types
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 44 The soils are favorable zones for ground water recharge. As permeability and porosity for the soils for medium, the infiltration rates will be medium to high. It is better to avoid the water polluting industries in this belt. There is a need for striking a balance between the competing claims of different sectors. It is imperative to think of a systematic and scientific long range plan to harness the land resources not only for satisfying the competing demands from various sectors, but also for ensuring sustainability of the systems. In Study Area, the majority is Fine Sand Deposit & Sandy Skeletal. Average Specific Yield of Fine sand is 21%, So the flow of the river can improve Groundwater level in the nearby areas. 4.2. Infrastructure Services 4.2.1 Water supply system The water resources comprise of two major sources – surface and sub – surface. All around and nearby proposed conurbation areas of Kanakapura, there are surface water sources like Arkavathy, Suvarnamukhi, are available. The perennial source at Kanakapura is gradually reducing day by day due to numerous irrigation pumps (schemes). The important sources of drinking water in Kanakapura town was tube wells/hand pumps. The overhead tanks (OHTs) capacity is around 796250 ltr. Considering only once filling of OHTs approximately around 21 lpcd available to the population of Kanakapura from Piped Water Supply System. As per the records of Kanakapura, the capacity available from BWSSB is around 4 MLD and bore wells is around 2 MLD. Hence the total capacity available to the town is around 6 MLD. At present, around 120 lpcd can be supplied if the full capacity is utilized. From the Water supply network shows that in two places there is water pumping from the river and overhead tanks are located on the Trunk line of the Distribution network. Total 134 Bore wells are spreaded all over the Kanakapura area.
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 45 . Source : TMC & STEM-KUWS&DB; Utility Map – Water Supply & Sewerage; Interim Master Plan -2021 (Kanakapura Planning Area) Fig 21 : Infrastructure - Watersupply
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 46 4.2.2 Sewerage System At Present, the two most prevalent systems of sewage disposal is the open and the box surface drains. The Above figure shows the sewerage system in Kanakapura conurbation boundary area. Per Capita sewerage generation as per 2001 – 94 lpcd; 70% of water supply. Now, the KUWS&DB is implementing Underground drains in the town along with an STP (5.8 MLD) for the future population of 1 lakh within Source : TMC & STEM-KUWS&DB; Utility Map – Water Supply & Sewerage; Interim Master Plan -2021 (Kanakapura Planning Area) Fig 22 : Infrastructure - Sewerage
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 47 the TMC area (7.8 sq km) is under consideration by the government. The project is expected to be completed in another 2 years’ time. 4.3 Existing Landuse Analysis For this study purpose, the area has been divided into six sections. The classification of sections as shown below, Section 1 Section 2 Section 3 Section 4 Section 5 Section 6 Fig 23 : Existing Landuse
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 48 4.3.1: Section 1 Characteristics of Section 1 Section 1 Length (in mtr) 1,427.07 Study Area (in sq.km) 0.407 Existing Landuse Categories River Path 18 % Sand Deposits 3 % Agricultural 64 % Open Areas 15 % Fig 24 : Existing Landuse – Section 1
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 49 In Section 1, the maximum area is used for Agricultural purposes, and it is located near NH-209 Dindugal-Bangalore Highway, and State Highway SH3 – Kanakapura – Ramanagar route is about 250meter from the river bank. Due to its remote location from the city, most of the illegal solid waste dumping & misuse of the river areas happen in this section. Illegal sand mining also happen in this section. The agricultural people are fully dependent on the river for their agricultural growth and every person having agricultural land have their own well for irrigation purpose. The ground water automatically gets recharged because of the presence of the river in a close proximity. From the above land use map it is seen that, most of the lands near the river are kept as idle as barren land, for which actions should be taken for reclamation of these land and convert this to useful agricultural land / green belt areas. The followings are the takeoff we consider for Riverfront development based on existing situation on section 1. 1. Both sides of the river are agricultural land. Fully Green Areas. 2. No Residence & Public Places exist. 3. Solid Waste disposal & dumping activities take place at the banks of the river. 4. River flow is disturbed because of sedimentation process which leads to the formation of small sand islands. 5. Width of River varies from 50 mtr to 110mtr in this section. 4.3.2: Section 2 Characteristics of Section 2 Fig 25 : Existing Landuse – Section 2
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 50 The section 2, is located near the township of Kanakapura town. Here, mostly the land uses are agricultural. The Arkavathi Bridge acts as the major connecting point for Kanakapura town with rest of the surrounding villages & townships. Majorly Coconut trees are grown near the river areas. The agriculture irrigation wells are made with the help various irrigation schemes from government. The recharge of irrigation wells depend upon the flow in the Arkavathi River. Due to its nearest location to Town areas more river pollution happen in this section. River pollution in the forms of Sewage disposal, Solid waste dumping are remarkable. The followings are the takeoff we consider for Riverfront development based on existing situation on the section 2. 1. Agricultural lands are located on both sides of the river. Fully green areas with majority coconut trees. 2. River Pollution, Solid Waste disposal and dumping happen at the banks of river. 3. No Residence & Public Places. 4. Width of River Varies from 80 mtr to 110 mtr 5. Islands formation in the river due to soil sedimentation during rainy season. 4.3.3 Section 3 Section 2 Length (in mtr) 1,521.46 Study Area (in sq.km) 0.389 Existing Landuse Categories River Path 15 % Sand Deposits 5 % Agricultural 67 % Open Areas 13 % Fig 26 : Existing Landuse – Section 3
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 51 Characteristics of Section 3 Section 3 is the confluence portion of Arkavathi River with Suvarnamukhi river which passes through Boodhguppe village. This Boodhuguppe village is located near the confluence of rivers. In this section, a bridge of two lanes with a length of 140meter (for NH 209) is crossing the Arkavathi river. The Pete Kere town lake is located in this section. Currently there is no connection with arkavathi river with the existing pete kere town lake. The pete kere town lake is fully depend on the monsoon rain. The lake also helps to improve groundwater recharge in the locality. The followings are the takeoff we consider for Riverfront development based on existing situation on the section 3. 1. Agriculture land is located in both sides of river. Fully Green Areas. 2. 140m Length 2 Lanes Bridge for Dindugal – Bangalore (NH 209) Road Crossing Arkavathi River. 3. Confluence of Arkavathi & Swarnamukhi River. 4. Boodhuguppe Village located near the confluence. 5. Sewerage problem 4.3.4 Section 4 Section 3 Length (in mtr) 1,587.50 Study Area (in sq.km) 0.326 Existing Landuse Categories River Path 21 % Sand Deposits 8 % Agricultural 56 % Open Areas 13 % Residential 2 % Public Places 1 % Fig 27 : Existing Landuse – Section 4
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 52 Characteristics of Section 4 This Section 4 located near the major urban settlements of Kanakapura Township. It is located on the left side of Arkavathi river. In this section, Public & Private Bus Stands are available. Major Public Places are located in this section. Major areas near the river area are kept as idle condition. If we don’t take any action for retrieving this empty land, then in future it may possibly become slum area. There is a lack of provisions for public spaces in the city. Rural Educational College and major institutions are located in this section. It is the central part of Kanakapura. The Government offices and government buildings are located in and around the bus stands. The possibility of river pollution in this section is more than other sections, because of density of settlements and commercial activities happening in this section. Sri Degula Mutt is the one of the oldest temple in this region. A large number of religious activities take place in this Mutt all around the year from various parts of the country. It is located near the river & nearest to the confluence portion of Arkavathi & Suvarnamukhi river. Behind the Sri Degula Mutt the Pete Kere lake is located & two small size tanks are also in between them. This area has a high potential of developing public spaces around it. Nearly some 60-80 numbers of dhobi’s are using the river for their work purpose. They simply use the river water and release polluted water again to the stream directly. This is affecting the ecological value of river and it contaminates the ground water quality also. The Malagaalu Bridge which is 135meter-2 lanes is connecting Malagaalu village with Kanakapura town. There is a water pumping station is near the Bridge. Water is brought to the overhead tanks and then distributed to the Kanakapura conurbation area. Section 4 Length (in mtr) 1,296.35 Study Area (in sq.km) 0.318 Existing Landuse Categories River Path 12 % Sand Deposits 7 % Roads 10 % Agricultural 23 % Open Areas 16 % Residential 10 % Public Places 13 % Public Utilities 1 % Commercial 1 % Mixed Use 2 %
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 53 Due to the location of Bus Stands being close to the urban area, traffic congestion always happen on the Bangalore road. To avoid this traffic congestion in the city, some roads along the riverfront is needed to plan out as Bypass Route or some traffic management measures like creating one ways. Traffic Congestion in Bangalore Road Solid Waste Disposal Near Malagaalu Bridge Solid Waste Dumping & Open Areas Sewage Disposal & Water Pumping Room Sewage Disposal & River Pollution Sand Deposits in river
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 54 The followings are the takeoff we consider for Riverfront development based on existing situation on the section 4. 1. Sri Degula mutt (1400 Est.) located on the bank of river 2. Water Pumping Station near the river. 3. 135m, 2 Lanes Malagalu Bridge crossing. 4. Dhobi Ghatt along the river. 5. Solid waste dumping & Sewage disposal Solid Waste Dumping & Sand Mining Near Malagaalu Bridge
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 55 4.3.5 Section 5 Characteristics of Section 5 As compared to other sections, section 5 is developed in a planned manner. The Electrical Substation (220 kV & 66kV) is located in this section. Around the electrical substation lots of areas are kept idle. However, residential areas are constructed in planned manner. The Streets & Roads are connecting all the parts to rest of the city. The Community parks are in every gated community & apartments in this section. The NH 209 & SH3 are passing through this section. The other side of the river is fully utilized for agricultural purpose. There is one school is located in this part. The followings are the takeoff we consider for Riverfront development based on existing situation on the section 5. 1. Improper river flow path. Island Formation in the river. 2. Sewage disposal & solid waste dumping. 3. Agricultural land & Green areas. 4. Residential areas. Section 5 Length (in mtr) 1,555.42 Study Area (in sq.km) 0.312 Existing Landuse Categories River Path 6 % Sand Deposits 5 % Water Bodies 3 % Roads 12 % Agricultural 23 % Open Areas 26 % Residential 19 % Public Places 1 % Public Utilities 3 % Commercial 1 % Mixed Use 1 % Parks 1 % Fig .28 : Existing Landuse – Section 5
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 56 4.3.6 Section 6 Characteristics of Section 6 The Section 6 is located at the downstream of Arakavathi River in Kanakapura town. There is no Residential land use falling within the study area. Most of the land uses are agricultural. Because of the meandering shape of the Arkavathi River, there are lots of sand deposits in the river portion in this section. On the converse and conclave edges of the river, too much of sand deposits take place during monsoon season. The river flow gets affected due to these sand deposits and eventually the width of the river is converging in some places. Section 6 Length (in mtr) 1,839.56 Study Area (in sq.km) 0.389 Landuse Categories River Path 35 % Sand Deposits 17 % Agricultural 27 % Open Areas 19 % Residential 1 % Open Drain & Sewage Disposal Solid Waste & Sewage Disposal Fig 29 : Existing Landuse – Section 6 Fig 27 : Existing Landuse – Section 6
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 57 Existing Situation 1. Improper river flow path. 2. Sewage disposal & solid waste dumping. 4.4 Existing Landuse Pattern – Study Area Based on the study area taken for Riverfront Development, the land use distribution is as below – The above Landuse chart mentioned the followings, 1. The river flow is majorly interrupted sand deposits on the river path. Nearly half of the river areas are covered with improper silt deposition. 2. Nearly 38% of land use for Agricultural purposes in the study area. 3. 20% of land kept as Open areas, we use the area for Riverfront development purposes. 4. Commercial & Mixed use land use also very less. 5. Only 2.5% of public places available near to the riverfront area. Fig 30 : Existing Landuse Charts
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 58 4.5 Environmental Concerns Based on the above Existing scenario Analysis, the following are the problems identified from the all over the river sections. As per Environmental Concerns, the following three locations are majorly affected Sites 1 2 3 Fig 31 : Existing Landuse Environmental Concerns
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 59 Location 1: Solid Waste Dumping & River Pollution Location 2: Unscientific Solid Waste Dumping, Sewage Disposal & Sand Deposits on the river Location 3: Sewage Disposal
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 60 4.6 Proposed Landuse Development (Interim Master Plan-2021) – Prepared by Kanakapura Planning Authority. Fig 32 : Proposed Landuse Development (IMP 2021) Fig 33 :Builtup Vs NonBuiltup
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 61 Residential 43% Commercial 2% Industrial 15% Public & Semi Public 5% Open Spaces 17% Utility Services 1% Vacant land 3% Transport & Communication 12% Water Bodies 2% Proposed Landuse Distribution - 2021 Fig 34 :Existing Landuse Distribution
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 62 Chapter 5: PROPOSALS – RIVERFRONT DEVELOPMENT 5.1 Proposals - Sections wise 5.1.1 Section 1 Section 1 Length (in mtr) 1,427.07 Study Area (in sq.km) 0.407 Proposed Landuse Categories Defined Water way 22 % Green Belts 31 % Agricultural 41 % Roads 6 % Proposals 1. Provide Check dam 1 (Latitude - 12.566117° , Longitude - 77.408095°) to control the Silting process. Surface water availability will increase and thereby over-exploitation of groundwater can be prevented. 2. Additional roads connecting the Master Plan proposed 12m road. Fig 35 :Proposed Landuse – Section 1 Tab 8 :Proposed Landuse – Section 1
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 63 5.1.2 Section 2 Section 2 Length (in mtr) 1,521.46 Study Area (in sq.km) 0.389 Proposed Landuse Categories Defined Water way 23 % Green Belts 35 % Agricultural 37 % Roads 5 % 1. Provide Check dam 2 (Latitude - 12.565487°, Longitude – 77.409376°) and Check dam 3 (Latitude - 12.561712°, Longitude - 77.417659°) to control the Silting process. 2. In the sides of the river plant trees to check soil erosion – plant specification Tab 9 :Proposed Landuse – Section 2 Fig 36 :Proposed Landuse – Section 2
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 64 5.1.3 Section 3 Section 3 Length (in mtr) 1,587.50 Study Area (in sq.km) 0.326 Proposed Landuse Categories Defined Water way 20 % Green Belts 36 % Agricultural 35 % Roads 7 % Residential 2 % Public Places 1 % Channel 1: Width 8m Length 183m Channel 3: Width 8m Length 115m Channel 2: Width 8m Length 150m Channel 4: Width 8m Length 244m Water Harvesting – Connecting Lakes with River By Channel Fig 37 :Proposed Landuse – Section 3 Tab 10 :Proposed Landuse – Section 3
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 65 1. The Existing Pete Kere (Town lake) connecting by 183 mtr length channel, so during the monsoon period the excess flow in river divert into the lake, and it stored for ground water recharge purpose. 2. The overflow water from pete Kere Lake again send to river by 509 mtr length in the eastern side of the lake. 3. In between pete Kere Lake & river, two intermediate storage location can also formed for maximum utilization of surface water. Interconnections of the tanks/lake by natural open channels need to be maintained in each lake series, more so when additional water is fed into the tanks. As a precautionary measure, it is advisable to grow bushy plants all along the interconnecting canal so that there is less tampering and proper filling of tanks takes place during rainy season. At places along the interconnecting canals, access should be provided for the villagers and cattle for washing purposes. This access can be in the form of steps / cattle ramps. Furthermore, where ever possible, separate waterways like small stream can be provided so that the Fig 38: Water Harvesting – Section 3
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 66 interconnecting canal can be left un tampered. Separate washing area avoids contamination of water from detergents and other wastes. Also, Fish culture can be developed in the natural tanks. Development of fish culture shall increase the income of the village Panchayats. The variety of fish that shall be raised is the one that yields better finances with least maintenance. This shall be done in consultation with the Department of Fisheries. 5.1.4 Section 4 Fig 39: Proposed Landuse – Section 4
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 67 Section 4 Length (in mtr) 1,296.35 Study Area (in sq.km) 0.318 Proposed Landuse Categories Defined Water way 9 % Green Belts 8 % Agricultural 41 % Roads 8 % Residential 9 % Public Places 14 % Riverfront activities 7 % Public Utilities 1 % Commercial 1 % Mixed Use 2 % Dhobi Ghat 0.005% 1. Walkways from the Bridge up to Sri Degula Mutt, People can enjoy riverfront. Parks & Gardens near to the walkways. 2. Yoga & Meditation Center - 4702.5 m2 (620 Persons Capacity) 3. Parking lots – 4670 m2 (130 Cars & 200 Motor Cycles); 4. Handicraft Market – 4580 m2 5. Cinema Theater – 3780 m2 (2000 Peoples Seating Capacity) 6. Children’s Park – 4840 m2 ; 7. Proposed Dhobi Ghat with treatment facility & Restrooms (Owned by Local Bodies) – 2855 m2 Land Reclamation based on defined river path = 1.83 Hectares Tab 11 :Proposed Landuse – Section 4
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 68 Proposed Section 4 With Walkways, Recreational facilities, Cinema Theater, Yoga Center, Handicraft Market Children’s Playground Dhobi Ghat etc., 2 1 4 5 6 (1) Yoga & Meditation Center (2) Car Parking (3) Handicraft Market (4) Open Air Theater (5) Children’s Playground (6) Dhobi Ghats 3 Fig 40:Proposed Landuse Sketchup – Section 4
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 69 5.1.4.1 Yoga & Meditation Center Location: Yoga Center is located 75m from Arkavathi river & 200m from Degula Mutt, the other three sides are covered with green areas (like Agricultural lands), the users of Yoga centers can easily reach riverfront. Relax and enjoy in the riverfront. Fountains are located right in front of the Yoga & Meditation Center. It increases site attraction. Available Area for Yoga Center 4702.5 Sq.mtr Deduct Guest room facility 1000 Sq.mtr Area required for one person 4.65 Sq.mtr Add Other facilities (Like Lockers, Restroom, Office Room) Add 50% from the above Therefore, Area Occupancy for one person 6.975 Sq.mtr Total Occupancy 530 Persons Yoga & Meditation Center Fig 41:Yoga Center
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 70 Yoga & Meditation Center The Modal Floor Plan of Yoga Studio as shown below The above Plan Showing the Occupancy of 20 & 15 People in Yoga Studio, with related facilities. Fig 42:Yoga Center Modal Plan
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 71 Yoga Center accessible from Riverfront Yoga Center Yoga Center Fig 43: Yoga Center Modal from River View
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 72 5.1.4.2 Car Parking Parking lots – 4670 m2 (130 Cars & 200 Motor Cycles) Parking Areas Fig 44:Car Parking
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 73 5.1.4.3 Handicraft Market Available Area for Handicraft Market – 4580 m2 This Handicraft Market helps to improve the economic background of the people Reference from Delhi Haat Chennai Kanakapura Population 16,750,000 50,000 Delhi Haat Area 250 x 200 = 50000 sq.mtr Consider 1/30th of delhi population use the delhi haat, remaining from outside peoples 0.089 sq.mtr per person =50,000 * 0.089 = 4450 sq.mtr So Choose Handicraft Market as size of 4580 Sq.mtr Handicraft Market Fig 45: Handicraft Markets
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 74 Handicraft Market Handicraft Market Handicraft Market Fig 45:Handicraft Markets
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 75 5.1.4.4 Dhobi Ghat Available Area for Dhobi Ghat 2850 m2 In the existing condition, the dhobi’s are using the river area Proposal for Dhobi Ghat Available Area 2850 Sq.mtr Allocate Area for Drying Clothes & Water tanks & Vehicles Parking, Waste water treatment facilities 1500 Sq.mtr Remaining Area 1350 sq.mtr Assume the space required for one dhobi worker (4 x 4 mtr) 16 sq.mtr Total dhobi space 80 persons 1. As per Available space 80 dhobi’s can use the proposed dhobi ghat. 2. Harmful detergents are restricted in the dhobi ghats 3. Educate the users of the dhobi ghat as optimum utilization of water for washing purposes. Dhobi Ghat Fig 46:Dhobi Ghats
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 76 5.1.4.5 Open Cinema Theatre & Children’s Playground One Cinema Theatre with latest available technology and all kind of facilities relate in cinema activities is proposed near to Malagalu Bridge, opposite to Rural Education Society. Available Area for Cinema Theatre 3780 Sq.mtr Deduct Parking & Other ground facilities 500 Sq.mtr Area required for one person 1.89 Sq.mtr Add Other facilities (Like Restroom, Office Room) Add 50% from the above Therefore, Area Occupancy for one person 2.895 Sq.mtr Total Occupancy 1158 Persons Reduce 25% for commercial Shops & Food Centers Total Occupancy 930 Persons Open Cinema Theatre with 930 capacity Open Cinema Theatre
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 77 Cinema Theater, Market (Fruits, Flowers & Vegetable) & Children’s Play ground) Children’s Play ground Fig 47:Cinema Theater
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 78 5.1.4.6 Walkways & Foot Paths in Riverfront Areas Available Area In Section 4, => 49880 m2 Total Area for Riverfront development = 93770 m2 => 9.377 Hectares In Section 4 & 5, i.e., near to Kanakapura town area, the riverfront is designed with walkways of 2 meter & Recreational parks with benches provide. Fountains are located at important site viewing places. Landmarks & Signage are provided Fig 48: Children’s Play ground
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 79 Fig 49: Walkways & Fountains At Riverside
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 80 5.1.5 Section 5 Fig 50:Proposed Landuse – Section 5
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 81 5.1.5.1 Walkways & Foot Paths in Riverfront Areas: Available Area In Section 5, => 43890 m2 Total Area for Riverfront development = 93770 m2 => 9.377 Hectares In Section 4 & 5, i.e., near to Kanakapura town area, the riverfront is designed with walkways of 2 meter & Recreational parks with benches provide. Fountains are located at important site viewing places. Landmarks & Signage are provided Section 5 Length (in mtr) 1,555.42 Study Area (in sq.km) 0.312 Landuse Categories Defined Water way 8 % Green Belts 14 % Agricultural 25 % Roads 10 % Residential 22 % Public Places 4 % Riverfront activities 4 % Public Utilities 3 % Playground 3 % Mixed Use 1 % Open Spaces 4 %Proposals 1. Riverfront Parks = 37820 m2 2. Exhibition Center = 5600 m2 3. Roller skating Ground = 5560 m2 Tab 12:Proposed Landuse – Section 5
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 82 5.1.5.2 Exhibition Center (or) Community Center for Kanakapura Exhibition Center Area = 5600 m2 Currently there is no Community gathering place in Kanakapura. There is number of Silk & Granite industries located in & around the Kanakapura area and Kanakapura is located 55km from Bangalore. So Business entrepreneurs and industrialists can easily to commute this location. Because Kanakapura is one of the major exports in terms of silk & granite, such an exhibition centre will boost the economy of Kanakapura town. Exhibition center located 900mtr from City center Reference from Chennai Trade Centre Chennai Kanakapura Population 4,590,000 50,000 Exhibition Halls Hall 1 4,400 m2 Hall 2 1,760 m2 Hall 3 4,400 m2 So, Consider Exhibition Hall 5600 m2 (as per available Land in the location) Exhibition Center Fig 51:Exhibition Center
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 83 5.1.5.3 Roller Skaters Ground Area available for Roller Skater Ground = 5560 m2 The Roller Skater ground is planned to locate near to residential & school areas. It attracts Children and those who are all interest in Roller skating activities. This Outdoor activity improves the image & value of the city into higher level. Roller Skater Ground 175 mtr 35 mtr Fig 52:Roller Skater
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 84 5.1.6 Section 6 Section 6 Length (in mtr) 1,839.56 Study Area (in sq.km) 0.389 Proposed Landuse Categories Defined Water way 24 % Green Belts 17 % Agricultural 39 % Residential 1 % Proposals – Section 6 1. Provide Check dam 5 (Latitude – 12.529316°, Longitude - 77.423408°) and Check dam 6 (Latitude - 12.517611°, Longitude - 77.432323°) to control the Silting process. Land Reclamation based on defined river path = 10.80 Hectares Fig 52:Proposed Landuse – Section 6 Tab 13 :Proposed Landuse – Section 6
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 85 5.2: Proposed Landuse – on Study Area (Based on Riverfront Development) Fig 53:Proposed Landuse –Based on Study Area
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 86 5.3 Common Proposals 5.3.1 Defined River width Fig 54:Cross Section of River at different locations 1 2 1 3 1 4 1
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 87 Cross Section at Location 1 Cross Section at Location 2 Cross Section at Location 3 Cross Section at Location 4
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 88 5.3.2 Check Dams Check Dams – To Prevent Sand Deposits on the River, and make Revenue generation to the government. Cross – Section of Check dams During Non-Water flow periods, clean debris & sand in the upstream side of Flow. Water Flow Water Flow Water Flow Fig 54:Check Dam Specifications
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 89 Objectives of Providing Check Dams 1. To reduce the sand deposition all over the stretch, the sand collected in a particular location, and it makes cleaning of river as easy. 2. Ground water recharge in the surrounding locations. 3. To divert water from river to nearby lakes or any other water storage structures. While selecting the locations for construction of check dams the following priorities are to be followed. 1. The width of river in in converging shape & ground condition should be in stable. 2. The newly constructed structure should not have any adverse impact on the hydrological efficacy of the existing, ongoing and future major, medium & minimum irrigation projects. 3. In stream/river storage will be developed near urban centers if suitable rivers and locations available for multipurpose domestic & irrigation use. The distance between two check dams is depend upon the river slope, The check dams will construct in continuously until the end of the stream. Diagram of check dam showing the distance between check dams. A – Upstream Check dam B – Downstream Check dam D – Distance between check dams The base of the upstream check dam is even with the peak of the downstream structure. As the slope of the conveyance structure is increased, the number of check dams that will be needed to prevent concentrated flow in the channel increases as well. As a result, check dams used in conveyance structures with slopes greater than 6% may not be practical.
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 90 Sediment Storage Basin The sediment control basin, which allows sediment and other suspended particles to settle out before passing through the check dam, should be constructed at the upstream side of the check dam and extend across the entire conveyance structure. Sediment control basins should be sized according to the individual site characteristics.
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 91 Check Dams location suggested as shown below, Check Dam 1 Latitude - 12.566117° Longitude - 77.408095° Check Dam 4 Latitude - 12.557281° Longitude - 77.419045° Check Dam 2 Latitude - 12.565487° Longitude – 77.409376° Check Dam 3 Latitude - 12.561712° Longitude - 77.417659° Check Dam 5 Latitude – 12.529316° Longitude - 77.423408° Check Dam 6 Latitude - 12.517611° Longitude - 77.432323° 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 Fig 55:Check Dam Locations
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 92 5.3.3 Dredging - De siltation of River Dredging is an excavation activity or operation usually carried out at least partly underwater or fresh water areas with the purpose of gathering up bottom sediments and disposing of them at a different location. This technique is often used to keep waterways navigable. The process of dredging creates spoils (excess material), which are carried away from the dredged area. Dredging can produce materials for land reclamation or other purposes (usually construction-related). Dredging can create disturbance in aquatic ecosystems, often with adverse impacts. Why?  Silt deposit reduced the water carrying capacity in river by 20-30%  There is a lot of illegal sand mining in the area. Law should be enforced.  There are several loaded trucks in the area which damage the roads.  Selling off river sands during winter Period from the deposits of check dams and the river bed acts as the source of revenue for government. River areas to be dredged: Fig 56:Dredging Quantity
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 93 The above chart, shows the river areas to be dredged for maintaining the defined river path in terms of 60m river width. In Section 6, have to do maximum amount of dredging works, because it forms the ‘S’ shape, so in the curve portions of the river accumulate too much sand settlements. Authority - THE RIVERS DESILTATION AUTHORITY OF INDIA & Local Bodies 5.3.4 Sewage Treatment Plants New STP = 10 MLD Fig 57:STP Locations
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 94 Schematic Diagram of Sewage Treatment Plant Location of Treatment Plant: The Treatment Plant should be located as near to the point of disposal as possible. If the sewage as to be disposed finally in to the river. The plant should be located near the river bank. Care should be taken while locating the site that it should be on the downstream side of the city and sufficiently away from intake works. If finally the sewage as to be applied on land, the treatment plant should be located near the land as such a place from where the treated sewage can directly flow under gravitational forces toward the disposal point. The plant should not be much far away from the town to reduce the length of the sewer line. Sewage Treatment Plant for 10 MLD Sewage Generations (In 2031) - Reference from currently running plant at Yamuna nagar/Jagadhari in Haryana state Sl.No. Treatment Unit Number/Size 1 Screen and Grit Channel 10 x 4m 2 UASB Reactors 2 Nos. 24 x 16 x 5.5m Each 3 Polishing Pond 120 x 79 x 1.2m
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 95 4 Sludge Drying Beds 12 Nos. 14m x 14m Each Finance Details Rs.0.70 / Kilo liter to run the STP Approx. Construction cost for Sewage Treatment Plant Option 1 Extended aeration plant (incl Civil & Mech) Rs. 70 Crores Option 2 Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor plant (MBBR) Rs. 90 Crores Benefits: 1. Improvements in the physical infrastructure: Improvements to physical infrastructure will consist of roads, walkways, lawns, greeneries, etc as mandated by the Town and Country Planning Act in force 2. Improvements in the social infrastructure: Improvements in social infrastructure do not apply in this case as the place is not meant for any social activity and in fact will be a restricted center. 3. Employment potential –skilled; semi-skilled and unskilled: Employment potential does arise for skilled, semi-skilled and unskilled persons in the maintenance of the STP and this will come within the realm of the contractor who is to do the O&M initially for 5 years and subsequently on extendable basis. 4. Other tangible benefits: The single largest tangible benefit is that untreated sewage flowing all over the collection zone will actually be converged and treated in a controlled center and a treated effluent which can be a resource for farm forestry or cooling water for power plant is brought up. Suggestion to solve River Pollution in Arkavathy STP is planned at the downstream of Kanakapura town, but the river is polluted from upstream (waste disposal from Bangalore). Another STP can be planned before Arkavathy’s entry into the town. The treated waste water can be used for non-potable purposes (Like Irrigation & Industrial Purposes)
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 96 5.3.4 Integrated Solid Waste Management Technique Solutions to improver Solid Waste Management The municipality is ill-equipped. Hence, provide solution to improve the collection, transportation and disposal of solid waste can be planned. Door to Door collection through Self Help Groups (SHGs) is one of the possible solutions for the segregation of waste at source. At present, none of the areas in Kanakapura town and villages in the LPA possess any scientific or systematic or garbage or solid waste disposal system. However, town and some large villages have waste lands at the out skirts wherein al the waste is being dumped. With this present scenario, it is very Solid Waste Processing Plant & Dumping Yard
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 97 much necessary that the villagers do not contaminate the natural tanks with any of the garbage or solid waste that can cause serious health problems. Care should be exercised that children are kept away from tampering and dumping waste into these natural tanks. The tank bunds and the environs shall not be used for defecation. The above Solid Waste Management Technique has to be implemented with the help state government & Local Bodies. 5.3.5 Trees & Plants for Riverfront Area Uses of Trees: 1. Trees help to prevent floods. 2. The roots of trees keep river banks firm and do not let them crumble. 3. Water is thus prevented from pouring out onto the fields and spoiling the farmers’ crops, or entering villages and destroying houses and drowning people and animals. Segregation at Source Solid Waste Management Waste Minimization Waste Collection from Source to Segregation Centers Waste Segregation into Degradable to non- Degradable Centers Non Degradable Wastes Degradable Wastes Recycling Plants Organic Waste Reduction Aerobic Composting Agricultural Land, Gardens Etc.,
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 98 4. Wherever there are groups of trees, or forests they attract rain. Trees send up water vapor into the atmosphere through their leaves. When this vapor meets the cool air above it turns into drops of water which then fall as rain. 5. They give us shade and protection from weather. More important, crops such as cocoa and vanilla (Suggested as Sub plants in between coconut trees) are protected from strong winds, rain, or too much sunshine by trees which grow around them. 6. They give us beauty, color and greenery. This is something which we often forget and fail to appreciate. 7. They are the homes of many birds, animals and insects. Each of these is important in keeping up a balance in nature. Trees Suggested in the River Banks 1. DRUMSTICK TREE - It grows best in the sandy beds of rivers and streams. 2. MAST TREE - This tree is planted in many parts of India along roads, by rivers, around buildings and temples. It grows well in poor soil and its trunk is strong enough to stand against the monsoon winds. 3. PONGAM - It grows all over India and is planted for its beauty, by the sides of roads and in gardens. It is very hardy and can thrive in the cold as well as the heat. It
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 99 grows especially well on coasts and near streams and rivers. 4. QUEEN’S FLOWER - This tree is found in many parts of India. It is very common on river banks and in marshy places. 5. TEAK TREE - This tree fairly adaptable but grows best inland and loves a warm, moist tropical climate with plenty of rain. Teak trees also need plenty of space, light, and a good soil. They are often found near rivers and can grow enormously tall. 5.3.6 River Cleaning Technology Maintaining the river Quality In river, Grow Aquatic Plants (Ex: Duckweed, Water Lilly, Indian lotus ) to maintain clean water in the river, and maintain Ecological Balance.
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 100 Duckweed Technology : Duckweed is an aquatic plant which can grow when temperature ranges between 15 to 30 . Bibliography 1. Reference Master Plan 2021 - Kanakapura Planning Authority 2. Sabarmati Riverfront Development Project (www.sabarmatiriverfront.com) 3. Project for Public Spaces – 9 Steps to Creating a Great Waterfront 4. Kanakapura Town Municipal Council Fig 58:Duck weed Technology
  • Riverfront Development – Kanakapura Page | 101 5. Kuching Waterfront – Proposed landscape redevelopment for commercial riverside marketplace along jalan Gambier (Source: http:fabserver.utm.my) 6. Discovery Channel – Strip the City – London – Thames River Revitalization Project 7. “Trees for River & Creek Plantings” – Nimbin Plant Selection Guide – By David McMinn 8. Waterfront Strategy – Final Strategy, March 2006 – Thames Gateway South Essex Submitted by GHK Consulting (www.ghkint.com) 9. Capital Investment Plan (CIP) – Karnataka Municipal Reforms Project – KUIDFC – Feedback Venture Report 10. Three Rivers Park Design Handbook – by Riverlife Task force, Oct 2012